In this context, confidentiality is a set of rules that
Confidentiality is roughly equivalent to privacy. Measures
Sometimes safeguarding data confidentiality may involve special training for
A good example of methods used to ensure confidentiality is an account number or routing number when banking online. Data encryption is a common method of ensuring confidentiality. User IDs and passwords constitute a standard procedure; two-factor authentication is becoming the norm. Other options include biometric verification and security tokens, key fobs or soft tokens. In addition, users can take precautions to minimize the number of places where the information appears and the number of times it is actually transmitted to complete a required transaction. Extra measures might be taken in the case of extremely sensitive documents, precautions such as storing only on
Integrity involves maintaining the consistency, accuracy, and trustworthiness of data over its entire
Availability is best ensured by rigorously maintaining all hardware, performing hardware repairs immediately when needed and maintaining a correctly functioning operating system environment that is free of software conflicts. It’s also important to keep current with all necessary system upgrades. Providing adequate communication bandwidth and preventing the occurrence of bottlenecks are equally important. Redundancy, failover, RAID even high-availability clusters can mitigate serious consequences when hardware issues do occur. Fast and adaptive disaster recovery is essential for the worst case scenarios; that capacity is reliant on the existence of a comprehensive disaster recovery plan (DRP). Safeguards against data loss or interruptions in connections must include unpredictable events such as natural disasters and fire. To prevent data loss from such occurrences, a backup copy may be stored in a geographically-isolated location, perhaps even in a fireproof, waterproof safe. Extra security equipment or software such as firewalls and proxy servers can guard against downtime and unreachable data due to malicious actions such as denial-of-service (DoS) attacks and network intrusions.
See the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) introductory video about the CIA triad:
Special challenges for the CIA triad:
Big data poses extra challenges to the CIA paradigm because of the sheer volume of information that needs to be safeguarded, the multiplicity of sources it comes from and the variety of formats in which it exists. Duplicate data sets and disaster recovery plans can multiply the already high costs. Furthermore, because the main concern of big data is collecting and making some kind of useful interpretation of all this information, responsible data oversight is often lacking. Whistleblower Edward Snowden brought that problem to the public forum when he reported on the NSA’s collection of massive volumes of American citizens’ personal data.
Internet of Things privacy is the special considerations required to protect the information of individuals from exposure in the IoT environment, in which almost any physical or logical entity or object can be given a unique identifier and the ability to communicate autonomously over the Internet or a similar network. The data transmitted by a given endpoint might not cause any privacy issues on its own. However, when even fragmented data from multiple endpoints is gathered, collated and analyzed, it can yield sensitive information.
Internet of Things security is also a special challenge because the IoT consists of so many Internet-enabled devices other than computers, which often go unpatched and are often configured with default or weak passwords. Unless adequately protected, IoT things could be used as separate attack vectors or part of a