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Video glossary

3-point edit - Marking three of the four points needed to place a source clip into a program and allowing the editing software to calculate the fourth point. For example, an editor identifies an In and Out point in the source clip and an In point in the program and allows the editing software to calculate the Out point in the program. This technique allows for complex multi-track synchronized video/audio editing.

4-point edit - Marking all four points to place a source clip into a program. The speed of the source clip is adjusted (speeded up or slowed down) to fit the space allowed for it in the program.

A/B Roll Editing - Editing is performed using two video sources, A & B, and a video switcher or mixer that allows for a variety of transitions between them as they are output to a video recorder.

action safe area - Approximately 90% of a the video frame, where action will be visible on a standard display.

alpha channel - Information attached to each pixel that represents how that pixel is to be blended with background.

analog media - The term used to refer to the media found on traditional videotape recordings.

animation - Any change of a parameter over time. Generally refers to a change in position of the video frame, moving the video over a background while it plays.

anti-aliasing - The process of smoothing the edges of graphics and text to prevent flicker and jagged edges.

aspect ratio - Proportional height and width of a video image. The NTSC standard for is 4:3 for conventional monitors such as home television sets, and 16:9 for HDTV.

assemble edit - A method for building a videotape in which a series of clips are placed one after the other to create, or assemble, a program.

audio dub - Recording audio over an existing video program without affecting the video images.

AVI - Audio -Video Interleave, which is a video format for Windows.

back-timing - Using a 3-point edit to mark two out points and one in point, allowing the computer to match up the two out points and calculate the remaining in point. For example, marking an in and out point on a source clip and an out point in a program and allowing the editing software to calculate the in point in the program.

band wipe - Transition that produces the effect of displaying an incoming clip as alternating bands that eventually cover the outgoing clip.

barn door wipe - A transition that opens or closes the first frame of an incoming clip over the outgoing clip as if it were two sliding doors.

bin - A location for storing and organizing clips in the Project window.

character generator (CG) - The equipment used in a linear editing suite to create titles or other text on video.

chrominance - Portion of video signal that carries hue and saturation color information. Also see luminence.

chroma Key filter - A filter that allows for a selected color in a clip to be made transparent. It is generally used to superimpose one clip on another.

clip - A set of contiguous frames beginning at a designated In point and ending at a designated Out point.

component - Video signal the keeps luminance and chrominance separate for better picture quality.

composite - Video signal the combines luminance and chrominance in a single signal. Less expensive than component video, but lower picture quality.

compression - The digital representation of media in an efficient storage format. For video, motion-JPEG is often used. Compression may be lossy in that the original picture cannot be reconstructed exactly.

color adjust filter - A the editing software filter that produces a change in the color aspects of a clip by allowing adjustment of individual channels.

color replace filter - A filter that produces a change in the color of objects or areas within a clip based on their hue values.

crawl - The gradual movement of text across a clip.

cross fade audio transition - A transition that causes the end of one audio clip to fade out, while the beginning of the next clip fades in.

cut - An abrupt transition between two clips. The first frame of the incoming clip immediately follows the last frame of the outgoing clip.

cutaway - Transitional footage normally inserted between cuts containing the same subject in slightly different screen positions to avoid a 'jump cut'.

cut point - The position of a cut relative to an overlying transition.

depth of field - The area between the nearest object in focus and the furthest object in focus.

device control software - A software module that controls a video deck to allow the capture of source clips to the hard drive of a computer.

Digital8 - Sony's proprietary digital camcorder format, which records digital video onto standard 8mm and Hi8 tapes.

digitize - To convert an analog video or audio signal into a digital signal that can be used by a computer.

dissolve transition - A transition in which the end of one clip gradually blends with the beginning of the next.

dropout - Videotape signal 'voids', which are visible as white specks or streaks. Normally the result of tiny bare spots on a tape's magnetic particle coating, or tape debris covering particles and blocking signals.

drop frame timecode - Timecode that is accurate relative to actual video running time. The numerical reference drops two numbers every minute to allow for the fact that there are actually 29.97 frames of video per second, rather than 30 frames per second.

drop shadow - A shadow that is offset from an object or text in a video.

DVE effects - A digital video effect (DVE) is created by taking any existing video source and manipulating its position within the video frame.

EDL - Edit Decision List

Edit Decision List - . A computer generated list containing information about a specific program, the SMPTE timecodes and options chosen during production. It is used to inform an editing system of all the parameters involved in the creation of that program. An EDL is generally used to assemble a program in a traditional video editing suite.

eyedropper - A cursor symbol used to match colors.

eliminate - A procedure for removing media from a video program and also removing the space that the media occupied in the program. Using Eliminate forces the remainder of the program to adjust accordingly and shortens the length of the entire program. Sometimes called a ripple edit.

erase - A procedure for removing media from a video program, leaving black space (called filler) in its place to maintain the spacing and length of the entire program. Sometimes called a non-ripple edit.

fade filter - The filter that raises or lowers video levels in clips. With the Fade filter a clip will change over time to all one color or black (fade out); or will gradually develop from a color or black (fade in).

field - Half of a video frame, either the even or odd scan lines.

filler - Blank space added to the time line in the course of editing a program.

filter - A computer software module used to process and modify digital video for adding special effects to a program.

fps - Frames per second.

focal length - The distance from a camera lens's focal point to its CCD imaging chips with the lens focus set to infinity. Wide angle views use short focal length; narrow field of view (telephoto) use longer focal lengths. Zoom lenses have a variable focal length.

force an edit - To insert a cut at a desired point in a clip.

frame - One complete still image of video media. Video media is made up of a series of frames. Each video frame has two interlaced fields.

full field - A complete video image consisting of two fields of video per frame.

