When a virtual memory address is referenced by a program, the search starts in the CPU. First, instruction caches are checked. If the required memory is not in these very fast caches, the system has to look up the memory’s physical address. At this point, TLB is checked for a quick reference to the location in physical memory.
When an address is searched in the TLB and not found, the physical memory must be searched with a memory page crawl operation. As virtual memory addresses are translated, values referenced are added to TLB. When a value can be retrieved from TLB, speed is enhanced because the memory address is stored in the TLB on processor. Most processors include TLBs to increase the speed of virtual memory operations through the inherent latency-reducing proximity as well as the high-running frequencies of current CPU’s.
TLBs also add the support required for multi-user computers to keep memory separate, by having a user and a supervisor mode as well as using permissions on read and write bits to enable sharing.
TLBs can suffer performance issues from multitasking and code errors. This performance degradation is called a cache thrash. Cache thrash is caused by an ongoing computer activity that fails to progress due to excessive use of resources or conflicts in the caching system.