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Circuit switched services equipment and providers

Terms related to circuit switched services equipment and providers, including dedicated communications channel definitions and words and phrases about telecommunications.

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  • 2600 - 2600 is the frequency in hertz (cycles per second) that AT&T formerly put as a steady signal on any long-distance telephone line that was not currently in use.
  • ACTS (Automatic Coin Telephone System) - ACTS (Automatic Coin Telephone System) is a public coin-operated telephone service that completes a variety of phone calls, times the calls, and collects payment without the aid of an operator.
  • area code - In the North American telephone system, an area code is a three-digit code delineating a "toll" area in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
  • audible ring - In a telephone system, an audible ring is the tone that is returned from the called party's switching device and heard by the caller.
  • automated speech recognition (ASR) - Automated speech recognition (ASR) is a technology that allows users of information systems to speak entries rather than punching numbers on a keypad.
  • Automatic Call Distributor (ACD) - An Automatic Call Distributor (ACD) is a telephone facility that manages incoming calls and handles them based on the number called and an associated database of handling instructions.
  • Automatic Coin Telephone System (ACTS) - Automatic Coin Telephone System (ACTS) is a public coin-operated telephone service that completes a variety of phone calls, times the calls, and collects payment without the aid of an operator.
  • B-channel (bearer channel) - In the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the B-channel is the channel that carries the main data.
  • B8ZS (bipolar 8-zero substitution, binary 8-zero substitution, clear channel, clear 64) - B8ZS (bipolar 8-zero substitution, also called binary 8-zero substitution, clear channel, and clear 64) is an encoding method used on T1 circuits that inserts two successive ones of the same voltage - referred to as a bipolar violation - into a signal whenever eight consecutive zeros are transmitted.
  • Basic Rate Interface (BRI) - In the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), there are two levels of service: the Basic Rate Interface (BRI), intended for the home and small enterprise, and the Primary Rate Interface (PRI), for larger users.
  • bis - The word (also used as a prefix or suffix) bis, applied to some modem protocol standards, is Old Latin for "repeat" (akin to Old High German "twice").
  • bit error rate (BER) - In telecommunication transmission, the bit error rate (BER) is the percentage of bits that have errors relative to the total number of bits received in a transmission, usually expressed as ten to a negative power.
  • bit robbing - Bit robbing is a technique used in signaling on the T-carrier system, the widely-used system for transmitting both voice and data in digital form in the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and in private networks.
  • bit stuffing - Bit stuffing is the insertion of one or more bits into a transmission unit as a way to provide signaling information to a receiver.
  • bits per second (bps or bit/sec) - In data communications, bits per second (abbreviated bps or bit/sec) is a common measure of data speed for computer modems and transmission carriers.
  • black box (black box testing) - Black box testing assesses a system solely from the outside, without the operator or tester knowing what is happening within the system to generate responses to test actions.
  • BOC (Bell operating company) - BOC (Bell operating company) is a term for any of the 22 original companies (or their successors) that were created when AT&T was broken up in 1983 and given the right to provide local telephone service in a given geographic area.
  • cable head-end - A cable head-end (or headend) is the facility at a local cable TV office that originates and communicates cable TV services and cable modem services to subscribers.
  • call failure rate (CFR) - The call failure rate (CFR) is the percentage of calls to an ISP or any network provider that fail to get through.
  • callback (international callback) - Callback, also known as international callback, is a system for avoiding regular phone company long-distance charges by having a call initiated from within the United States with the originating caller joining in a conference call.
  • carrier network - A carrier network is the proprietary network infrastructure belonging to a telecommunications service provider such as Verizon, AT&T or Sprint.
  • central office (CO) - In telephone communication in the United States, a central office (CO) is an office in a locality to which subscriber home and business lines are connected on what is called a local loop.
  • centrex (central office exchange service) - Centrex (central office exchange service) is a service from local telephone companies in the United States in which up-to-date phone facilities at the phone company's central (local) office are offered to business users so that they don't need to purchase their own facilities.
  • channel - In telecommunications in general, a channel is a separate path through which signals can flow.
  • channel bank - A channel bank is a device at a telephone company central office (public exchange) that converts analog signals from home and business users into digital signals to be carried over higher-speed lines between the central office and other exchanges.
  • circuit - In electronics, a circuit is a path between two or more points along which an electrical current can be carried.
  • CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) - In the United States, a CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) is a telephone company that competes with the already established local telephone business by providing its own network and switching.
  • cloud - In telecommunications, a cloud is the unpredictable part of any network through which data passes between two end points.
  • colocation (colo) - A colocation (colo) is a data center facility in which a business can rent space for servers and other computing hardware.
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • CPNI (Customer Proprietary Network Information) - In the United States, CPNI (Customer Proprietary Network Information) is information that telecommunications services such as local, long distance, and wireless telephone companies acquire about their subscribers.
