When a satellite follows a non-circular orbit around the earth, the satellite's path is an ellipse with the center of the earth at one focus. Such a satellite has variable altitude and variable orbital speed. The point of lowest altitude is called perigee. The term also applies to the minimum distance in kilometers or miles between the satellite and the center of the earth. (Perigee can be measured between the satellite and the earth's surface, although this is a less precise specification because the earth is not a perfect sphere. The difference is approximately 4,000 miles or 6,400 kilometers.)
At perigee, a satellite travels faster than at any other point in its orbit. When viewed from the earth's surface, a satellite at or near perigee traverses the sky at a rapid pace. In communications, perigee is the least desirable time to access a satellite. Although its proximity means that the signal path is short, the fact that the satellite is rapidly moving means that it is accessible for only a brief time. In addition, if a directional antenna is used at a ground-based station, it is difficult to track the satellite because the position of the antenna(azimuth and elevation) must be constantly and rapidly adjusted.
One of the principal advantages of a geostationary satellite is the fact that it follows a circular orbit, so the orbital speed is constant. In addition, the satellite's synchronization with the earth's orbit means that the antenna of an earth-based station can be pointed at a fixed spot in the sky, and no further adjustment of antenna orientation is needed.
Compare apogee .