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Computing fundamentals

Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

BRO - CON

  • broadband - In general, broadband refers to telecommunication in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information.
  • broadcast - In general, to broadcast (verb) is to cast or throw forth something in all directions at the same time.
  • broker - A broker is someone or something that acts as an intermediary third party, managing transactions between two other entities.
  • bubble help - In a computer user interface, bubble help is text information that is displayed in a small balloon or box when a computer user moves the mouse cursor over a selected user interface element, such as the iconic items in a task bar.
  • buffer - A buffer is a data area shared by hardware devices or program processes that operate at different speeds or with different sets of priorities.
  • burn - Burn is a colloquial term meaning to write content to a CD, DVD, or other recordable disc.
  • burn rate - In venture investing and new company development, the burn rate is the rate at which a new company is spending its capital while waiting for profitable operation.
  • burst - Burst is a term used in a number of information technology contexts to mean a specific amount of data sent or received in one intermittent operation.
  • burst SRAM (SynchBurst SRAM) - Burst SRAM is used as the external L1 and L2 memory for the Pentium microprocessor chipset.
  • business impact analysis (BIA) - Business impact analysis (BIA) is a systematic process to determine and evaluate the potential effects of an interruption to critical business operations as a result of a disaster, accident or emergency.
  • business process - A business process is an activity or set of activities that can accomplish a specific organizational goal.
  • business process outsourcing (BPO) - Business process outsourcing, or BPO, is a business practice in which one organization hires another company to perform a task (i.
  • business process reengineering (BPR) - Business process reengineering (BPR) is an approach to change management in which the related tasks required to obtain a specific business outcome are radically redesigned.
  • business service provider (BSP) - A business service provider (BSP) is a company that rents third-party software application packages to their customers.
  • butterfly effect - The butterfly effect is the notion that a small initial factor may have a part in determining greater and unpredictable changes in large, complex systems.
  • BYOT (bring your own technology) - Bring your own technology (BYOT) is a policy that allows employees or students to use their own personal electronic devices at work or scho.
  • byte - In most computer systems, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits long.
  • bytecode - Bytecode is computer object code that is processed by a program, usually referred to as a virtual machine, rather than by the "real" computer machine, the hardware processor.
  • cache (computing) - A cache -- pronounced CASH -- is hardware or software that is used to store something, usually data, temporarily in a computing environment.
  • cache memory - Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular random access memory (RAM).
  • caching - Caching (pronounced “cashing”) is the process of storing data in a cache.
  • calculator - A calculator is a device that performs arithmetic operations on numbers.
  • calibration - In information technology and other fields, calibration is the setting or correcting of a measuring device or base level, usually by adjusting it to match or conform to a dependably known and unvarying measure.
  • calm technology - In computing, calm technology aims to reduce the "excitement" of information overload by letting the user select what information is at the center of their attention and what information is peripheral.
  • campus - In telecommunications, a campus is a physically contiguous association of locations such as several adjacent office buildings.
  • canonical - In programming, canonical means "according to the rules.
  • capacity planning - In information technology, capacity planning is the science and art of estimating the space, computer hardware, software and connection infrastructure resources that will be needed over some future period of time.
  • cardinality - The term cardinality refers to the number of cardinal (basic) members in a set.
  • Cartesian coordinates (rectangular coordinates) - Cartesian coordinates, also called rectangular coordinates, provide a method of rendering graphs and indicating the positions of points on a two-dimensional (2D) surface or in three-dimensional (3D) space.
  • catalog - In computing, a catalog is a directory of information about data sets, files, or a database.
  • cathode - A cathode is the metallic electrode through which current flows out in a polarized electrical device.
  • cellspace - According to writer David S.
  • cellular automaton (CA) - A cellular automaton (CA) is a collection of cells arranged in a grid, such that each cell changes state as a function of time according to a defined set of rules that includes the states of neighboring cells.
  • CEO and other C-suite executive titles - The CEO, or chief executive officer, is part of the C-suite.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • change management - Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with the transition or transformation of an organization's goals, processes or technologies.
  • chaos theory - Chaos theory is the study of nonlinear dynamics, in which seemingly random events are actually predictable from simple deterministic equations.
  • character - In information technology, a character is a printable symbol having phonetic or pictographic meaning and usually forming part of a word of text, depicting a numeral, or expressing grammatical punctuation.
  • Charles Babbage - If John von Neumann is the father of modern computing, then the English mathematician and inventor Charles Babbage can be considered its grandfather.
  • cheat sheet - A cheat sheet is a piece of paper with information written down on it that an unethical person might create if they weren't prepared for a test.
  • check digit (checksum character) - A check digit, also known as a checksum character, is the number located on the far right side of a bar code.
  • checksum - A checksum is a value that represents the number of bits in a transmission message and is used by IT professionals to detect high-level errors within data transmissions.
  • CIO (Chief Information Officer) - A chief information officer (CIO) is the corporate executive in charge of information technology (IT) strategy and implementation.
  • ciphertext - Ciphertext is encrypted text.
