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Computer Science

Definitions about computer science including computing fundamentals vocabulary, protocol and standards terminology, words about microprocessors and terms used in electronics.

Algorithms

Terms related to procedures or formulas for solving a problem by conducting a sequence of specified actions. In computing, algorithms in the form of mathematical instructions play an important part in search, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning.

  • MD5

    The MD5 (message-digest algorithm) hashing algorithm is a one-way cryptographic function that accepts a message of any length as input and returns as output a fixed-length digest value to be used for authenticating the original message.

  • Data Encryption Standard (DES)

    Data Encryption Standard (DES) is an outdated symmetric key method of data encryption.

  • arithmetic-logic unit (ALU)

    An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a central processing unit (CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words.

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Artificial intelligence - machine learning

Terms related to artificial intelligence (AI), including definitions about machine learning and words and phrases about training data, algorithms, natural language processing, neural networks and automation.

  • speech technology

    Speech technology is a type of computing technology that enables an electronic device to recognize, analyze and understand spoken word or audio.

  • speech recognition

    Speech recognition, or speech-to-text, is the ability of a machine or program to identify words spoken aloud and convert them into readable text.

  • data mining

    Data mining is the process of sorting through large data sets to identify patterns and relationships that can help solve business problems through data analysis.

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Electronics

Terms related to electronics, including definitions about electrical components and words and phrases about computers, laptops parts, digital cameras, televisions and home appliances.

  • wavelength

    Wavelength is the distance between identical points (adjacent crests) in the adjacent cycles of a waveform signal propagated in space or along a wire.

  • NAND flash memory

    NAND flash memory is a type of non-volatile storage technology that does not require power to retain data.

  • conductance

    Conductance is an expression of the ease with which electric current flows through materials like metals and nonmetals.

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Fast references

Fast References and Quick Look-Ups for specific information technology (IT) topics.

  • Text message abbreviations and acronyms

    This handy fast reference will help you quickly understand hundreds of Text, Twitter and Chat abbreviations and acronyms that are popularly used in text messages and social media. Please bookmark this page and refer back to it as needed.

  • motor vehicle record (MVR)

    A motor vehicle record (MVR) is the documentation of a person’s driving history. The information in an MVR includes personally identifiable information (PII) as well as information about the driver's traffic citations, vehicular crimes, accidents, driving under the influence (DUI) convictions and the number of points on the individual’s driver’s license.

  • United States Department of Energy (DOE)

    United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a federal cabinet agency that is tasked with overseeing the energy economy, energy policies and energy security of the U.S. The agency creates policies for nuclear power, fossil fuel and alternative energy sources.

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IT standards and organizations

Terms related to information technology (IT) standards, including definitions about IT organizations and words and phrases about policies and compliance.

  • vertical market

    A vertical market is a particular industry or group of enterprises in which similar products or services are developed and marketed using similar methods (and to whom goods and services can be sold).

  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

    Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application-layer protocol for monitoring and managing network devices on a local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN).

  • CSO (Chief Security Officer)

    A Chief Security Officer (CSO) is a C-suite executive responsible for a company's physical and digital security.

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Learning guides

Guides and tutorials related to specific subjects including security, storage, programming, IT governance, data transmission, lifecycle management and technology used in vertical industries.

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Mathematics

Terms related to mathematics, including definitions about logic, algorithms and computations and mathematical terms used in computer science and business.

  • cryptology

    Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis.

  • Mathematical symbols

    This table contains mathematical symbols and links to definitions of what they represent and how they are used.

  • prime number

    A prime number is a whole number greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and itself. A factor is a whole numbers that can be divided evenly into another number.

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Microprocessors

Terms related to microprocessors, including definitions about silicon chips and words and phrases about computer processors.

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Nanotechnology

Terms related to nanotechnology, including manufacturing definitions and words and phrases about building machines at a molecular level.

  • robotics

    Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture and operation of robots.

  • Singularity (the)

    In technology, the singularity describes a hypothetical future where technology growth is out of control and irreversible.

  • Fourth Industrial Revolution

    The Fourth Industrial Revolution is the current and developing environment in which disruptive technologies and trends such as the Internet of Things (IoT), robotics, virtual reality (VR) and artificial intelligence (AI) are changing the way modern people live and work.

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Protocols

Terms related to communication protocols, including definitions about TCP, IP, UDP, POP, SMTP, HTTP, XML, W-CDMA and FTP.

  • Secure Shell (SSH)

    SSH, also known as Secure Shell or Secure Socket Shell, is a network protocol that gives users, particularly system administrators, a secure way to access a computer over an unsecured network.

  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

    Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application-layer protocol for monitoring and managing network devices on a local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN).

  • Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP)

    Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) is an automated configuration technology that routes data on a distributed network by discovering the best routing path between endpoints.

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Robotics

Terms related to robotics, including definitions about consumer or manufacturing robots and words and phrases about stepper motor systems, XY positioning tables, automation and artificial intelligence.

  • robotics

    Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture and operation of robots.

  • What is artificial intelligence?

    Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. Specific applications of AI include expert systems, natural language processing, speech recognition and machine vision.

  • Singularity (the)

    In technology, the singularity describes a hypothetical future where technology growth is out of control and irreversible.

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SEO

Definitions related to search engine optimization, including definitions about SEO and words and phrases about bots, spiders, organic traffic and all areas of search engine marketing (SEM).

  • metadata

    Often referred to as data that describes other data, metadata is structured reference data that helps to sort and identify attributes of the information it describes.

  • Google Analytics

    Google Analytics is a free web analytics service that provides statistics and analytical tools for search engine optimization (SEO) and marketing purposes.

  • microdata

    Microdata is a type of specification language that is embedded within HTML content to improve machine readability, annotate elements and analyze web pages.

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Video Production

Definitions about producing and editing videos.

  • cinemagraph

    A cinemagraph is an image that combines still photography with active video to create a picture that contains a small moving element while the rest is frozen.

  • videogrammetry

    Videogrammetry is the extraction of an object’s measurements from a video; measurements may be gathered from multiple angles or multiple videos.

  • digital evidence presentation system (DEPS)

    A digital evidence presentation system (DEPS) is a system with an overhead camera and a liquid crystal display (LCD) used in courts to present and record evidence digitally.

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SearchCompliance
  • OPSEC (operations security)

    OPSEC (operations security) is a security and risk management process and strategy that classifies information, then determines ...

  • smart contract

    A smart contract is a decentralized application that executes business logic in response to events.

  • compliance risk

    Compliance risk is an organization's potential exposure to legal penalties, financial forfeiture and material loss, resulting ...

SearchSecurity
  • identity provider

    An identity provider (IdP) is a system component that provides an end user or internet-connected device with a single set of ...

  • remote access

    Remote access is the ability for an authorized person to access a computer or network from a geographical distance through a ...

  • malware

    Malware, or malicious software, is any program or file that is intentionally harmful to a computer, network or server.

SearchHealthIT
SearchDisasterRecovery
  • synchronous replication

    Synchronous replication is the process of copying data over a storage area network, local area network or wide area network so ...

  • What is risk mitigation?

    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • change control

    Change control is a systematic approach to managing all changes made to a product or system.

SearchStorage
  • cold storage

    Cold storage is a computer system or mode of operation designed for the retention of inactive data.

  • tiered storage

    Tiered storage is a method for assigning different categories of data to various types of storage media to reduce overall storage...

  • secondary storage

    Secondary storage is persistent storage for noncritical data that doesn't need to be accessed as frequently as data in primary ...

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