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Computing fundamentals

Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

URL - ZUL

  • URL shortening - URL shortening is the translation of a long Uniform Resource Locator (URL) into an abbreviated alternative that redirects to the longer URL.
  • usability - Also see human-computer interaction and graphical user interface.
  • user group - In personal or business computing, a user group is a set of people who have similar interests, goals, or concerns.
  • UTF-16 (16- bit Unicode Transformation Format) - UTF-16 (16- bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a standard method of encoding Unicode character data.
  • utility - In computers, a utility is a small program that provides an addition to the capabilities provided by the operating system.
  • utility computing - Utility computing is a service provisioning model in which a service provider makes computing resources and infrastructure management available to the customer as needed, and charges them for specific usage rather than a flat rate.
  • UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) - UXGA (Ultra Extended Graphics Array) is a display modein which the resolutionis 1600 pixels horizontally by 1200 pixels vertically (1600 x 1200).
  • value chain - A value chain is "a string of companies working together to satisfy market demands.
  • value-added reseller (VAR) - A value-added reseller (VAR) is a company that resells software, hardware and networking products and provides value beyond order fulfillment.
  • valve - A valve is a mechanism that opens and closes to control the flow of fluids.
  • vandal - A vandal is an executable file, usually an applet or an ActiveX control, associated with a Web page that is designed to be harmful, malicious, or at the very least inconvenient to the user.
  • vanilla - In information technology, vanilla (pronounced vah-NIHL-uh) is an adjective meaning plain or basic.
  • vaporware - Vaporware is software or hardware that is announced publicly and actively promoted by a vendor even though it does not yet exist.
  • varicode - Varicode is a method of binary character encoding in which the number of bits for each character is not fixed, but varies for each character depending on how often that character occurs in general usage.
  • vector - A vector is a quantity or phenomenon that has two independent properties: magnitude and direction.
  • vector graphics rendering (VML) - Vector graphics rendering, sometimes abbreviated VML, refers to scalable vector graphics (SVG) used in Web pages.
  • vectored interrupt - In a computer, a vectored interrupt is an I/O interrupt that tells the part of the computer that handles I/O interrupts at the hardware level that a request for attention from an I/O device has been received and and also identifies the device that sent the request.
  • vendor - A vendor is an individual or company that sells goods or services to somone else in the economic production chain.
  • Venn diagram - A Venn diagram is an illustration of the relationships between and among sets, groups of objects that share something in common.
  • vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) - A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is a specialized laser diode that promises to revolutionize fiber optic communications by improving efficiency and increasing data speed.
  • video card (graphics card) - A video adapter (alternate terms include graphics card, display adapter, video card, video board and almost any combination of the words in these terms) is an integrated circuit card in a computer or, in some cases, a monitor that provides digital-to-analog conversion, video RAM, and a video controller so that data can be sent to a computer's display.
  • Vint Cerf (Vinton Gray Cerf) - Vint Cerf (Vinton Gray Cerf) is an American computer scientist best known as an Internet pioneer.
  • virtual - In computing, virtual is a digitally replicated version of something real.
  • virtual commerce (vCommerce, v-commerce, or vCom) - Virtual commerce (sometimes known as vCommerce, v-commerce, or vCom) is a type of application, service, or product feature that helps enterprises implement strategies and design Web sites for e-commerce (the buying and selling of goods and services using the Internet).
  • virtual learning environment (VLE) or managed learning environment (MLE) - A virtual learning environment (VLE) is a set of teaching and learning tools designed to enhance a student's learning experience by including computers and the Internet in the learning process.
  • virtual reality - Virtual reality is an artificial environment that is created with software and presented to the user in such a way that the user suspends belief and accepts it as a real environment.
  • virtual reality sickness (VR motion sickness) - Virtual reality sickness (VR motion sickness) is the physical discomfort that occurs when an end user's brain receives conflicting signals about self-movement in a digital environment.
  • viseme - A viseme is a generic facial image that can be used to describe a particular sound.
  • vocoder - A vocoder is an audio processor that captures the characteristic elements of an an audio signal and then uses this characteristic signal to affect other audio signals.
  • voice morphing - Voice morphing is the software-generated alteration of a person's natural voice.
  • volatile - In general, volatile (from the Latin "volatilis" meaning "to fly")is an adjective used to describe something unstable or changeable.
  • volatile memory - Volatile memory is computer storage that only maintains its data while the device is powered.
  • von Neumann bottleneck - The von Neumann bottleneck is a limitation on throughput caused by the standard personal computer architecture.
  • wall time (real-world time or wall-clock time) - Wall time, also called real-world time or wall-clock time, refers to elapsed time as determined by a chronometer such as a wristwatch or wall clock.
  • warchalking (war chalking) - Warchalking is a grass roots effort to create a standard iconography for public Wi-Fi access.
  • warez - Warez (pronounced as though spelled "wares" or possibly by some pronounced like the city of "Juarez") is a term used by software "pirates" to describe software that has been stripped of its copy-protection and made available on the Internet for downloading.
  • Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulation (WEEE) - Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulation (WEEE) is a directive in the European Union that designates safe and responsible collection, recycling and recovery procedures for all types of electronic waste.
  • Wave file - A Wave file is an audio file format, created by Microsoft, that has become a standard PC audio file format for everything from system and game sounds to CD-quality audio.
