Browse Definitions :

Computing fundamentals

Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

BUS - CRO

  • business impact analysis (BIA) - Business impact analysis (BIA) is a systematic process to determine and evaluate the potential effects of an interruption to critical business operations as a result of a disaster, accident or emergency.
  • business process - A business process is an activity or set of activities that can accomplish a specific organizational goal.
  • business process outsourcing (BPO) - Business process outsourcing, or BPO, is a business practice in which one organization hires another company to perform a process task that the hiring organization requires for its own business to operate successfully.
  • business process reengineering (BPR) - Business process reengineering (BPR) is an approach to change management in which the related tasks required to obtain a specific business outcome are radically redesigned.
  • business service provider (BSP) - A business service provider (BSP) is a company that rents third-party software application packages to their customers.
  • butterfly effect - The butterfly effect is the notion that a small initial factor may have a part in determining greater and unpredictable changes in large, complex systems.
  • BYOT (bring your own technology) - Bring your own technology (BYOT) is a policy that allows employees or students to use their own personal electronic devices at work or scho.
  • byte - In most computer systems, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits long.
  • bytecode - Bytecode is computer object code that is processed by a program, usually referred to as a virtual machine, rather than by the "real" computer machine, the hardware processor.
  • cache (computing) - A cache -- pronounced CASH -- is hardware or software that is used to store something, usually data, temporarily in a computing environment.
  • cache memory - Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular random access memory (RAM).
  • caching - Caching (pronounced “cashing”) is the process of storing data in a cache.
  • calculator - A calculator is a device that performs arithmetic operations on numbers.
  • calibration - In information technology and other fields, calibration is the setting or correcting of a measuring device or base level, usually by adjusting it to match or conform to a dependably known and unvarying measure.
  • calm technology - In computing, calm technology aims to reduce the "excitement" of information overload by letting the user select what information is at the center of their attention and what information is peripheral.
  • campus - In telecommunications, a campus is a physically contiguous association of locations such as several adjacent office buildings.
  • canonical - In programming, canonical means "according to the rules.
  • capacity planning - In information technology, capacity planning is the science and art of estimating the space, computer hardware, software and connection infrastructure resources that will be needed over some future period of time.
  • cardinality - The term cardinality refers to the number of cardinal (basic) members in a set.
  • Cartesian coordinates (rectangular coordinates) - Cartesian coordinates, also called rectangular coordinates, provide a method of rendering graphs and indicating the positions of points on a two-dimensional (2D) surface or in three-dimensional (3D) space.
  • catalog - In computing, a catalog is a directory of information about data sets, files, or a database.
  • cathode - A cathode is the metallic electrode through which current flows out in a polarized electrical device.
  • cellular automaton (CA) - A cellular automaton (CA) is a collection of cells arranged in a grid, such that each cell changes state as a function of time according to a defined set of rules that includes the states of neighboring cells.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • change management - Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with the transition or transformation of an organization's goals, processes or technologies.
  • chaos theory - Chaos theory is the study of nonlinear dynamics, in which seemingly random events are actually predictable from simple deterministic equations.
  • character - In information technology, a character is a printable symbol having phonetic or pictographic meaning and usually forming part of a word of text, depicting a numeral, or expressing grammatical punctuation.
  • Charles Babbage - If John von Neumann is the father of modern computing, then the English mathematician and inventor Charles Babbage can be considered its grandfather.
  • cheat sheet - A cheat sheet is a piece of paper with information written down on it that an unethical person might create if they weren't prepared for a test.
  • check digit (checksum character) - A check digit, also known as a checksum character, is the number located on the far right side of a bar code.
  • checksum - A checksum is a value that represents the number of bits in a transmission message and is used by IT professionals to detect high-level errors within data transmissions.
  • CIO (Chief Information Officer) - A chief information officer (CIO) is the corporate executive in charge of information technology (IT) strategy and implementation.
  • ciphertext - Ciphertext is encrypted text transformed from plaintext using an encryption algorithm.
  • classical computing - Classical computing is the typical type of binary data processing in traditional types of processors including x86, ARM and other bit based computer systems.
  • Claude Shannon - Claude Elwood Shannon, a mathematician born in Gaylord, Michigan (U.
  • clean electricity - Clean electricity is electrical power that is free from voltage spikes and drops.
  • clean install - A clean install is a software installation in which any previous version is removed.
  • clean room - A clean room (or cleanroom) is an enclosed space in which airborne particulates, contaminants, and pollutants are kept within strict limits.
  • click - In Web advertising, a click is an instance of a user pressing down (clicking) on a mouse button in an ad space.
  • client - A client is the requesting program or user in a client/server relationship.
  • client-server model (client-server architecture) - Client-server is a relationship in which one program (the client) requests a service or resource from another program (the server).
  • clipboard - A clipboard is a temporary storage area for data that the user wants to copy from one place to another.
  • clock cycle - In a computer, the clock cycle is the time between two adjacent pulses of the oscillator that sets the tempo of the computer processor.
  • clock speed - In a computer, clock speed refers to the number of pulses per second generated by an oscillator that sets the tempo for the processor.
  • Clonezilla - Clonezilla is a free open source disk cloning application based on Debian.
  • closed captions - Closed captions are a text version of the spoken part of a television, movie, or computer presentation.
  • CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) - CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is the semiconductor technology used in the transistors that are manufactured into most of today's computer microchips.
  • CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, key) - CMYK is a scheme for combining primary pigments.
  • co-branding - Co-branding is the practice of using multiple brand names together on a single product or service.
  • code review - Code review is a phase in the computer program development process in which the authors of code, peer reviewers, and perhaps quality assurance reviewers get together to review code, line by line.
  • codebase (code base) - A codebase (sometimes spelled as two words, code base) is the complete body of source code for a given software program or application.
  • coefficient - In a mathematical equation, a coefficient is a constant by which a variable is multiplied.
  • cold backup (offline backup) - Cold backups are ideal for disaster recovery because they protect important data.
  • cold buffer - In data processing, a cold buffer is a buffer (segment of computer memory reserved for temporary data storage) that hasn't been used or accessed recently.
