Browse Definitions :
Definition

hole

In physics, a hole is an electric charge carrier with a positive charge, equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity to the charge on the electron.   Holes and electrons are the two types of charge carriers responsible for current in semiconductor materials.

A hole is the absence of an electron in a particular place in an atom.  Although it is not a physical particle in the same sense as an electron, a hole can be passed from atom to atom in a semiconductor material.  Electrons orbit the nucleus at defined energy levels called bands or shells.  A hole forms in an atom when an electron moves from the so-called valence band (the shell outside the closed shells that is partially or completely filled with electrons) into the conduction band (the outer "cloud" from which electrons most easily escape from, or are accepted by, the atom).

Both electrons and holes are present in any semiconductor substance.  Electrons flow from minus to plus, and holes "flow" from plus to minus.  The more abundant charge carriers are called majority carriers; the less abundant are called minority carriers.  In N-type semiconductor material, electrons are the majority carriers and holes are the minority carriers.  In P-type semiconductor material, the opposite is true.

In the processing of semiconductors, the number of charge carriers can be increased by a process known as doping, which consists of adding minute amounts of elements called impurities.   Certain impurities, when added to a semiconducting element such as silicon, increase the number of electrons and produce an N-type material; other impurities increase the number of holes and produce a P-type material.  Both N-type and P-type material are important in the manufacture of solid-state electronic components.

This was last updated in May 2008

Join the conversation

4 comments

Send me notifications when other members comment.

Please create a username to comment.

i got answer to my question..........thankx
Cancel
"Hole" is it a concept or reality?
Cancel
concept.
Cancel
Electron movement in conduction band and valence band constitute current(in valence band if an empty space is there electrons can jump into it leaving another empty space). To avoid confusion, electron movement in valence band is represented as hole movement.Holes(literally hole) move opposite to electron.So -ve charge movement in one direction is represented by 'opposite direction positive charge movement'.So current direction is same.But effective mass of hole and electron will be different since hole represents valence band eletron absence and other is conduction band electron, electron movement affected differently in different bands.
Cancel

-ADS BY GOOGLE

File Extensions and File Formats

Powered by:

SearchCompliance

  • PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard)

    The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a widely accepted set of policies and procedures intended to ...

  • risk management

    Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

  • compliance framework

    A compliance framework is a structured set of guidelines that details an organization's processes for maintaining accordance with...

SearchSecurity

  • DNS over HTTPS (DoH)

    DNS over HTTPS (DoH) is a relatively new protocol that encrypts domain name system traffic by passing DNS queries through a ...

  • integrated risk management (IRM)

    Integrated risk management (IRM) is an approach to risk management that uses a set of practices and processes to improve an ...

  • MITRE ATT&CK framework

    The MITRE ATT&CK (pronounced 'miter attack') framework is a free, globally accessible service that provides comprehensive and ...

SearchHealthIT

  • telemedicine (telehealth)

    Telemedicine is the remote delivery of healthcare services, such as health assessments or consultations, over the ...

  • Project Nightingale

    Project Nightingale is a controversial partnership between Google and Ascension, the second largest health system in the United ...

  • medical practice management (MPM) software

    Medical practice management (MPM) software is a collection of computerized services used by healthcare professionals and ...

SearchDisasterRecovery

SearchStorage

  • M.2 SSD

    An M.2 SSD is a solid-state drive (SSD) that conforms to a computer industry specification and is used in internally mounted ...

  • kilobyte (KB or Kbyte)

    A kilobyte (KB or Kbyte) is a unit of measurement for computer memory or data storage used by mathematics and computer science ...

  • virtual memory

    Virtual memory is a memory management capability of an operating system (OS) that uses hardware and software to allow a computer ...

Close