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Circuit switched services equipment and providers

Terms related to circuit switched services equipment and providers, including dedicated communications channel definitions and words and phrases about telecommunications.

AUT - WAN

  • automated speech recognition (ASR) - Automated speech recognition (ASR) is a technology that allows users of information systems to speak entries rather than punching numbers on a keypad.
  • B-channel (bearer channel) - In the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the B-channel is the channel that carries the main data.
  • bit error rate (BER) - In telecommunication transmission, the bit error rate (BER) is the percentage of bits that have errors relative to the total number of bits received in a transmission, usually expressed as ten to a negative power.
  • bit stuffing - Bit stuffing refers to the insertion of one or more bits into a data transmission as a way to provide signaling information to a receiver.
  • bits per second (bps or bit/sec) - In data communications, bits per second (bps or bit/sec) is a common measure of data speed for computer modems and transmission carriers.
  • black box (black box testing) - Black box testing assesses a system solely from the outside, without the operator or tester knowing what is happening within the system to generate responses to test actions.
  • cable head-end - A cable head-end (or headend) is the facility at a local cable TV office that originates and communicates cable TV services and cable modem services to subscribers.
  • callback (international callback) - Callback, also known as international callback, is a system for avoiding regular phone company long-distance charges by having a call initiated from within the United States with the originating caller joining in a conference call.
  • carrier network - A telecommunications carrier network is the collection of devices and underlying infrastructure used to transmit data from one location to another.
  • centrex (central office exchange service) - Centrex (central office exchange service) is a service from local telephone companies in the United States in which up-to-date phone facilities at the phone company's central (local) office are offered to business users so that they don't need to purchase their own facilities.
  • channel - In telecommunications in general, a channel is a separate path through which signals can flow.
  • circuit - In electronics, a circuit is a path between two or more points along which an electrical current can be carried.
  • Cisco Enterprise Agreement (EA) - Cisco Enterprise Agreement (EA) is a software buying program that digitizes and simplifies license management for Cisco suite customers.
  • CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) - In the United States, a CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) is a telephone company that competes with the already established local telephone business by providing its own network and switching.
  • colocation (colo) - A colocation facility, or colo, is a data center facility in which a business can rent space for servers and other computing hardware.
  • customer proprietary network information (CPNI) - Customer proprietary network information (CPNI) in the United States is information that telecommunications services -- such as local, long-distance and wireless telephone companies -- acquire about their subscribers.
  • D-channel - In the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the D-channel is the channel that carries control and signalling information.
  • dedicated line - A dedicated line is a telecommunications path between two points that is available 24 hours a day for use by a designated user (individual or company).
  • demarc (demarcation point) - A demarc (an abbreviation for demarcation point) marks the point where communications facilities owned by one organization interface with that of another organization.
  • dial peer (addressable call endpoint) - A dial peer, also known as an addressable call endpoint, is a device that can originate or receive a call in a telephone network.
  • Direct Inward Dialing (DID) - Direct Inward Dialing (DID) is a service of a local phone company (or local exchange carrier) that provides a block of telephone numbers for calling into a company's private branch exchange (PBX) system.
  • duplex - In telecommunication, duplex communication means that both ends of the communication can send and receive signals at the same time.
  • E-carrier system - To see the relationship between the E-carrier system, the T-carrier system, and DS0 multiples, see digital signal X.
  • E.164 - E.164 is an international numbering plan for public telephone systems in which each assigned number contains a country code (CC), a national destination code (NDC), and a subscriber number (SN).
  • E911 (Enhanced 911) - In the United States, E911 (Enhanced 91 is support for wireless phone users who dial 911, the standard number for requesting help in an emergency.
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) - Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a network protocol that enables routers to exchange information more efficiently than earlier network protocols, such as Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) or Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
  • erlang - The Erlang programming language is not the same thing as the erlang, a unit of traffic density.
  • EWSD (Electronic Worldwide Switch Digital) - EWSD (Electronic Worldwide Switch Digital, or, in German, Elektronisches WaehlSystem [Digital]) is a widely-installed telephonic switch system developed by Siemens.
