Google Fiber is a project whose goal is to build a fiber optic communications infrastructure.
Google Fiber connections will come into metropolitan areas through multiple aggregators. From these points, fiber optic cables will branch out and run into neighborhoods and individual residences, providing FTTH (fiber to the home) service. Much of the cable will be strung on new and existing utility poles; some of it will be buried. The system is expected to provide Internet connection speeds of up to 1 Gbps (one billion or 109 bits per second) to end users, both downstream (downloading) and upstream (uploading).
In the summer of 2011, Google launched a free trial of the service near Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. Subsequently, two communities -- Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas City, Kansas -- were over selected from over 1,000 applicants to receive FTTH at no cost. Google has not announced whether there are plans to deploy networks in additional communities.