FX track - A separate track on the time line used strictly for creating special video effects with filters and/or transitions.

generation - Original recorded footage is called "first generation." A copy of the original is second-generation video. A copy of a copy is called third generation, and so forth.

headroom - Space between the top of the subject and a monitor's upper screen edge. Leaving space for "headroom" is common practice.

hold - An interpolation setting that maintains settings from one key frame until the next key frame and uses the space of only one frame to jump to the next setting.

identifier - Name or number given to a clip or segment of a video to allow for easy recognition of the segment and its contents.

image resolution - A measurement of the quality of a video image based on the number of pixels that make up the image.

In point - The SMPTE time code of the specific frame at which a clip begins.

Insert edit - Placing a section of a source clip in the time line with the media currently to the right of the insertion point is moved farther to the right to accommodate the insertion of the new clip.

insertion cursor - Double triangles that appear on the FX tracks showing where a filter will be inserted.

interesting time - A place in a video program where an editorial event occurs, such as the beginning of a filter or transition, new clip, or key frame.

interpolation - The progressive calculation of a parameter between key frames.

iris transition - A EditDV Unplugged transition that creates the appearance of an enlarging opening revealing a incoming clip underneath. It is made to look like the iris of the eye opening, or enlarging.

jog - To move forward or backward in video or audio media at slow speed, often frame by frame. (Alt-arrow or Ctrl-arrow)

JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group. An international standard for still picture data compression.

jump cut - An instantaneous transition between two scenes that have identical subjects in slightly different screen locations, which makes the subject appear to jump within the screen. A cutaway shot remedies the distracting jump appearance.

kerning - The amount of space between text characters. Kerning varies between fonts.

keyframe - A frame at which a set of specific parameters is assigned. EditDV Unplugged automatically calculates differences between key frames in a clip and adjusts the frames accordingly.

key out - Removing a section of video by making it transparent by creating an alpha channel based on color (Chroma Key) or on brightness (Luma Key). Chroma and Luma are filters in EditDV.

leading - The space between lines of text.

linear - A setting in the EditDV Unplugged Interpolation pop-up that allows the creation of movement between key frame settings along straight lines.

linear editing - The traditional form of tape based video editing.

log - The numbers, either SMPTE or computer generated (for video that doesn't contain SMPTE timecodes), that EditDV uses to identify media. The log also includes additional information, such as tape identifiers and clip duration.

Luma Key filter - EditDV filter that allows the areas of light or dark in a clip to be made transparent, revealing the background clips in those regions.

luminance - Black and white portion of a video signal representing picture contrast and brightness.

Mirror filter - EditDV Unplugged filter that flips frames horizontally to create an opposite but identical image.

non-drop frame timecode - Timecode that does not compensate for the 29.97 frames of video per second of NTSC video, rather than 30 frames per second. Each frame is assigned a unique, consecutive SMPTE time code.

NTSC - The National Television Standards Committee.

NTSC signal - The standard composite video signal adopted by the NTSC that has 525 interlaced lines at a frame rate of 29.97 frames per second.

off line - When no disk file exists for a reference to a clip in a program, the file is said to be off line.

on disk - The media file for a clip is stored on a hard drive and referenced from within a program.

opacity - The degree to which an image is transparent, allowing images behind to visually show through.

out point - The SMPTE time code defining the end of a clip. The frame with this time code is not included in the clip.

overwrite edit - Placing a section of a source clip on the time line in the Sequencer and replacing or "overwriting" that program section.

PAL - Phase Alternating Line.

PAL signal - The most common composite video signal used in Europe. It has a frame rate of 25 fps.

pan - When used in reference to video, it is the sweeping movement of a camera across a scene or the appearance of such movement in a video as created by EditDV's PZR filter.

pan setting - When used in reference to audio, the setting that determines how audio output is divided between left and right speakers.

patch Matrix - The display in the Monitors window that identifies the video and audio tracks in the current source clip and the available tracks in the Sequencer window. Allows the user to direct the flow of the source clip tracks into Sequencer tracks.

picture view - A mode of appearance for EditDV's Project window. The picture view contains small thumbnails of the clips stored in the bins in the Project window.

PIP - Abbreviation for Picture in a Picture, a video effect which places several complete images on the screen at the same time. EditDV provides the PIP filter for creating a picture in a picture.