  • fabric - In information technology, fabric is a synonym for the words framework or platform.
  • fax - A fax (short for facsimile and sometimes called telecopying) is the telephonic transmission of scanned-in printed material (text or images), usually to a telephone number associated with a printer or other output device.
  • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) - FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a network standard that uses fiber optic connections in a local area network (LAN) that can extend in range up to 200 kilometers (124 miles).
  • Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) - A Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) is a high-speed Fibre Channel (FC) topology that can connect up to 126 ports on one controller using a one-way loop or hub design.
  • frame - See frames for the use of multiple Web pages on a single display screen.
  • frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) - In frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), multiple signals are combined for transmission on a single communications line or channel, with each signal assigned to a different frequency (subchannel) within the main channel.
  • frequency-shift keying (FSK) - Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a method of transmitting digital signals using discrete signals.
  • Gbps (billions of bits per second) - Gbps stands for billions of bits per second and is a measure of bandwidth on a digital data transmission medium such as optical fiber.
  • gigaflop - As a measure of computer speed, a gigaflop is a billion floating-point operations per second (FLOPS).
  • half-duplex - Half-duplex data transmission means that data can be transmitted in both directions on a signal carrier, but not at the same time.
  • hop off - Hop off is a term used in telecommunications that refers to a point at which a signal or call leaves a network and moves to another network.
  • hundred call second or centum call second (CCS) - The hundred call second -- also known as the centum call second (CCS) -- is a unit of telecommunications traffic density that is the equivalent of one call (including call attempts and holding time) in a specific channel for 100 seconds in an hour.
  • ILEC (incumbent local exchange carrier) - An ILEC (incumbent local exchange carrier) is a telephone company in the U.
  • in-band signaling - In the public switched telephone network, (PSTN), in-band signaling is the exchange of signaling (call control) information on the same channel that the telephone call itself is using.
  • Intelligent Network (IN) - Intelligent Network (IN) is a telephone network architecture originated by Bell Communications Research (Bellcore) in which the service logic for a call is located separately from the switching facilities, allowing services to be added or changed without having to redesign switching equipment.
  • interconnection - Interconnection is a strategy for ensuring that businesses can privately, securely and directly exchange digital information.
  • interexchange carrier (IXC) - An interexchange carrier (IXC) is a telephone company that provides connections between local exchanges in different geographic areas.
  • international private leased circuit (IPLC) - An international private leased circuit (IPLC) is a point-to-point private line used by an organization to communicate between offices that are dispersed throughout the world.
  • IP PBX (private branch exchange) - An IP PBX is a private branch exchange (telephone switching system within an enterprise) that switches calls between VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol or IP) users on local lines while allowing all users to share a certain number of external phone lines.
  • jitter - Jitter is any deviation in, or displacement of, the signal pulses in a high-frequency digital signal.
  • jumbo frames - A jumbo frame is an Ethernet frame with a payload greater than the standard maximum transmission unit (MTU) of 1,500 bytes.
  • leased line - A leased line is a bidirectional telephone line that has been rented for private voice, data exchange or telecommunication use.
  • local access and transport area (LATA) - LATA (local access and transport area) is a term in the U.
  • LZW compression - LZW compression is the compression of a file into a smaller file using a table-based lookup algorithm invented by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch.
  • managed network services - Managed network services are networking applications, functions and services that enterprises outsource to be remotely operated, monitored and maintained by a managed service provider (MSP).
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit - Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether or not its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.
  • mobile number portability (MNP) - Mobile number portability (MNP) is a service that allows a cellphone or smartphone customer to change service providers and keep the same phone number.
  • network operations center (NOC) - A network operations center (NOC) is a centralized place from which enterprise information technology (IT) administrators -- either internal or third party -- supervise, monitor and maintain a telecommunications network.
  • network switch - A network switch is a hardware device that channels incoming data from multiple input ports to a specific output port that will take it toward its intended destination.
