Browse Definitions :
Definition

hole

In physics, a hole is an electric charge carrier with a positive charge, equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity to the charge on the electron.   Holes and electrons are the two types of charge carriers responsible for current in semiconductor materials.

A hole is the absence of an electron in a particular place in an atom.  Although it is not a physical particle in the same sense as an electron, a hole can be passed from atom to atom in a semiconductor material.  Electrons orbit the nucleus at defined energy levels called bands or shells.  A hole forms in an atom when an electron moves from the so-called valence band (the shell outside the closed shells that is partially or completely filled with electrons) into the conduction band (the outer "cloud" from which electrons most easily escape from, or are accepted by, the atom).

Both electrons and holes are present in any semiconductor substance.  Electrons flow from minus to plus, and holes "flow" from plus to minus.  The more abundant charge carriers are called majority carriers; the less abundant are called minority carriers.  In N-type semiconductor material, electrons are the majority carriers and holes are the minority carriers.  In P-type semiconductor material, the opposite is true.

In the processing of semiconductors, the number of charge carriers can be increased by a process known as doping, which consists of adding minute amounts of elements called impurities.   Certain impurities, when added to a semiconducting element such as silicon, increase the number of electrons and produce an N-type material; other impurities increase the number of holes and produce a P-type material.  Both N-type and P-type material are important in the manufacture of solid-state electronic components.

This was last updated in May 2008

Join the conversation

4 comments

Send me notifications when other members comment.

Please create a username to comment.

i got answer to my question..........thankx
Cancel
"Hole" is it a concept or reality?
Cancel
concept.
Cancel
Electron movement in conduction band and valence band constitute current(in valence band if an empty space is there electrons can jump into it leaving another empty space). To avoid confusion, electron movement in valence band is represented as hole movement.Holes(literally hole) move opposite to electron.So -ve charge movement in one direction is represented by 'opposite direction positive charge movement'.So current direction is same.But effective mass of hole and electron will be different since hole represents valence band eletron absence and other is conduction band electron, electron movement affected differently in different bands.
Cancel

-ADS BY GOOGLE

File Extensions and File Formats

Powered by:

SearchCompliance

  • compliance audit

    A compliance audit is a comprehensive review of an organization's adherence to regulatory guidelines.

  • regulatory compliance

    Regulatory compliance is an organization's adherence to laws, regulations, guidelines and specifications relevant to its business...

  • Whistleblower Protection Act

    The Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 is a law that protects federal government employees in the United States from ...

SearchSecurity

  • orphan account

    An orphan account, also referred to as an orphaned account, is a user account that can provide access to corporate systems, ...

  • voice squatting (skill squatting)

    Voice squatting is an attack vector for voice user interfaces (VUIs) that exploits homonyms (words that sound the same but are ...

  • WPA3

    WPA3, also known as Wi-Fi Protected Access 3, is the third version of the security certification program developed by the Wi-Fi ...

SearchHealthIT

SearchDisasterRecovery

  • business continuity policy

    Business continuity policy is the set of standards and guidelines an organization enforces to ensure resilience and proper risk ...

  • business continuity and disaster recovery (BCDR)

    Business continuity and disaster recovery (BCDR) are closely related practices that describe an organization's preparation for ...

  • warm site

    A warm site is a type of facility an organization uses to recover its technology infrastructure when its primary data center goes...

SearchStorage

  • cache memory

    Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM) that a computer microprocessor can access ...

  • enterprise storage

    Enterprise storage is a centralized repository for business information that provides common data management, protection and data...

  • disk array

    A disk array, also called a storage array, is a data storage system used for block-based storage, file-based storage or object ...

Close