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Computing fundamentals

Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

RGB - STA

  • RGB (red, green, and blue) - RGB (red, green, and blue) refers to a system for representing the colors to be used on a computer display.
  • RISC (reduced instruction set computer) - RISC (reduced instruction set computer) is a microprocessor that is designed to perform a smaller number of types of computer instructions so that it can operate at a higher speed (perform more millions of instructions per second, or MIPS).
  • robot - A robot is a machine designed to execute one or more tasks automatically with speed and precision.
  • robotics - Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation of robots.
  • RoC (restart on crash) - RoC (restart on crash) is a functionality built into Windows that automatically restarts an operating system or application when it hangs, freezes or crashes.
  • rogue - In general, a rogue is someone who strays from the accepted path, is mischievous, or is a cheat.
  • ROI (return on investment) - For a given use of money in an enterprise, the ROI (return on investment) is how much profit or cost saving is realized as a result.
  • ROM emulation - ROM emulation is the process of copying data from a ROM (read-only memory) chip to a storage medium such as a hard disk or flash memory.
  • root cause analysis - Root cause analysis is a way to determine how a problematic event occurred by examining why, how and when the casual factors happened after the fact.
  • rotoscoping - For either broadcast video or Internet streaming video, rotoscoping is the rotated projection of a sequence of usually photographed action image frames so that the artist can trace from the frame or create an image to superimpose on it.
  • run book - In a computer system or network, a run book is a written set of procedures for the routine and exceptional operation of the system or network by an administrator or operator.
  • runt - In networks, a runt is a packet that is too small.
  • runtime system - A runtime system is an engine that translates a given programming language or languages into machine code.
  • S-Video (Super-Video, Y/C Video, component video) - S-Video (Super-Video, sometimes referred to as Y/C Video, or component video) is a video signal transmission in which the luminance signal and the chrominance signal are transmitted separately to achieve superior picture clarity.
  • sample rate - In developing an audio sound for computers or telecommunication, the sample rate is the number of samples of a sound that are taken per second to represent the event digitally.
  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) - The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is a federal law that established sweeping auditing and financial regulations for public companies.
  • satellite constellation (satellite swarm) - A satellite constellation, also called a satellite swarm, is a system of satellites that work together to achieve a single purpose.
  • scalability - It is the ability of a computer application or product (hardware or software) to continue to function well as it (or its context) is changed in size or volume in order to meet a user need.
  • Schrodinger's cat - Schrödinger's cat is a famous hypothetical experiment designed to point out a flaw in the Copenhagen interpretation of superposition as it applies to quantum theory.
  • scientific method - Scientific method is a logical approach to seeking knowledge that involves forming and testing a hypothesis.
  • scientific notation (power-of-10 notation) - Scientific notation, also called power-of-10 notation, is a method of writing extremely large and small numbers.
  • search neutrality - Search neutrality is the direct conducting of transparent search processes that do not discriminate between users or favor specific sites.
  • search operator - A search operator (sometimes referred to as a search parameter) is a character or string of characters used in a search engine query to narrow the focus of the search.
  • searching - On the Internet, searching is just trying to find the information you need.
  • seat - In a networked computer system, a seat is a workstation that can be operated by one user at a time.
  • seat management - Seat management is a method of coordinating all the workstations in an enterprise network by overseeing the installation, operation, and maintenance of hardware and software at each workstation.
  • second (s or sec) - The second (abbreviation,s or sec) is the Standard International (SI) unit of time.
  • segmented memory - Segmented memory is a system of addressing computer memory, which may be physical or virtual and may be operating in real or protected mode.
  • self-assembly - Self-assembly is a branch of nanotechnology in which objects, devices, and systems form structures without external prodding.
  • self-healing - In information technology, self-healing describes any device or system that has the ability to perceive that it is not operating correctly and, without human intervention, make the necessary adjustments to restore itself to normal operation.
  • Self-Monitoring Analysis & Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T.) - Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.
  • self-replication - In nanotechnology, self-replication is a process in which devices whose diameters are of atomic scale, on the order of nanometers, create copies of themselves.
  • sensor - A sensor is a device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment.
  • sequential logic - Sequential logic is a form of binary circuit design that employs one or more inputs and one or more outputs, whose states are related by defined rules that depend, in part, on previous states.
  • serendipity - In general, serendipity is the act of finding something valuable or delightful when you are not looking for it.
  • serial - Serial means one event at a time.
  • serial presence detect (SPD) - When a computer is booted (started), serial presence detect (SPD) is information stored in anelectrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) chip on a synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) memory module that tells thebasic input/output system (BIOS) the module's size, data width, speed, and voltage.
  • server - A server is a computer program or device that provides a service to another computer program and its user, also known as the client.
  • server stack - A server stack is the collection of software that forms the operational infrastructure on a given machine.
  • server virtualization - Server virtualization is a process that creates and abstracts multiple virtual instances on a single server.
  • server-side include (SSI) - A server-side include is a variable value (for example, a file "Last modified" date) that a server can include in an HTML file before it sends it to the requestor.
  • service-level management - Service-level management is the monitoring and management of the quality of service(QoS) of an entity's key performance indicators(KPIs).
  • service-oriented architecture (SOA) - Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a software development model that allows services to communicate across different platforms and languages to form applications.
  • service-oriented integration (SOI) - SOI is also an abbreviation for Silicon-On-Insulator.
  • service-oriented management (SOM) - Service-oriented management (SOM) is the operational management of service delivery within a service-oriented architecture (SOA).
  • session - In telecommunication, a session is a series of interactions between two communication end points that occur during the span of a single connection.
  • set - A set is a group or collection of objects or numbers, considered as an entity unto itself.
  • Shannon's Law - Shannon's Law, formulated by Claude Shannon, a mathematician who helped build the foundations for the modern computer, is a statement in information theory that expresses the maximum possible data speed that can be obtained in a data channel.
  • shebang (#!) - Among UNIX shell (user interface) users, a shebang is a term for the "#!" characters that must begin the first line of a script.
  • shift register - A shift register is a digital memory circuit found in calculators, computers, and data-processing systems.
  • shovelware - Shovelware is content taken from any source and put on the Web as fast as possible with little regard for appearance and usability.
  • Siebel - Siebel Systems is a prominent vendor of interoperable e-business software.
  • significant figures - The term significant figures refers to the number of important single digits (0 through 9 inclusive) in the coefficient of an expression in scientific notation.
  • silicon (Si) - Silicon is a chemical element (its symbol in chemical formula expressions is "Si") that is present in sand and glass and which is the best known semiconductor material in electronic components.
  • simplicity - In information technology, simplicity is a quality that is frequently sought by both users and technologists, although, as users frequently attest, it is not always found.
  • single-system image (SSI) - Single-system image (SSI) is the idea that the resources provided by cluster computing or in any system which aggregates resources should present a single interface to the user.
  • site map - A site map is a visual or textually organized model of a Web site's content that allows the users to navigate through the site to find the information they are looking for, just as a traditional geographical map helps people find places they are looking for in the real world.
  • six degrees of separation - Six degrees of separation is the theory that any person on the planet can be connected to any other person on the planet through a chain of acquaintances that has no more than five intermediaries.
  • Six Sigma - Six Sigma is an approach to data-driven management that seeks to improve quality by measuring how many defects there are in a process and systematically eliminating them until there are as close to zero defects as possible.
  • SKU (stockkeeping unit) - SKU (stockkeeping unit, sometimes spelled "Sku") is an identification, usually alphanumeric, of a particular product that allows it to be tracked for inventory purposes.
  • SkunkWorks project (Skunk Works) - A skunk works is a small group of people who work on a project that needs to be completed quickly.
  • slack space (file slack space) - Slack space is the difference between its logical and physical size.
  • Slashdot Effect - The Slashdot Effect is the sudden, relatively temporary surge in traffic to a Web site that occurs when a high-traffic Web site or other source posts a story that refers visitors to another Web site.
  • sleep mode - Sleep mode, sometimes called standby or suspend mode, is a power-sparing state that a computer can enter when not in use.
  • slice and dice - To slice and dice is to break a body of information down into smaller parts or to examine it from different viewpoints so that you can understand it better.
  • slow-scan television (SSTV) - Slow-scan television (SSTV) is a mode of video communications in which a sequence of fixed images is sent and received at intervals of several seconds.
  • slowness movement - The slowness movement is a grassroots reaction to the hectic pace, overwork, and lack of leisure typical of modern life.
  • Small Office Home Office (SOHO) - In information technology, SOHO is a term for the small office or home office environment and business culture.
  • smart machines - A smart machine is a device embedded with machine-to-machine (M2M) and/or cognitive computing technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning or deep learning, all of which it uses to reason, problem-solve, make decisions and even, ultimately, take action.
  • SMB (small and medium-sized business or small and midsized business) - SMB is an abbreviation for small and medium-sized business, sometimes seen as small and midsized business.
  • SNAFU (situation normal, all f***ed up) - SNAFU is an acronym for "situation normal, all f***ed up.
  • snap-in - Snap-in, in general, refers to an object that can be attached to another object and that will then function as part of the whole.
  • sneakernet - Sneakernet is a jargon term for the method of transmitting electronic information by personally carrying it from one place to another on floppy disk or other removable medium.
  • Sniglet - Words that should be in the dictionary (but aren't) - A sniglet is a word that should be in the dictionary but isn't.
  • snoopware - In mobile computing, snoopware is malware that is capable of monitoring activity on a smartphone.
  • soft copy - A soft copy (sometimes spelled "softcopy") is an electronic copy of some type of data, such as a file viewed on a computer's display or transmitted as an e-mail attachment.
  • soft error - A soft error is an issue that causes a temporary condition in RAM that alters stored data in an unintended way.
  • soft reset - A soft reset is a restart of a device, such as a smartphone, tablet, laptop or personal computer (PC).
  • software - Software is a set of instructions, data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks.
  • software package - A software package is an assemblage of files and information about those files.
  • sound card - A sound card (also referred to as an audio card) is a peripheral device that attaches to the ISA or PCI slot on a motherboard to enable the computer to input, process, and deliver sound.
  • sound wave - A sound wave is the pattern of disturbance caused by the movement of energy traveling through a medium (such as air, water, or any other liquid or solid matter) as it propagates away from the source of the sound.
  • space - In mathematics, space is an unbounded continuum (unbroken set of points) in which exactly three numerical coordinates are necessary to uniquely define the location of any particular point.
  • spaghetti code - Spaghetti code is a derogatory term for computer programming that is unnecessarily convoluted and difficult to change.
  • spam for life (S4L) - S4L is an online chat acronyms for "spam for life," the possible result of subscribing to an online service or becoming anyone's customer or client.
  • spamdexing - Spamdexing, coined from spam and index, is the practice of including information in a Web page that causes search engines to index it in some way that produces results that satisfy the spamdexer but usually dissatisify the search engine providers and users.
  • spectrum analyzer - A spectrum analyzer is a device that displays signal amplitude (strength) as it varies by signal frequency.
  • speech synthesis - Speech synthesis is the computer-generated simulation of human speech.
  • speed of gravity - The speed of gravity is the rate, in meters per second or other standard units, at which gravitational fields or effects propagate through space.
  • spin (angular momentum) - Spin, in physics, is the velocity of rotation of something around a particular axis.
  • splash page (splash screen) - A splash page (or splash screen) is: An initial Web site page used to capture the user's attention for a short time as a promotion or lead-in to the site home page or to tell the user what kind of browser and other software they need to view the site.
  • spod - On the Internet in the United Kingdom, a spod is a person who frequents chat rooms or discussion groups a little too frequently.
  • square root symbol - The square root symbol () is used to indicate the quantity or quantities which, when multiplied by itself or themselves, results in the quantity encompassed by the symbol.
  • Squid proxy server - Squid is a Unix-based proxy server that caches Internet content closer to a requestor than its original point of origin.
  • SRAM (static random access memory) - SRAM (static RAM) is random access memory (RAM) that retains data bits in its memory as long as power is being supplied.

SearchCompliance

  • risk assessment

    Risk assessment is the identification of hazards that could negatively impact an organization's ability to conduct business.

  • PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard)

    The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a widely accepted set of policies and procedures intended to ...

  • risk management

    Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

SearchSecurity

SearchHealthIT

SearchDisasterRecovery

  • call tree

    A call tree is a layered hierarchical communication model that is used to notify specific individuals of an event and coordinate ...

  • Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS)

    Disaster recovery as a service (DRaaS) is the replication and hosting of physical or virtual servers by a third party to provide ...

  • cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR)

    Cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR) is a combination of strategies and services intended to back up data, applications and other ...

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