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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

CLI - DIS

  • client - A client is a hardware or software device that requests access to a service that is typically made available by a server.
  • client-server model (client-server architecture) - Client-server is a relationship in which one program (the client) requests a service or resource from another program (the server).
  • clipboard - A clipboard is a temporary storage area for data that the user wants to copy from one place to another.
  • clock speed - In a computer, clock speed refers to the number of pulses per second generated by an oscillator that sets the tempo for the processor.
  • Clonezilla - Clonezilla is a free open source disk cloning application based on Debian.
  • closed captions - Closed captions are a text version of the spoken part of a television, movie, or computer presentation.
  • CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) - CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is the semiconductor technology used in the transistors that are manufactured into most of today's computer microchips.
  • CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, key) - CMYK is a scheme for combining primary pigments.
  • code review - Code review is a phase in the computer program development process in which the authors of code, peer reviewers, and perhaps quality assurance reviewers get together to review code, line by line.
  • codebase (code base) - A codebase (sometimes spelled as two words, code base) is the complete body of source code for a given software program or application.
  • coefficient - In a mathematical equation, a coefficient is a constant by which a variable is multiplied.
  • cold backup (offline backup) - A cold backup, also called an offline backup, is a database backup during which the database is offline and not accessible to update.
  • collaborative robot (cobot) - A collaborative robot, also known as a cobot, is a robot that is capable of learning multiple tasks so it can assist human beings.
  • community technology center (CTC) - A community technology center (CTC) is a facility that provides free or low-cost computer access, and sometimes training, to people lacking the resources to have a computer in their home.
  • compaction - In a data center, compaction is the reduction or consolidation of hardware to make better use of physical floor space.
  • complex system - A complex system is an arrangement of a great number of related but various elements with intricate interconnections.
  • compound - In chemistry, a compound is a substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical elements, in such a way that the atoms of the different elements are held together by chemical bonds that are difficult to break.
  • compute-intensive - Compute-intensive is a term that applies to any computer application that demands a lot of computation, such as meteorology programs and other scientific applications.
  • computer - A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form of digitalized data) and manipulates it for some result based on a program, software, or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed.
  • computer forensics (cyber forensics) - Computer forensics is the application of investigation and analysis techniques to gather and preserve evidence from a particular computing device in a way that is suitable for presentation in a court of law.
  • computer hardware - Computer hardware is a collective term used to describe any of the physical components of an analog or digital computer.
  • computer operator - A computer operator is the person responsible for monitoring and controlling computer systems especially mainframe computer systems in a company or organization.
  • computer room air conditioning unit (CRAC) - A computer room air conditioning (CRAC) unit is a device that monitors and maintains the temperature, air distribution and humidity in a network room or data center.
  • computer-based training (CBT) - Computer-based training (CBT) is any course of instruction whose primary means of delivery is a computer.
  • concatenation (concatenate, concatenating) - Concatenation (from Latin concatenare, to link together) is taking two or more separately located things and placing them side-by-side next to each other so that they can now be treated as one thing.
  • concurrent processing - Concurrent processing is a computing model in which multiple processors execute instructions simultaneously for better performance.
  • configuration - Generally, a configuration is the arrangement - or the process of making the arrangement - of the parts that make up a whole.
  • connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
  • connectionless - In telecommunications, connectionless describes communication between two network endpoints in which a message can be sent from one endpoint to another without prior arrangement.
  • conservation of angular momentum - Conservation of angular momentum is a physical property of a spinning system such that its spin remains constant unless it is acted upon by an external torque; put another way, the speed of rotation is constant as long as net torque is zero.
  • container (disambiguation) - This page explains how the term container is used in software development, storage, data center management and mobile device management.
  • content - Many people agree that on the World Wide Web, "content is King.
  • content aggregator - A content aggregator is an individual or organization that gathers Web content (and/or sometimes applications) from different online sources for reuse or resale.
  • content filtering - On the internet, content filtering -- also known as information filtering -- is the use of a program to screen and exclude from access or availability webpages or email that is deemed objectionable.
  • content-addressed storage (CAS) - Content-addressed storage (CAS) is a method of providing fast access to fixed content (data that is not expected to be updated) by assigning it a permanent place on disk.
  • contiguous - Contiguous describes two or more objects that are adjacent to each other.
  • continuation symbol - The continuation symbol is used to indicate extension of a sequence or set, or to imply the existence of intermediate elements in a sequence or set.
  • continuous data protection - Continuous data protection (CDP), also known as continuous backup, is a backup and recovery storage system in which all the data in an enterprise is backed up whenever any change is made.
  • controller - A controller, in a computing context, is a hardware device or a software program that manages or directs the flow of data between two entities.
  • Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, GMT, CUT) - Coordinated Universal Time (abbreviated as UTC, and therefore often spelled out as Universal Time Coordinated and sometimes as Universal Coordinated Time) is the standard time common to every place in the world.
  • coordinates - Coordinates are distances or angles, represented by numbers, that uniquely identify points on surfaces of two dimensions (2D) or in space of three dimensions (3D).