  • cold fusion - Not to be confused with ColdFusion, a software product, cold fusion is a hypothetical process in which hydrogen fusion supposedly occurs at room temperature.
  • cold/warm/hot server - In the backup and recovery of a computer server, a cold server is a backup server whose purpose is solely to be there in case the main server is lost.
  • collaborative robot (cobot) - A collaborative robot, also known as a cobot, is a robot that is capable of learning multiple tasks so it can assist human beings.
  • combinatorial logic - Combinatorial logic is a concept in which two or more input states define one or more output states, where the resulting state or states are related by defined rules that are independent of previous states.
  • community computing - Community computing is a resource-sharing model in which users are provided with free or low-cost computer and Internet access.
  • community technology center (CTC) - A community technology center (CTC) is a facility that provides free or low-cost computer access, and sometimes training, to people lacking the resources to have a computer in their home.
  • compaction - In a data center, compaction is the reduction or consolidation of hardware to make better use of physical floor space.
  • complex system - A complex system is an arrangement of a great number of related but various elements with intricate interconnections.
  • compound - In chemistry, a compound is a substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical elements, in such a way that the atoms of the different elements are held together by chemical bonds that are difficult to break.
  • compute-intensive - Compute-intensive is a term that applies to any computer application that demands a lot of computation, such as meteorology programs and other scientific applications.
  • computer - A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form of digitalized data) and manipulates it for some result based on a program, software, or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed.
  • computer forensics (cyber forensics) - Computer forensics is the application of investigation and analysis techniques to gather and preserve evidence from a particular computing device in a way that is suitable for presentation in a court of law.
  • computer hardware - Computer hardware is a collective term used to describe any of the physical components of an analog or digital computer.
  • computer hardware chart - This handy computer hardware quick look-up was designed by Sonic84.
  • Computer History Museum - The Computer History Museum is an institution dedicated to the preservation of artifacts and information related to the development of computers.
  • computer operator - A computer operator is the person responsible for monitoring and controlling computer systems especially mainframe computer systems in a company or organization.
  • computer pidgin language (CPL) - Computer pidgin language (CPL) is an artificial language designed to facilitate speech recognition between humans and computers.
  • computer room air conditioning unit (CRAC) - A computer room air conditioning (CRAC) unit is a device that monitors and maintains the temperature, air distribution and humidity in a network room or data center.
  • computer-based training (CBT) - Computer-based training (CBT) is any course of instruction whose primary means of delivery is a computer.
  • computer-intensive - Computer-intensive is a term that applies to any computing application that requires the resources of a lot of computers, such as grid computing.
  • concatenation (concatenate, concatenating) - Concatenation (from Latin concatenare, to link together) is taking two or more separately located things and placing them side-by-side next to each other so that they can now be treated as one thing.
  • concurrent processing - Concurrent processing is a computing model in which multiple processors execute instructions simultaneously for better performance.
  • configuration - Generally, a configuration is the arrangement - or the process of making the arrangement - of the parts that make up a whole.
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • connectionless - In telecommunication, connectionless describes communication between two network end points in which a message can be sent from one end point to another without prior arrangement.
  • conservation of angular momentum - Conservation of angular momentum is a physical property of a spinning system such that its spin remains constant unless it is acted upon by an external torque; put another way, the speed of rotation is constant as long as net torque is zero.
  • contact center - A contact center -- also referred to as a customer interaction center or e-contact center -- is a central point from which all customer interactions across various channels are managed.
  • container (disambiguation) - This page explains how the term container is used in software development, storage, data center management and mobile device management.
  • content - Many people agree that on the World Wide Web, "content is King.
  • content aggregator - A content aggregator is an individual or organization that gathers Web content (and/or sometimes applications) from different online sources for reuse or resale.
  • content filtering (information filtering) - On the Internet, content filtering (also known as information filtering) is the use of a program to screen and exclude from access or availability Web pages or e-mail that is deemed objectionable.
  • content-addressed storage (CAS) - Content-addressed storage (CAS) is a method of providing fast access to fixed content (data that is not expected to be updated) by assigning it a permanent place on disk.
  • contiguous - Contiguous describes two or more objects that are adjacent to each other.
  • continuation symbol - The continuation symbol is used to indicate extension of a sequence or set, or to imply the existence of intermediate elements in a sequence or set.
  • continuous data protection (storage convergence) - Continuous data protection (CDP), also called continuous backup, is a storage system in which all the data in an enterprise is backed up whenever any change is made.
  • controller - A controller, in a computing context, is a hardware device or a software program that manages or directs the flow of data between two entities.
  • cool - On the World Wide Web, cool has a number of meanings, including:EngagingLaid-back, understatedIn tune with the latest thinking, even a little ahead of itTechnically or graphically impressiveThe term "cool" seems to have originated among jazz musicians in the 1940s.
  • Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, GMT, CUT) - Coordinated Universal Time (abbreviated as UTC, and therefore often spelled out as Universal Time Coordinated and sometimes as Universal Coordinated Time) is the standard time common to every place in the world.
  • coordinates - Coordinates are distances or angles, represented by numbers, that uniquely identify points on surfaces of two dimensions (2D) or in space of three dimensions (3D).
  • coprocessor - A coprocessor is a special set of circuits in a microprocessor chip that is designed to manipulate numbers or perform some other specialized function more quickly than the basic microprocessor circuits could perform the same task.
  • copyleft - Copyleft is the idea and the specific stipulation when distributing software that the user will be able to copy it freely, examine and modify the source code, and redistribute the software to others (free or priced) as long as the redistributed software is also passed along with the copyleft stipulation.
  • corollary - A corollary is a statement that follows naturally from some other statement that has either been proven or is generally accepted as true.
  • COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS - COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS are abbreviations that describe pre-packaged software or hardware purchase alternatives.
  • counting board - Historically, a counting board was a portable flat surface, usually of wood or stone, on which a user placed objects such as pebbles or beads for the purpose of maintaining a count of something.
  • coupling - Coupling is the act of joining two things together.
  • courseware - Courseware is educational material intended as kits for teachers or trainers or as tutorials for students, usually packaged for use with a computer.

