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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

11T - CLI

  • 11th dimension - The 11th dimension is a characteristic of space-time that has been proposed as a possible answer to questions that arise in superstring theory.
  • 3-tier application architecture - A 3-tier application architecture is a modular client-server architecture that consists of a presentation tier, an application tier and a data tier.
  • 42 (h2g2, meaning of life, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy) - In Douglas Adams' "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy," 42 is the number from which all meaning ("the meaning of life, the universe, and everything") can be derived.
  • A-weighted decibels (dBA, or dBa, or dB(a)) - A-weighted decibels, abbreviated dBA, or dBa, or dB(a), are an expression of the relative loudness of sounds in air as perceived by the human ear.
  • abandonware - Abandonware is computer software (such as an operating system, word processor, interactive game, or audio file) that is no longer marketed or distributed by the company that created it, but is obtainable from some other source.
  • absolute truth - In general, absolute truth is whatever is always valid, regardless of parameters or context.
  • accumulator - An accumulator is a register for short-term, intermediate storage of arithmetic and logic data in a computer's CPU (central processing unit).
  • acronym - An acronym (pronounced AK-ruh-nihm, from Greek acro- in the sense of extreme or tip and onyma or name) is an abbreviation of several words in such a way that the abbreviation itself forms a word.
  • Ada Lovelace (Augusta Ada King) - Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, was an English mathematician who is credited with being the first computer programmer.
  • address bar - The address bar is the familiar text field at the top of a web browser’s graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the name or the URL (uniform resource locator) of the current web page.
  • address space - Address space is the amount of memory allocated for all possible addresses for a computational entity, such as a device, a file, a server, or a networked computer.
  • addressability - Addressability is the capacity for an entity to be targeted and found.
  • agentless - Agentless, in computing, refers to operations where no service, daemon or process (AKA an agent) needs to run in the background on the machine the action is being performed on.
  • agnostic - Agnostic, in an information technology (IT) context, refers to something that is generalized so that it is interoperable among various systems.
  • algorithm - An algorithm (pronounced AL-go-rith-um) is a procedure or formula for solving a problem, based on conducting a sequence of specified actions.
  • alphanumeric (alphameric) - Alphanumeric, also referred to as alphameric, is a term that encompasses all of the letters and numerals in a given language set.
  • AltaVista - AltaVista is an Internet search engine.
  • anacronym - An anacronym is an acronym or an abbreviation so old or familiar that no one remembers what its letters stand for, such as BASIC or COBOL.
  • Analytical Engine - The Analytical Engine was, or would have been, the world's first general-purpose computer.
  • angstrom (angstrom unit) - The angstrom, also known as the angstrom unit, is a measure of displacement equal to 0.
  • anode - An anode is the electrode in a polarized electrical device through which current flows in from an outside circuit.
  • app - App is an abbreviated form of the word "application.
  • Apple - Apple is a prominent hardware and software company best known for its series of personal computers, the iPod and its innovative marketing strategies for its products.
  • application program interface (API) - An application program interface (API) is code that allows two software programs to communicate with each other.
  • approximate equality - Approximate equality is a concept used primarily in physics and engineering, and also occasionally in mathematics.
  • Archie - Archie is a program that allows you to search the files of all the Internet FTP servers that offer anonymous FTP.
  • arithmetic mean - The arithmetic mean, also called the average or average value, is the quantity obtained by summing two or more numbers or variables and then dividing by the number of numbers or variables.
  • artificial superintelligence (ASI) - Artificial superintelligence (ASI) is software-based intellectual powers that surpass human ability across almost all conceivable categories and fields of endeavor.
  • aspect ratio - Aspect ratio is an image projection attribute that describes the proportional relationship between the width of an image and its height.
  • assembly line - An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are assembled as they are passed in a direct line from workstation to workstation until a final product is produced.
  • assistive technology (adaptive technology) - Assistive technology is a set of devices intended to help people who have disabilities.
  • asymmetric communications - Asymmetric communications is a term pertaining to any system in which the data speed or quantity, when averaged over time, is different in one direction from the other.
  • Asynchronous - In general, asynchronous -- pronounced ay-SIHN-kro-nuhs, from Greek asyn-, meaning "not with," and chronos, meaning "time" -- is an adjective describing objects or events that are not coordinated in time.
  • augmented intelligence - Augmented intelligence is an alternative conceptualization of artificial intelligence that focuses on AI's assistive role, emphasizing the fact that it is designed to supplement human intelligence rather than replace it.
  • autonomic computing - Autonomic computing is a self-managing computing model named after, and patterned on, the human body's autonomic nervous system.
  • AVI file (Audio Video Interleaved file) - An AVI (Audio Video Interleaved) file is a sound and motion picture file that conforms to the Microsoft Windows Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) specification.
  • azimuth and elevation - Azimuth and elevation are angles used to define the apparent position of an object in the sky, relative to a specific observation point.
  • backslash - The backslash ( \ ) is a typographic and/or keyboard mark that is widely used in programming languages and other computing contexts.
  • backup storage device - A backup storage device is used to make copies of data that is actively in use.
  • balanced scorecard - The balance scorecard (BSC) is a management system aimed at translating an organization's strategic goals into a set of organizational performance objectives that, in turn, are measured, monitored, and changed if necessary to ensure that an organizations strategic goals are met.
  • bar code (or barcode) - A bar code (often seen as a single word, barcode) is the small image of lines (bars) and spaces that is affixed to retail store items, identification cards, and postal mail to identify a particular product number, person, or location.
  • barcode data (point-of-sale data, POS data) - Barcode data (sometimes called point-of-sale data) is information from barcodes that is automatically gathered as a consumer's purchases are put through a check-out.
  • bare-metal restore - A bare-metal restore (also referred to as bare-metal recovery or bare-metal backup) is a data recovery and restoration process where a computer is restored to a new machine, typically after a catastrophic failure.
  • Bayesian logic - Named for Thomas Bayes, an English clergyman and mathematician, Bayesian logic is a branch of logic applied to decision making and inferential statistics that deals with probability inference: using the knowledge of prior events to predict future events.
