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digitization

Digitization is the process of converting information into a digital format . In this format, information is organized into discrete units of data (called bit s) that can be separately addressed (usually in multiple-bit groups called byte s). This is the binary data that computers and many devices with computing capacity (such as digital camera s and digital hearing aid s) can process.

Text and images can be digitized similarly: a scanner captures an image (which may be an image of text) and converts it to an image file, such as a bitmap . An optical character recognition ( OCR ) program analyzes a text image for light and dark areas in order to identify each alphabetic letter or numeric digit, and converts each character into an ASCII code.

Audio and video digitization uses one of many analog-to-digital conversion processes in which a continuously variable ( analog ) signal is changed, without altering its essential content, into a multi-level (digital) signal. The process of sampling measures the amplitude (signal strength) of an analog waveform at evenly spaced time markers and represents the samples as numerical values for input as digital data.

Digitizing information makes it easier to preserve, access, and share. For example, an original historical document may only be accessible to people who visit its physical location, but if the document content is digitized, it can be made available to people worldwide. There is a growing trend towards digitization of historically and culturally significant data.

According to an article in The Guardian in March 2007, if all spoken language since the dawn of time were digitized, it would consume five exabyte s of storage space. Total digital information, in 2006 was estimated at 161 billion exabytes. Email alone made up six exabytes of that figure.

This was last updated in April 2007

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great article .very informative
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why digitization is done in binary and not in decimal.?
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It doesn't have to be! Digitization just mean to convert from a continuous domain into a discrete domain (from something not countable into something countable, from latin Digitus means amongst other things "finger"). It's a mathematical property. eg. sampling is a process of doing just this, and does not have to involve at computer at all. It just happen, that we have made our computers in a way where the binary system fits very well (up until now/excluding quantum computing). So this is probably why digitization often is interpreted as "making data into binary computer language".  
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The definition of data digitization is very well explained by you. Now a days many companies outsourcing this services globally. I want to discuss about steps of data digitization process visit my blog and discuss about steps..https://diigo.com/08eja6
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Even better than what Wikipedia has...
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What is data digitization?

Data digitization is the process of converting traditional data types such as handwritings, prints, audios, and images, etc into standardized data that computer can recognize.

Normally, digital data including texts, videos, audios, and images, etc are used on computers and formatted that computer can read.

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