  • noise - Noise is unwanted electrical or electromagnetic energy that degrades the quality of signals and data.
  • open networking - Open networking describes a network that uses open standards and commodity hardware.
  • operational support system (OSS) - An operational support system (OSS) is a set of programs that help a communications service provider monitor, control, analyze and manage a telephone or computer network.
  • probe - In telecommunications generally, a probe is an action taken or an object used for the purpose of learning something about the state of the network.
  • Q signaling (QSIG) - Q signaling (abbreviated QSIG), a protocol for Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) communications based on the Q.
  • Q.931 - Q.931 (also called Q93 is a signaling protocol for Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) communications that is used in voice over IP (VoIP).
  • quadbit (nibble) - A quadbit, sometimes called a nibble, is one of 16 possible four-bit combinations used in some communication signals.
  • regional Bell operating company (RBOC) - Regional Bell operating company (RBOC) is a term describing one of the U.
  • repeater - In digital communication systems, a repeater is a device that receives a digital signal on an electromagnetic or optical transmission medium and regenerates the signal along the next leg of the medium.
  • ringtone - On mobile phones, a ringtone is a brief audio file played to indicate an incoming call.
  • roaming service - Roaming service is the ability to get access to the Internet when away from home at the price of a local call or at a charge considerably less than the regular long-distance charges.
  • RS-232C - RS-232C is a long-established standard ("C" is the current version) that describes the physical interface and protocol for relatively low-speed serial data communication between computers and related devices.
  • service-level agreement (SLA) - A service-level agreement (SLA) is a contract between a service provider and its customers that documents what services the provider will furnish and defines the service standards the provider is obligated to meet.
  • shielded twisted pair (STP) - Shielded twisted pair (STP) is a special kind of copper telephone and local area network (LAN) wiring used in some business installations.
  • signal - In electronics, a signal is an electric current or electromagnetic field used to convey data from one place to another.
  • signal-to-noise ratio (S/N or SNR) - In analog and digital communications, a signal-to-noise ratio, often written S/N or SNR, is a measure of the strength of the desired signal relative to background noise (undesired signal).
  • signaling - In telephony, signaling is the exchange of information between involved points in the network that sets up, controls, and terminates each telephone call.
  • Signaling System 7 (SS7) - Signaling System 7 (SS7) is an international telecommunication protocol standard that defines how the network elements in a public switched telephone network (PSTN) exchange information and control signals.
  • Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) - Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) is a portion of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommendation Q.
  • Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is a group of fiber optic transmission rates that transport digital signals with different capacities.
  • T-carrier system - To see the relationship between T-carrier, E-carrier, and DS0 multiples, see digital signal X.
  • T1 (T-1) - Also see the T-carrier system, of which the T1 is a part.
  • TAPI (Telephony Application Program Interface) - TAPI (Telephony Application Program Interface) is a standard program interface that lets you and your computer "talk" over telephones or video phones to people or phone-connected resources elsewhere in the world.
  • teleconference - A teleconference is a live audio or audio-visual meeting with two or more participants.
  • telephony - Telephony is technology associated with interactive communication between two or more physically distant parties via the electronic transmission of speech or other data.
  • time-division multiplexing (TDM) - Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a method of putting multiple data streams in a single signal by separating the signal into many segments, each having a very short duration.
  • trunk (trunking) - A network trunk is a communications line or link designed to carry multiple signals simultaneously to provide network access between two points.
  • video telephony - Video telephony is full-duplex, real-time audio-visual communication between or among end users.
  • VoIP phone - A VoIP phone is a hardware- or software-based telephone designed to use voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology to send and receive phone calls over an IP network.
  • VoIP trunk gateway - A VoIP trunk gateway is an interface that facilitates the use of plain old telephone service (POTS) equipment, such as conventional phone sets and fax machines, with a voice over IP (VoIP) network.
  • WAN (wide area network) - A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically distributed telecommunications network that interconnects multiple local area networks (LANs).
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