PIP box - The graphic image you manipulate in the FX monitor when creating a Picture in a Picture effect. Video in the video track immediately above the PIP effect will show in the PIP box once the effect is rendered.

pixel - A single picture element. The smallest element in a graphic image. Pixels are combined with other pixels to make up a graphic image. Picture quality increases as the number of pixels increase in a measured area of an image.

point - A standard measurement unit for type sizes. One point equals approximately 1/72 of an inch.

primary source clip - A source clip that has media attached to it. The original source clip from which secondary source clips and reference clips are created.

program - A sequence of reference clips arranged in a meaningful order. The final result of production with a video program.

project - Organizational unit containing the media units that when incorporated and edited will constitute a program.

project preset - Options that define the parameters for the production of a program, such as audio sampling rate that are established before beginning production.

PZR filter - A filter that enables the rotation of clip frames around any of three axes, the positioning of a frame in any of three dimensions and the control of the point of view through perspective adjustments.

QuickTime - System software from Apple Computer, Inc. that enables the storage, editing, and playing of digitized video and audio media on a computer.

radial wipe transition - A transition that sweeps away the outgoing clip with a circular or semi-circular motion to reveal the incoming clip.

reference clip - A clip created from a source clip when the source clip is placed on the time line in the Sequencer. A reference clip does not contain any digitized media but refers to the digitized source clip. A reference clip only exists in a sequence and is the only kind of clip that a sequence contains.

render - The processing of a series of individual clips, transitions and filters into a single playable track.

roll edit - An editing process where both outgoing and incoming clips are trimmed at a cut point to shorten one while lengthening the other to maintain the overall length of a program.

rotate - A function of EditDV's PZR filter that allows clip frames to be turned on any of three axes.

rule of thirds - This is the basic principle that is the most valuable to a new photographer. This rule takes our rectangular shape and divides it into thirds. The key elements or objects in a composition should fall on one of these thirds lines. The one point on our photograph where the viewers' eye comes to rest should fall on one of these lines where both a horizontal and a vertical line come to rest.

scroll - Moving text from the bottom to top and continuing off the visual boundaries.

scrub - To play through an audio or video clip interactively (under manual control) to evaluate it or locate a specific event. EditDV provides a display for observation of the audio waveform as it is scrubbed.

secondary source clip - A source clip created from a primary source clip, a subclip. It contains no media, it only refers to the primary clip.

shuttle - To move smoothly, forward or backward, through video or audio media at a constant rate.

SkyView - A graphic overview of the program in the time line. Visually relates the current view of the time line to the complete program.

SMPTE - Abbreviation for the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.

SMPTE timecode - The timecode used by the SMPTE to identify frames in a videotape. Each frame has a unique address in an hours:minutes:seconds:frames format.

source clip - A clip that refers directly to physical media.

splice - The physical act of cutting a medium, such as film or audio tape, to add new tape to it or take out portions of it.

spline - A setting in the EditDV Unplugged Interpolation pop-up that produces movement between key frame settings along curved lines; creating a smooth, flowing motion.

split edit (L-cut or J-cut) - Adjusting synchronized audio or video clips so that one starts slightly before or after the other.

step - To move forward or backward one frame at a time.

stereo - Audio split on two physical tracks, one on the right and one on the left.

text box - A box surrounding text created by the Titling filter. Allows for the text to be moved or adjusted in one piece.

text object - EditDV Unplugged provides this option that allows you to work with text produced by the Titling filter as one unit, instead of individual text characters.

text view - A mode of appearance for EditDV Unplugged?s Project window. The text view contains names, descriptions, and numbers of clips stored in the Project window bins.

time line - The graphic representation of a program displayed in the Sequencer window.

tint filter - A filter that produces the appearance of viewing video through colored glass.

title safe area - The standard area of a video in which text can be seen on a television screen.

titling filter - A filter that produces text in a video in various fonts, sizes, and colors. Text can also be enhanced by using the filter?s ability to create different color and opacity gradients, borders, shadows, and backgrounds.

track - A horizontal band across the time line window that graphically represents a series of clips in your program. The time line window has multiple tracks containing different types of media.

transition - The change from one clip to another in a video program.

trim handles - The frames before and after the In and Out points for a source clip to allow for trimming and transitions.

venetian blind wipe - A transition that produces the effect of having an outgoing clip displayed in strips over the incoming clip. The strips open, like a Venetian blind, to reveal the incoming clip.

white balance - An electronic process that calibrates the picture for accurate color display in different lighting conditions by determining what is "white." White balancing should be performed prior to any recording. The easiest way to calibrate is to focus in on a piece of white paper where you will be filming.

wipe - A type of transition that uses a moving edge to replace the current clip to reveal the next clip.

zoom - On a camera, to change the focal length to/from wide-angle and telephoto. In post-production, an editing filter that simulates the effect of having a camera move in very close to the subject, objects, or areas in a frame; or move away from the subject and display a wide view of the entire frame.

This glossary was originally compiled by Digital Origin Inc. Reprinted with permission.

This was last updated in June 2010
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