  • bespoke - Bespoke (pronounced bee-SPOHK) is a term used in the United Kingdom and elsewhere for an individually- or custom-made product or service.
  • binary - Binary describes a numbering scheme in which there are only two possible values for each digit: 0 and 1.
  • binary search (dichotomizing search) - A binary search, also called a dichotomizing search, is a digital scheme for locating a specific object in a large set.
  • binary tree - A binary tree is a method of placing and locating files (called records or keys) in a database, especially when all the data is known to be in random access memory (RAM).
  • biochip - A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed.
  • biotechnology (biotech) - Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life.
  • bit (binary digit) - A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data in a computer.
  • bit map - A bit map (often spelled "bitmap") defines a display space and the color for each pixelor "bit" in the display space.
  • bitwise - Bitwise operations manipulate data at the bit level rather than with bytes or larger units of data, as is more common.
  • black box (black box testing) - Black box testing assesses a system solely from the outside, without the operator or tester knowing what is happening within the system to generate responses to test actions.
  • blue screen of death (BSOD) - Officially called the stop screen, or stop error, the blue screen of death (BSOD) is a most unwanted error, second only to malware or ransomware in indicating that a user is in for a very bad day.
  • boot sector - A boot sector is a specially assigned section of a storage drive containing the files required to start the operating system (OS) and other bootable programs such as antivirus programs, drive partitioning software, backup tools and diagnostic disks.
  • Bootstrap - Bootstrap is a free and open source front-end development framework for the creation of websites and web apps.
  • bottleneck - A bottleneck, in a communications context, is a point in the enterprise where the flow of data is impaired or stopped entirely.
  • brain dump - A brain dump (sometimes spelled braindump, or brain-dump) is a complete transfer of accessible knowledge about a particular subject from your brain to some other storage medium, such as paper or your computer's hard drive.
  • brain-computer interface (BCI) - Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a collaboration between a brain and a device that enables signals from the brain to direct some external activity, such as control of a cursor or a prosthetic limb.
  • brand - A brand is a product, service, or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services, or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed.
  • broadcast - In general, to broadcast (verb) is to cast or throw forth something in all directions at the same time.
  • broker - A broker is someone or something that acts as an intermediary third party, managing transactions between two other entities.
  • buffer - A buffer is a data area shared by hardware devices or program processes that operate at different speeds or with different sets of priorities.
  • burn - Burn is a colloquial term meaning to write content to a CD, DVD, or other recordable disc.
  • business impact analysis (BIA) - Business impact analysis (BIA) is a systematic process to determine and evaluate the potential effects of an interruption to critical business operations as a result of a disaster, accident or emergency.
  • business process - A business process is an activity or set of activities that can accomplish a specific organizational goal.
  • business process outsourcing (BPO) - Business process outsourcing (BPO) is a business practice in which an organization contracts with an external service provider to perform an essential business task.
  • business process reengineering (BPR) - Business process reengineering (BPR) is an approach to change management in which the related tasks required to obtain a specific business outcome are radically redesigned.
  • butterfly effect - The butterfly effect is the notion that a small initial factor may have a part in determining greater and unpredictable changes in large, complex systems.
  • BYOT (bring your own technology) - Bring your own technology (BYOT) is a policy that allows employees or students to use their own personal electronic devices at work or scho.
  • byte - In most computer systems, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits long.
  • bytecode - Bytecode is computer object code that is processed by a program, usually referred to as a virtual machine, rather than by the "real" computer machine, the hardware processor.
  • cache - A cache -- pronounced CASH -- is hardware or software that is used to store something, usually data, temporarily in a computing environment.
  • cache memory - Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular random access memory (RAM).
  • caching - Caching (pronounced “cashing”) is the process of storing data in a cache.
  • calculator - A calculator is a device that performs arithmetic operations on numbers.
  • calibration - In information technology and other fields, calibration is the setting or correcting of a measuring device or base level, usually by adjusting it to match or conform to a dependably known and unvarying measure.
  • canonical - In programming, canonical means "according to the rules.
  • cardinality - The term cardinality refers to the number of cardinal (basic) members in a set.
  • Cartesian coordinates (rectangular coordinates) - Cartesian coordinates, also called rectangular coordinates, provide a method of rendering graphs and indicating the positions of points on a two-dimensional (2D) surface or in three-dimensional (3D) space.
  • catalog - In computing, a catalog is a directory of information about data sets, files, or a database.
  • cathode - A cathode is the metallic electrode through which current flows out in a polarized electrical device.
  • cellular automaton (CA) - A cellular automaton (CA) is a collection of cells arranged in a grid, such that each cell changes state as a function of time according to a defined set of rules that includes the states of neighboring cells.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • change management - Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with the transition or transformation of an organization's goals, processes or technologies.
  • chaos theory - Chaos theory is the study of nonlinear dynamics, in which seemingly random events are actually predictable from simple deterministic equations.
  • character - In information technology, a character is a printable symbol having phonetic or pictographic meaning and usually forming part of a word of text, depicting a numeral, or expressing grammatical punctuation.
  • check digit (checksum character) - A check digit, also known as a checksum character, is the number located on the far right side of a bar code.
  • checksum - A checksum is a value that represents the number of bits in a transmission message and is used by IT professionals to detect high-level errors within data transmissions.
  • CIO (Chief Information Officer) - A chief information officer (CIO) is the corporate executive in charge of information technology (IT) strategy and implementation.
  • ciphertext - Ciphertext is encrypted text transformed from plaintext using an encryption algorithm.
  • classical computing - Classical computing is the processing of binary data in traditional types of bit-based computer systems.
  • clean electricity - Clean electricity is electrical power that is free from voltage spikes and drops.
  • clean install - A clean install is a software installation in which any previous version is removed.
  • clean room - A clean room (or cleanroom) is an enclosed space in which airborne particulates, contaminants, and pollutants are kept within strict limits.
SearchCompliance
  • pure risk