-ADS BY GOOGLE

SearchCompliance

  • risk management

    Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

  • compliance framework

    A compliance framework is a structured set of guidelines that details an organization's processes for maintaining accordance with...

  • regulatory compliance

    Regulatory compliance is an organization's adherence to laws, regulations, guidelines and specifications relevant to its business...

SearchSecurity

  • DNS over HTTPS (DoH)

    DNS over HTTPS (DoH) is a relatively new protocol that encrypts domain name system traffic by passing DNS queries through a ...

  • integrated risk management (IRM)

    Integrated risk management (IRM) is an approach to risk management that uses a set of practices and processes to improve an ...

  • MITRE ATT&CK framework

    The MITRE ATT&CK (pronounced 'miter attack') framework is a free, globally accessible service that provides comprehensive and ...

SearchHealthIT

  • telemedicine (telehealth)

    Telemedicine is the remote delivery of healthcare services, such as health assessments or consultations, over the ...

  • Project Nightingale

    Project Nightingale is a controversial partnership between Google and Ascension, the second largest health system in the United ...

  • medical practice management (MPM) software

    Medical practice management (MPM) software is a collection of computerized services used by healthcare professionals and ...

SearchDisasterRecovery

SearchStorage

  • M.2 SSD

    An M.2 SSD is a solid-state drive (SSD) that conforms to a computer industry specification and is used in internally mounted ...

  • kilobyte (KB or Kbyte)

    A kilobyte (KB or Kbyte) is a unit of measurement for computer memory or data storage used by mathematics and computer science ...

  • virtual memory

    Virtual memory is a memory management capability of an operating system (OS) that uses hardware and software to allow a computer ...

Close