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firmware

Firmware is programming that's written to a hardware device's nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile memory is a form of static random access memory whose contents are saved when a hardware device is turned off or loses its external power source.

Firmware, which is added at the time of manufacturing, is used to run user programs on the device and can be thought of as the software that allows hardware to run. Hardware makers use embedded firmware to control the functions of various hardware devices and systems, much like a computer’s operating system (OS) controls the function of software applications. Firmware may be written into read-only memory (ROM), erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) or flash memory. Firmware that is embedded in flash memory chips can be updated easier than firmware written to ROM or EPROM, which makes it more adaptable.

 

Today, embedded firmware exists in everything from smartphones to internet of things (IoT) devices that are so simple you might not imagine they had computer control. While the firmware in a smart light bulb may not need frequent updates, the firmware on a smart thermostat may need to be updated periodically to remain compatible with smartphone operating system updates.

 

Firmware updates are often issued to fix bugs, roll out new features and improve security. Some internet-capable devices regularly check for new firmware and automatically download and install it, while other device manufacturers require the user to visit the manufacturer's website to download firmware updates and install them manually.

This was last updated in April 2017

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What is the relation with firmware and bios??
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I believe these are interchangeable terms and is also known as ROM BIOS or SYSTEM BIOS. In older systems, LEGACY BIOS was the manufacturer fitted software used for checking the working and presence of hardware components, such as the CPU, RAM memory etc and could also be used for configuration of hardware on the system. Earlier operating systems would communicate with bits of hardware via the BIOS, However, this type of BIOS was did not support later developments, such as network cards, internet browsing or file downloading etc, and is now largely replaced by UEFI. Also, operating systems now come with layers of Device Drivers which 'talk' to the hardware directly
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How can I find the difference between drivers and firmware on android device?
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