    Pure risk refers to risks that are beyond human control and result in a loss or no loss with no possibility of financial gain.

  • risk reporting

    Risk reporting is a method of identifying risks tied to or potentially impacting an organization's business processes.

  • chief risk officer (CRO)

    The chief risk officer (CRO) is the corporate executive tasked with assessing and mitigating significant competitive, regulatory ...

SearchSecurity
  • payload (computing)

    In computing, a payload is the carrying capacity of a packet or other transmission data unit.

  • script kiddie

    Script kiddie is a derogative term that computer hackers coined to refer to immature, but often just as dangerous, exploiters of ...

  • cipher

    In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.

SearchHealthIT
SearchDisasterRecovery
  • What is risk mitigation?

    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • fault-tolerant

    Fault-tolerant technology is a capability of a computer system, electronic system or network to deliver uninterrupted service, ...

  • synchronous replication

    Synchronous replication is the process of copying data over a storage area network, local area network or wide area network so ...

SearchStorage
  • object storage

    Object storage, also called object-based storage, is an approach to addressing and manipulating data storage as discrete units, ...

  • gigabyte (GB)

    A gigabyte (GB) -- pronounced with two hard Gs -- is a unit of data storage capacity that is roughly equivalent to 1 billion ...

  • MRAM (magnetoresistive random access memory)

    MRAM (magnetoresistive random access memory) is a method of storing data bits using magnetic states instead of the electrical ...

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