  • wave number - The term wave number refers to the number of complete wave cycles of an electromagnetic field (EM field) that exist in one meter (1 m) of linear space.
  • waving a dead chicken - Waving a dead chicken is a slang expression for an effort to solve a problem even when the effort is expected to be futile.
  • Web application (Web app) - A Web application (Web app) is an application program that is stored on a remote server and delivered over the Internet through a browser interface.
  • Web ring (Webring) - A Web ring (or Webring) is a way of interlinking related Web sites so that you can visit each site one after the other, eventually (if you keep going) returning to the first Web site.
  • Web year - A Web year is the length of time it takes for Internet technology to evolve as much as technology in another environment might evolve in a calendar year.
  • Web-Braille - Web-Braille is a delivery system that allows content to be read on a Braille display or transmitted to a Braille embosser.
  • Webification - Webification (sometimes seen with a lower case w) is the act of converting content from its original format into a format capable of being displayed on the World Wide Web.
  • Webify - The act of converting content from its original format into a format capable of being displayed on the World Wide Web.
  • webmaster - A webmaster is a person who creates and manages the content and organization of a website, manages the computer server and technical programming aspects of a website or does both.
  • WebTV - WebTV, now owned by Microsoft, was one of the first entries in the much publicized convergence of the World Wide Web with television.
  • weenie - On bullet board systems (BBS) and in Internet chatting groups, a weenie is an avid but immature participant who disrupts orderly conversation.
  • Werner Heisenberg - Werner Heisenberg (1901 - 1976), one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, is best known for his contributions to quantum mechanics, specifically for the uncertainty principle in quantum theory.
  • white paper - A white paper is an article that states an organization's position or philosophy about a social, political, or other subject, or a not-too-detailed technical explanation of an architecture, framework, or product technology.
  • white space device (WSD) - A white space device is an FCC-certified wireless device that can be used without an exclusive broadcast license in the RF spectrum below 700 MHz: underutilized, unlicensed portions of the spectrum called white space.
  • wipe - Wipe, in a computing context, means to erase all data on a hard drive to render it unreadable.
  • word - In computer architecture, a word is a unit of data of a defined bitlength that can be addressed and moved between storageand the computer processor.
  • workaround - A workaround is a method, sometimes used temporarily, for achieving a task or goal when the usual or planned method isn't working.
  • workload - In computing, the workload is the amount of processing that the computer has been given to do at a given time.
  • WPAN (wireless personal area network) - A WPAN (wireless personal area network) is a personal area network - a network for interconnecting devices centered around an individual person's workspace - in which the connections are wireless.
  • X dimension - In barcode technology, the X dimension is the narrowest part of a barcode's symbology.
  • X-engineering (cross-engineering) - X-engineering (sometimes called cross-engineering) is a collaborative and process-oriented approach to change management in the business world.
  • x86-64 - x86-64 is a 64-bit processing technology developed by AMD that debuted with the Opteron and Athlon 64 processor.
  • Y2K (year 2000) - Y2K is an abbreviation for "year 2000.
  • yottabyte (YB) - A yottabyte is a measure of theoretical storage capacity and is 2 to the 80th power bytes, or, in decimal, approximately 1,000 zettabytes, a trillion terabytes or a million trillion megabytes.
  • zap - In general usage, zap (noun) is spiciness, kick, or a powerful force.
  • zero (0) - In mathematics, zero, symbolized by the numeric character 0, is both a place indicator meaning "no units of this multiple" in a positional number system, and an independent value midway between +1 and -1.
  • zettabyte - A zettabyte is a unit of measurement used by technology professionals and the general public to describe a computer or other device's storage capacity.
  • Zettabyte Era - The Zettabyte Era is the current age in terms of digital data.
  • zettaflops - Zettaflop or (ZFlop) is a processing power of one septillion floating point operations per second (FLOPS).
  • zoetrope - The zoetrope (pronounced ZOH-uh-trohp), invented in 1834 by William George Horner, was an early form of motion picture projector that consisted of a drum containing a set of still images, that was turned in a circular fashion in order to create the illusion of motion.
  • Zulu (Zulu time) - Zulu (short for "Zulu time") is used in the military and in navigation generally as a term for Universal Coordinated Time (UCT), sometimes called Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) or Coordinated Universal Time (but abbreviated UTC), and formerly called Greenwich Mean Time.

SearchCompliance

  • risk assessment

    Risk assessment is the identification of hazards that could negatively impact an organization's ability to conduct business.

  • PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard)

    The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a widely accepted set of policies and procedures intended to ...

  • risk management

    Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

SearchSecurity

  • tokenization

    Tokenization is the process of replacing sensitive data with unique identification symbols that retain all the essential ...

  • incident response

    Incident response is an organized approach to addressing and managing the aftermath of a security breach or cyberattack, also ...

  • Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA)

    The Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) is United States legislation that defines a framework of guidelines and ...

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SearchDisasterRecovery

  • call tree

    A call tree is a layered hierarchical communication model that is used to notify specific individuals of an event and coordinate ...

  • Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS)

    Disaster recovery as a service (DRaaS) is the replication and hosting of physical or virtual servers by a third party to provide ...

  • cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR)

    Cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR) is a combination of strategies and services intended to back up data, applications and other ...

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