  • citation style guides - A number of generally recognized authorities and organizations offer guidance about how to cite sources when writing an academic or journalistic paper.
  • classical computing - Classical computing is the typical type of binary data processing in traditional types of processors including x86, ARM and other bit based computer systems.
  • Claude Shannon - Claude Elwood Shannon, a mathematician born in Gaylord, Michigan (U.
  • clean electricity - Clean electricity is electrical power that is free from voltage spikes and drops.
  • clean install - A clean install is a software installation in which any previous version is removed.
  • clean room - A clean room (or cleanroom) is an enclosed space in which airborne particulates, contaminants, and pollutants are kept within strict limits.
  • click - In Web advertising, a click is an instance of a user pressing down (clicking) on a mouse button in an ad space.
  • client - A client is the requesting program or user in a client/server relationship.
  • client-server model (client-server architecture) - Client-server is a relationship in which one program (the client) requests a service or resource from another program (the server).
  • clipboard - A clipboard is a temporary storage area for data that the user wants to copy from one place to another.
  • clock cycle - In a computer, the clock cycle is the time between two adjacent pulses of the oscillator that sets the tempo of the computer processor.
  • clock speed - In a computer, clock speed refers to the number of pulses per second generated by an oscillator that sets the tempo for the processor.
  • Clonezilla - Clonezilla is a free open source disk cloning application based on Debian.
  • closed captions - Closed captions are a text version of the spoken part of a television, movie, or computer presentation.
  • cluster computing - In computers, clustering is the use of multiple computers, typically PCs or UNIX workstations, multiple storage devices, and redundant interconnections, to form what appears to users as a single highly available system.
  • CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) - CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is the semiconductor technology used in the transistors that are manufactured into most of today's computer microchips.
  • CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, key) - CMYK is a scheme for combining primary pigments.
  • co-branding - Co-branding is the practice of using multiple brand names together on a single product or service.
  • code review - Code review is a phase in the computer program development process in which the authors of code, peer reviewers, and perhaps quality assurance reviewers get together to review code, line by line.
  • codebase (code base) - A codebase (sometimes spelled as two words, code base) is the complete body of source code for a given software program or application.
  • coefficient - In a mathematical equation, a coefficient is a constant by which a variable is multiplied.
  • cold backup (offline backup) - Cold backups are ideal for disaster recovery because they protect important data.
  • cold buffer - In data processing, a cold buffer is a buffer (segment of computer memory reserved for temporary data storage) that hasn't been used or accessed recently.
  • cold fusion - Not to be confused with ColdFusion, a software product, cold fusion is a hypothetical process in which hydrogen fusion supposedly occurs at room temperature.
  • cold/warm/hot server - In the backup and recovery of a computer server, a cold server is a backup server whose purpose is solely to be there in case the main server is lost.
  • collaborative robot (cobot) - A collaborative robot, also known as a cobot, is a robot that is capable of learning multiple tasks so it can assist human beings.
  • combinatorial logic - Combinatorial logic is a concept in which two or more input states define one or more output states, where the resulting state or states are related by defined rules that are independent of previous states.
  • community computing - Community computing is a resource-sharing model in which users are provided with free or low-cost computer and Internet access.
  • community technology center (CTC) - A community technology center (CTC) is a facility that provides free or low-cost computer access, and sometimes training, to people lacking the resources to have a computer in their home.
  • compaction - In a data center, compaction is the reduction or consolidation of hardware to make better use of physical floor space.
  • complex system - A complex system is an arrangement of a great number of related but various elements with intricate interconnections.
  • compound - In chemistry, a compound is a substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical elements, in such a way that the atoms of the different elements are held together by chemical bonds that are difficult to break.
  • compute-intensive - Compute-intensive is a term that applies to any computer application that demands a lot of computation, such as meteorology programs and other scientific applications.
  • computer - A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form of digitalized data) and manipulates it for some result based on a program, software, or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed.
  • computer forensics (cyber forensics) - Computer forensics is the application of investigation and analysis techniques to gather and preserve evidence from a particular computing device in a way that is suitable for presentation in a court of law.
  • computer hardware - Computer hardware is a collective term used to describe any of the physical components of an analog or digital computer.
  • computer hardware chart - This handy computer hardware quick look-up was designed by Sonic84.
  • Computer History Museum - The Computer History Museum is an institution dedicated to the preservation of artifacts and information related to the development of computers.
  • computer operator - A computer operator is the person responsible for monitoring and controlling computer systems especially mainframe computer systems in a company or organization.
  • computer pidgin language (CPL) - Computer pidgin language (CPL) is an artificial language designed to facilitate speech recognition between humans and computers.
  • computer room air conditioning unit (CRAC) - A computer room air conditioning (CRAC) unit is a device that monitors and maintains the temperature, air distribution and humidity in a network room or data center.
  • computer-based training (CBT) - Computer-based training (CBT) is any course of instruction whose primary means of delivery is a computer.
  • computer-intensive - Computer-intensive is a term that applies to any computing application that requires the resources of a lot of computers, such as grid computing.

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