# Algorithms

Terms related to procedures or formulas for solving a problem by conducting a sequence of specified actions. In computing, algorithms in the form of mathematical instructions play an important part in search, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning.## AI - WHA

- AI ethics (AI code of ethics) - AI ethics is a system of moral principles and techniques intended to inform the development and responsible use of artificial intelligence technology.
- algorithm - An algorithm (pronounced AL-go-rith-um) is a procedure or formula for solving a problem, based on conducting a sequence of specified actions.
- algorithmic accountability - Algorithmic accountability is the concept that companies should be held responsible for the results of their programmed algorithms.
- algorithmic transparency - Algorithmic transparency is openness about the purpose, structure and underlying actions of the algorithms used to search for, process and deliver information.
- arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a central processing unit (CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words.
- backpropagation algorithm - Backpropagation (backward propagation) is an important mathematical tool for improving the accuracy of predictions in data mining and machine learning.
- bees algorithm - The bees algorithm is a method of problem solving that mimics the behavior of honeybees to find the optimum solution.
- block cipher - A block cipher is a method of encrypting data in blocks to produce ciphertext using a cryptographic key and algorithm.
- cache algorithm - A cache algorithm is a detailed list of instructions that decides which items should be discarded in a computer's cache of information.
- cinema pulldown 3:2 (telecine) - Cinema pulldown 3:2 is an algorithm for matching the slower frame rate of film to the faster refresh rate of a 60 Hz television.
- cipher - In cryptology, the discipline concerned with the study of cryptographic algorithms, a cipher is an algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.
- consensus algorithm - A consensus algorithm is a process in computer science used to achieve agreement on a single data value among distributed processes or systems.
- convolutional neural network - A convolutional neural network (CNN) is a type of artificial neural network used in image recognition and processing that is specifically designed to process pixel data.
- CRUSH (Controlled Replication Under Scalable Hashing) - CRUSH (Controlled Replication Under Scalable Hashing) is a hash-based algorithm for calculating how and where to store and retrieve data in a distributed object –based storage cluster.
- Data Encryption Standard (DES) - Data Encryption Standard (DES) is an outdated symmetric key method of data encryption.
- deconvolutional networks (deconvolutional neural networks) - Deconvolutional networks are convolutional neural networks (CNN) that work in a reversed process.
- Digital Signature Standard (DSS) - Digital Signature Standard (DSS) is the digital signature algorithm(DSA) developed by the U.
- domain generation algorithm (DGA) - A domain generation algorithm (DGA) is a program that generates a large list of domain names.
- evolutionary algorithm - An evolutionary algorithm (EA) is an algorithm that uses mechanisms inspired by nature and solves problems through processes that emulate the behaviors of living organisms.
- fast retransmit and recovery (FRR) - In TCP/IP, fast retransmit and recovery (FRR) is a congestion control algorithm that makes it possible to quickly recover lost data packets.
- fuzzy logic - Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on "degrees of truth" rather than the usual "true or false" (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based.
- greedy algorithm - A greedy algorithm is a mathematical process that looks for simple, easy-to-implement solutions to complex, multi-step problems by deciding which next step will provide the most obvious benefit.
- International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) - IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is an encryption algorithm developed at ETH in Zurich, Switzerland.
- leaky bucket algorithm - The leaky bucket algorithm is used to implement traffic policing and traffic shaping in Ethernet and cellular data networks.
- logistic regression - Logistic regression is a statistical analysis method used to predict a data value based on prior observations of a data set.
- LUHN formula (modulus 10) - The LUHN formula, also called modulus 10, is a simple algorithm used to validate the number on a credit card.
- machine learning algorithm - A machine learning algorithm is the method by which the AI system conducts its task, generally predicting output values from given input data.
- machine learning bias (AI bias) - Machine learning bias is a phenomenon that occurs when an algorithm produces results that are systemically prejudiced due to erroneous assumptions in the machine learning process.
- MD5 - The MD5 (message-digest algorithm) hashing algorithm is a one-way cryptographic function that accepts a message of any length as input and returns as output a fixed-length digest value to be used for authenticating the original message.
- Melbourne shuffle algorithm - The Melbourne shuffle algorithm is a sequence of actions intended to obscure the patterns by which cloud-based data is accessed.
- Nagle's algorithm - Named for its creator, John Nagle, the Nagle algorithm is used to automatically concatenate a number of small buffer messages; this process (called nagling) increases the efficiency of a network application system by decreasing the number of packets that must be sent.
- narrow AI (weak AI) - Narrow AI is an application of artificial intelligence technologies to enable a high-functioning system that replicates -- and perhaps surpasses -- human intelligence for a dedicated purpose.
- prediction error - A prediction error is the failure of some expected event to occur.
- RankBrain - RankBrain is an artificial intelligence (AI) component of Google's Hummingbird search algorithm that uses machine learning to improve the way Web pages are positioned in search engine results pages (SERP).
- recurrent neural networks - A recurrent neural network (RNN) is a type of artificial neural network commonly used in speech recognition and natural language processing.
- Rijndael - Rijndael (pronounced rain-dahl) is the algorithm that has been selected by the U.
- RSA algorithm (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) - The RSA algorithm is the basis of a cryptosystem -- a suite of cryptographic algorithms that are used for specific security services or purposes -- which enables public key encryption and is widely used to secure sensitive data, particularly when it is being sent over an insecure network such as the internet.
- sorting algorithm - A sorting algorithm is a method for reorganizing a large number of items into a specific order, such as alphabetical, highest-to-lowest value or shortest-to-longest distance.
- support vector machine (SVM) - A support vector machine (SVM) is a type of deep learning algorithm that performs supervised learning for classification or regression of data groups.
- TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) - TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) is an encryption protocol included as part of the IEEE 802.
- traveling salesman problem (TSP) - The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is an algorithmic problem tasked with finding the shortest route between a set of points and locations that must be visited.
- Twofish - Twofish is an encryption algorithm based on an earlier algorithm, Blowfish, and was a finalist for a NIST Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm to replace the DES algorithm.
- What is a neural network? Explanation and examples - In information technology, an artificial neural network is a system of hardware and/or software patterned after the operation of neurons in the human brain.
- What is artificial intelligence? - Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems.