# Algorithms

Terms related to procedures or formulas for solving a problem by conducting a sequence of specified actions. In computing, algorithms in the form of mathematical instructions play an important part in search, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning.## ALG - WHA

- algorithm - An algorithm (pronounced AL-go-rith-um) is a procedure or formula for solving a problem, based on conducting a sequence of specified actions.
- algorithmic accountability - Algorithmic accountability is the concept that companies should be held responsible for the results of their programmed algorithms.
- algorithmic transparency - Algorithmic transparency is openness about the purpose, structure and underlying actions of the algorithms used to search for, process and deliver information.
- backpropagation algorithm - Backpropagation (backward propagation) is an important mathematical tool for improving the accuracy of predictions in data mining and machine learning.
- bees algorithm - The bees algorithm is a method of problem solving that mimics the behavior of honeybees to find the optimum solution.
- cache algorithm - A cache algorithm is a detailed list of instructions that decides which items should be discarded in a computer's cache of information.
- cinema pulldown 3:2 (telecine) - Cinema pulldown 3:2 is an algorithm for matching the slower frame rate of film to the faster refresh rate of a 60 Hz television.
- cipher - In cryptology, the discipline concerned with the study of cryptographic algorithms, a cipher is an algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.
- consensus algorithm - A consensus algorithm is a process in computer science used to achieve agreement on a single data value among distributed processes or systems.
- convolutional neural network - A convolutional neural network (CNN) is a type of artificial neural network used in image recognition and processing that is specifically designed to process pixel data.
- CRUSH (Controlled Replication Under Scalable Hashing) - CRUSH (Controlled Replication Under Scalable Hashing) is a hash-based algorithm for calculating how and where to store and retrieve data in a distributed object –based storage cluster.
- deconvolutional networks (deconvolutional neural networks) - Deconvolutional networks are convolutional neural networks (CNN) that work in a reversed process.
- Digital Signature Standard (DSS) - Digital Signature Standard (DSS) is the digital signature algorithm(DSA) developed by the U.
- domain generation algorithm (DGA) - A domain generation algorithm or DGA is a computer program used to create domain names, typically for the purpose of propagating remotely controlled Web-based malware.
- evolutionary algorithm - An evolutionary algorithm (EA) is an algorithm that uses mechanisms inspired by nature and solves problems through processes that emulate the behaviors of living organisms.
- fast retransmit and recovery (FRR) - In TCP/IP, fast retransmit and recovery (FRR) is a congestion control algorithm that makes it possible to quickly recover lost data packets.
- fuzzy logic - Fuzzy logic is an attempt to use more human-like reasoning and better reflect reality through employing"degrees of truth" rather than the usual "true or false" (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based.
- greedy algorithm - A greedy algorithm is a mathematical process that looks for simple, easy-to-implement solutions to complex, multi-step problems by deciding which next step will provide the most obvious benefit.
- International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) - IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is an encryption algorithm developed at ETH in Zurich, Switzerland.
- leaky bucket algorithm - The leaky bucket algorithm is used to implement traffic policing and traffic shaping in Ethernet and cellular data networks.
- logistic regression - Logistic regression is a statistical analysis method used to predict a data value based on prior observations of a data set.
- LUHN formula (modulus 10) - The LUHN formula, also called modulus 10, is a simple algorithm used to validate the number on a credit card.
- machine learning algorithm - A machine learning algorithm is the method by which the AI system conducts its task, generally predicting output values from given input data.
- machine learning bias (AI bias) - Machine learning bias is a phenomenon that occurs when an algorithm produces results that are systemically prejudiced due to erroneous assumptions in the machine learning process.
- MD2 - MD2 is an earlier, 8-bit version of MD5, an algorithm used to verify data integrity through the creation of a 128-bit message digest from data input (which may be a message of any length) that is claimed to be as unique to that specific data as a fingerprint is to the specific individual.
- MD5 - The MD5 hashing algorithm is a one-way cryptographic function that accepts a message of any length as input and returns as output a fixed-length digest value to be used for authenticating the original message.
- Melbourne shuffle algorithm - The Melbourne shuffle algorithm is a sequence of actions intended to obscure the patterns by which cloud-based data is accessed.
- Nagle's algorithm - Named for its creator, John Nagle, the Nagle algorithm is used to automatically concatenate a number of small buffer messages; this process (called nagling) increases the efficiency of a network application system by decreasing the number of packets that must be sent.
- prediction error - A prediction error is the failure of some expected event to occur.
- RankBrain - RankBrain is an artificial intelligence (AI) component of Google's Hummingbird search algorithm that uses machine learning to improve the way Web pages are positioned in search engine results pages (SERP).
- recurrent neural networks - Recurrent neural networks are a type of advanced neural network that uses directed cycles in memory in order to perform recurrent tasks on a body of data.
- Rijndael - Rijndael (pronounced rain-dahl) is the algorithm that has been selected by the U.
- RSA algorithm (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) - The RSA algorithm is the basis of a cryptosystem -- a suite of cryptographic algorithms that are used for specific security services or purposes -- which enables public key encryption and is widely used to secure sensitive data, particularly when it is being sent over an insecure network such as the internet.
- secret key algorithm (symmetric algorithm) - A secret key algorithm (sometimes called a symmetric algorithm) is a cryptographic algorithm that uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data.
- sorting algorithm - A sorting algorithm is a method for reorganizing a large number of items into a specific order, such as alphabetical, highest-to-lowest value or shortest-to-longest distance.
- support vector machine (SVM) - A support vector machine (SVM) is a type of deep learning algorithm that performs supervised learning for classification or regression of data groups.
- TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) - TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) is an encryption protocol included as part of the IEEE 802.
- traveling salesman problem (TSP) - The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is an algorithmic problem tasked with finding the shortest route between a set of points and locations that must be visited.
- Twofish - Twofish is an encryption algorithm based on an earlier algorithm, Blowfish, and was a finalist for a NIST Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm to replace the DES algorithm.
- What is a neural network? Explanation and examples - In information technology, an artificial neural network is a system of hardware and/or software patterned after the operation of neurons in the human brain.