Browse Definitions :
Definition

ion

An ion is an atom or group of atoms in which the number of electron s is different from the number of proton s. If the number of electrons is less than the number of protons, the particle is a positive ion, also called a cation. If the number of electrons is greater than the number of protons, the particle is a negative ion, also called an anion.

When an atom of an element is short an electron, a plus sign is placed after its chemical symbol as a superscript to indicate that fact. For example, a carbon atom with 5 electrons (the nucleus has 6 protons) is symbolized C + . If the element is short 2 or more electrons, a numeral is also placed in the superscript, directly before the plus sign, to indicate the extent of the electron deficiency. A carbon atom with 4 electrons is therefore symbolized C 2+ , and a carbon atom with 3 electrons is symbolized C 3+ .

If an atom of an element has an excess of an electron, a minus sign is placed after its chemical symbol as a superscript. If there are 2 or more extra electrons, a numeral is included to indicate the extent of the electron surplus. An oxygen atom with 9 electrons (the nucleus has 8 protons) is symbolized O - . An oxygen atom with 10 electrons is symbolized O 2- , and an oxygen atom with 11 electrons is symbolized O 3- .

A compound , as well as individual atom, can be ionized. A common example is nitrate, which consists of a nitrogen atom and 3 oxygen atoms (NO 3 ) in the form of an anion; this is symbolized NO 3 - because it normally has a surplus of a single electron. Another example is sulfate, which consists of a sulfur atom and 4 oxygen atoms (SO 4 ), which occurs with an excess of 2 electrons and is symbolized SO 4 2- .

Ionized substances often behave differently than when they are not ionized. A common phenomenon is for an electrical insulator (non-conductor) to become electrically conductive when it is ionized. In the Earth's upper atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation from the Sun causes ionization of certain gases. As a result, electromagnetic waves can refracted, and their polarization shifted, at certain frequencies when the waves pass through the gases. This makes long-distance radio communication possible, without the aid of satellites, at some frequencies. The ionization occurs in layers which, taken together, form the Earth's ionosphere .

This was last updated in September 2005

Join the conversation

1 comment

Send me notifications when other members comment.

Please create a username to comment.

we hindi nga!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Cancel

-ADS BY GOOGLE

Extensions de fichiers et formats de fichiers

Motorisé par:

SearchCompliance

  • compliance framework

    A compliance framework is a structured set of guidelines that details an organization's processes for maintaining accordance with...

  • regulatory compliance

    Regulatory compliance is an organization's adherence to laws, regulations, guidelines and specifications relevant to its business...

  • privacy compliance

    Privacy compliance is a company's accordance with established personal information protection guidelines, specifications or ...

SearchSecurity

SearchHealthIT

  • telemedicine (telehealth)

    Telemedicine is the remote delivery of healthcare services, such as health assessments or consultations, over the ...

  • Project Nightingale

    Project Nightingale is a controversial partnership between Google and Ascension, the second largest health system in the United ...

  • medical practice management (MPM) software

    Medical practice management (MPM) software is a collection of computerized services used by healthcare professionals and ...

SearchDisasterRecovery

  • crisis management plan (CMP)

    A crisis management plan (CMP) outlines how to respond to a critical situation that would negatively affect an organization's ...

  • disaster recovery (DR) test

    A disaster recovery test (DR test) is the examination of each step in a disaster recovery plan as outlined in an organization's ...

  • business continuity plan (BCP)

    A business continuity plan (BCP) is a document that consists of the critical information an organization needs to continue ...

SearchStorage

  • kilobyte (KB or Kbyte)

    A kilobyte (KB or Kbyte) is a unit of measurement for computer memory or data storage used by mathematics and computer science ...

  • megabytes per second (MBps)

    Megabytes per second (MBps) is a unit of measurement for data transfer speed to and from a computer storage device.

  • zettabyte

    A zettabyte is a unit of measurement used by technology professionals and the general public to describe a computer or other ...

Close