  • CTI (computer-telephony integration) - CTI (computer-telephony integration), or sometimes simply "computer telephony," is the use of computers to manage telephone calls.
  • D-channel - In the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the D-channel is the channel that carries control and signalling information.
  • dedicated line - A dedicated line is a telecommunications path between two points that is available 24 hours a day for use by a designated user (individual or company).
  • demarc (demarcation point) - A demarc (an abbreviation for demarcation point) marks the point where communications facilities owned by one organization interface with that of another organization.
  • dial peer (addressable call endpoint) - A dial peer, also known as an addressable call endpoint, is a device that can originate or receive a call in a telephone network.
  • digital loop carrier (DLC) - DLC also is an abbreviation for Data Link Control.
  • digital signal X - Digital signal X is a term for the series of standard digital transmission rates or levels based on DS0, a transmission rate of 64 kilobits per second (Kbps), the bandwidth normally used for one telephone voice channel.
  • digital switch - A digital switch is a device that handles digital signals generated at or passed through a telephone company central office and forwards them across the company's backbone network.
  • Direct Inward Dialing (DID) - Direct Inward Dialing (DID) is a service of a local phone company (or local exchange carrier) that provides a block of telephone numbers for calling into a company's private branch exchange (PBX) system.
  • Direct Outward Dialing (DOD) - Direct Outward Dialing (DOD) is a service of a local phone company (or local exchange carrier) that allows subscribers within a company's private branch exchange (PBX) system to connect to outside lines directly.
  • DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) - A DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) is a network device, usually at a telephone company central office, that receives signals from multiple customer Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) connections and puts the signals on a high-speed backbone line using multiplexing techniques.
  • DTTV (digital terrestrial television) - DTTV (digital terrestrial television, sometimes also abbreviated DTT) is digital television (DTV) broadcast entirely over earthbound circuits.
  • duplex - In telecommunication, duplex communication means that both ends of the communication can send and receive signals at the same time.
  • E-carrier system - To see the relationship between the E-carrier system, the T-carrier system, and DS0 multiples, see digital signal X.
  • E.164 - E.164 is an international numbering plan for public telephone systems in which each assigned number contains a country code (CC), a national destination code (NDC), and a subscriber number (SN).
  • E911 (Enhanced 911) - In the United States, E911 (Enhanced 91 is support for wireless phone users who dial 911, the standard number for requesting help in an emergency.
  • ear and mouth (E&M) - Ear and mouth (E&M) is a technology in voice over IP (VoIP) that uses a traditional telephone handset with an earphone (or earpiece) for listening to incoming audio and a microphone (or mouthpiece) for transmitting audio.
  • electronic program guide (EPG) - An electronic program guide (EPG) is an application used with digital set-top boxes and newer television sets to list current and scheduled programs that are or will be available on each channel and a short summary or commentary for each program.
  • erlang - The Erlang programming language is not the same thing as the erlang, a unit of traffic density.
  • EWSD (Electronic Worldwide Switch Digital) - EWSD (Electronic Worldwide Switch Digital, or, in German, Elektronisches WaehlSystem [Digital]) is a widely-installed telephonic switch system developed by Siemens.
  • fabric - In information technology, fabric is a synonym for the words framework or platform.
  • fax - A fax (short for facsimile and sometimes called telecopying) is the telephonic transmission of scanned-in printed material (text or images), usually to a telephone number associated with a printer or other output device.
  • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) - FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a set of ANSI and ISO standards for data transmission on fiber optic lines in a local area network (LAN) that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles).
  • FG-D (Feature Group D) - FG-D (Feature Group D) is a type of telecommunication trunk used to provide "equal access" capability from telecommunication carriers and central offices (where the switching equipment is located and customer lines are connected and terminated) to the access tandem.
  • Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) - A Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) is a high-speed Fibre Channel (FC) topology that can connect up to 126 ports on one controller using a one-way loop or hub design.
  • fractional T1 - A fractional T1 or T3 line is a T1 or T3 digital phone line in the North American T-carrier system that is leased to a customer at a fraction of its data-carrying capacity and at a correspondingly lower cost.
  • frame - See frames for the use of multiple Web pages on a single display screen.
  • Freephone - In the U.K.
  • frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) - Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a scheme in which numerous signals are combined for transmission on a single communications line or channel.
  • frequency-shift keying (FSK) - Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a method of transmitting digital signals.
  • G.703 - G.703 is a CCITT standard for transmitting voice over digital carriers such as T1 and E1.
  • Gbps (billions of bits per second) - Gbps stands for billions of bits per second and is a measure of bandwidth on a digital data transmission medium such as optical fiber.
  • gigaflop - As a measure of computer speed, a gigaflop is a billion floating-point operations per second (FLOPS).
  • half-duplex - Half-duplex data transmission means that data can be transmitted in both directions on a signal carrier, but not at the same time.
  • Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) - Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) is the proposed enhancement of Mobile Internet Protocol versions 6 (MIPv6) that is designed to reduce the amount of signaling required and to improve handoffspeed for mobile connections.
  • hop off - Hop off is a term used in telecommunications that refers to a point at which a signal or call leaves a network and moves to another network.
  • hundred call second or centum call second (CCS) - The hundred call second -- also known as the centum call second (CCS) -- is a unit of telecommunications traffic density that is the equivalent of one call (including call attempts and holding time) in a specific channel for 100 seconds in an hour.
  • ILEC (incumbent local exchange carrier) - An ILEC (incumbent local exchange carrier) is a telephone company in the U.
  • in-band signaling - In the public switched telephone network, (PSTN), in-band signaling is the exchange of signaling (call control) information on the same channel that the telephone call itself is using.
  • Intelligent Network (IN) - Intelligent Network (IN) is a telephone network architecture originated by Bell Communications Research (Bellcore) in which the service logic for a call is located separately from the switching facilities, allowing services to be added or changed without having to redesign switching equipment.
  • interconnection - Interconnection is a strategy for ensuring that businesses can privately, securely and directly exchange digital information.
  • interexchange carrier (IXC) - An interexchange carrier (IXC) is a telephone company that provides connections between local exchanges in different geographic areas.
  • IP PBX (private branch exchange) - An IP PBX is a private branch exchange (telephone switching system within an enterprise) that switches calls between VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol or IP) users on local lines while allowing all users to share a certain number of external phone lines.
  • IPLC (international private leased circuit) - An IPLC (international private leased circuit) is a point-to-point private line used by an organization to communicate between offices that are geographically dispersed throughout the world.
  • isochronous - In information technology, isochronous (from the Greek "equal" and "time"; pronounced "eye-SAH-krun-us") pertains to processes that require timing coordination to be successful, such as voice and digital video transmission.
  • jitter - Jitter is the time variation between when packets leave one system and reach another, affecting real-time communications like VoIP and video conferencing.
  • jumbo frames - A jumbo frame is an Ethernet frame with a payload greater than the standard maximum transmission unit (MTU) of 1,500 bytes.
  • keyphone (K/P or key station) - Commonly used by a company within its private automatic branch exchange (PABX) telephone system, a keyphone (abbreviated as K/P, sometimes called a key station) is a telephone with the extra buttons and the intelligence to allow incoming calls to be transferred to other extensions.
  • leased line - A leased line is a bidirectional telephone line that has been rented for private voice, data exchange or telecommunication use.
  • LEC (local exchange carrier) - LEC (local exchange carrier) is the term for a public telephone company in the U.
  • line information database (LIDB) - A line information database (LIDB) is a database maintained by the local telephone company that contains subscriber information, such as a service profile, name and address, and credit card validation information.
  • local access and transport area (LATA) - LATA (local access and transport area) is a term in the U.
  • Local Number Portability (LNP) - Local Number Portability (LNP) is the ability of a telephone customer in the U.
  • Location Routing Number (LRN) - In the U.S.
  • long-distance carrier - A long-distance carrier is a telephone company that provides connections between local exchanges in different geographic areas.
  • loopback - In telephone systems, a loopback is a test signal sent to a network destination that is returned as received to the originator.
  • LZW compression - LZW compression is the compression of a file into a smaller file using a table-based lookup algorithm invented by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch.
  • managed network services - Managed network services are networking applications, functions and services that enterprises outsource to be remotely operated, monitored and maintained by a managed service provider (MSP).
  • mean opinion score (MOS) - In voice communications, particularly Internet telephony, the mean opinion score (MOS) provides a numerical measure of the quality of human speech at the destination end of the circuit.
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit - Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether or not its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.
  • mobile number portability (MNP) - Mobile number portability (MNP) is a service that allows a cellphone or smartphone customer to change service providers and keep the same phone number.
  • multi-tapping - Multi-tapping is an older procedure used to enter text using a telephone keypad.
  • narrowband - Generally, narrowband describes telecommunication that carries voice information in a narrow band of frequencies.
  • National Call Fee Access (NCFA) - In the U.K.
  • network operations center (NOC) - A network operations center (NOC) is a place from which administrators supervise, monitor and maintain a telecommunications network.
  • network switch - A network switch is a hardware device that channels incoming data from multiple input ports to a specific output port that will take it toward its intended destination.
  • network terminator 1 (NT1) - Using the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Basic Rate Interchange (Basic Rate Interface in ISDN) service, an NT1 (network terminating unit is a device that accepts a two-wire signal from the phone company and converts it to a four-wire signal that sends and receives to and from devices within the home or business.
  • noise - Noise is unwanted electrical or electromagnetic energy that degrades the quality of signals and data.
  • Number Translation Service (NTS) - In the U.K.

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