  • coprocessor - A coprocessor is a special set of circuits in a microprocessor chip that is designed to manipulate numbers or perform some other specialized function more quickly than the basic microprocessor circuits could perform the same task.
  • copyleft - Copyleft is the idea and the specific stipulation when distributing software that the user will be able to copy it freely, examine and modify the source code, and redistribute the software to others (free or priced) as long as the redistributed software is also passed along with the copyleft stipulation.
  • corollary - A corollary is a statement that follows naturally from some other statement that has either been proven or is generally accepted as true.
  • COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS - COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS are abbreviations that describe pre-packaged software or hardware purchase alternatives.
  • coupling - Coupling is the act of joining two things together.
  • courseware - Courseware is educational material intended as kits for teachers or trainers or as tutorials for students, usually packaged for use with a computer.
  • Cray Inc. - Cray Inc. is a pioneering computer company that was founded as Cray Research in 1972 by Seymour Cray, who is known as the father of the supercomputer.
  • cryptographic nonce - A nonce is a random or semi-random number that is generated for a specific use.
  • cryptography - Cryptography is a method of protecting information and communications through the use of codes, so that only those for whom the information is intended can read and process it.
  • cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) - In information technology, cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to any of several physical problems that can result from improper or excessive use of a computer display or terminal.
  • cursor - A cursor is the position indicator on a computer display screen where a user can enter text.
  • customer data integration (CDI) - Customer data integration (CDI) is the process of defining, consolidating and managing customer information across an organization's business units and systems to achieve a "single version of the truth" for customer data.
  • customer lifecycle - In customer relationship management (CRM), customer lifecycle is a term used to describe the progression of steps a customer goes through when considering, purchasing, using and maintaining loyalty to a product or service.
  • cyber - Cyber is a prefix used to describe a person, thing, or idea as part of the computer and information age.
  • cybercafe - A cybercafe is a cafe, coffee or espresso shop, or similar food and/or beverage-serving place that has a number of personal computers connected to the Internet and available for use by customers.
  • cyberextortion - Cyberextortion is a crime involving an attack or threat of an attack coupled with a demand for money or some other response in return for stopping or remediating the attack.
  • cyberpunk - Cyberpunk is a sensibility or belief that a few outsiders, armed with their own individuality and technological capability, can fend off the tendencies of traditional institutions to use technology to control society.
  • cyberstalking - Cyberstalking is a crime in which someone harasses or stalks a victim using electronic or digital means, such as social media, email, instant messaging (IM) or messages posted to a discussion group or forum.
  • data - In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is efficient for movement or processing.
  • data center - A data center -- also known as a datacenter or data centre -- is a facility composed of networked computers, storage systems and computing infrastructure that businesses and other organizations use to organize, process, store and disseminate large amounts of data.
  • data classification - Data classification is the process of organizing data into categories that make it is easy to retrieve, sort and store for future use.
  • data compression - Data compression is a reduction in the number of bits needed to represent data.
  • data glove - A data glove is an interactive device, resembling a glove worn on the hand, which facilitates tactile sensing and fine-motion control in robotics and virtual reality.
  • data in motion - Data in motion, also referred to as data in transit or data in flight, is a process in which digital information is transported between locations either within or between computer systems.
  • data point - A data point is a discrete unit of information.
  • data restore - Data restore is the process of copying backup data from secondary storage and restoring it to its original location or a new location.
  • data set - A data set is a collection of data that contains individual data units organized (formatted) in a specific way and accessed by one or more specific access methods based on the data set organization and data structure.
  • data streaming - Data streaming is the continuous transfer of data at a steady, high-speed rate.
  • data structures - A data structure is a specialized format for organizing, processing, retrieving and storing data.
  • data transfer rate (DTR) - Data transfer rate (DTR) is the amount of digital data that is moved from one place to another in a given time.
  • de facto standard - A de facto standard is something that is used so widely that it is considered a standard for a given application although it has no official status.
  • de jure standard - A de jure standard is a technology, method or product that has been officially endorsed for a given application.
  • deadlock - A deadlock is a situation in which two computer programs sharing the same resource are effectively preventing each other from accessing the resource, resulting in both programs ceasing to function.
  • decimal - Decimal is a term that describes the base-10 number system, probably the most commonly used number system.
  • decoupled architecture - In general, a decoupled architecture is a framework for complex work that allows components to remain completely autonomous and unaware of each other.
  • default - In computer technology, a default (noun, pronounced dee-FAWLT) is a predesigned value or setting that is used by a computer program when a value or setting is not specified by the program user.
  • Department of Space (India) - The Department of Space (DoS) is a department created by the Indian government to manage their space program and oversee a number of related agencies and institutes.
  • deploy - To deploy (from the French deployer) is "to spread out or arrange strategically.
  • deprecated - In dictionaries, deprecated is a term used to indicate a pronunciation or usage that is acknowledged but discouraged.
  • desktop - A desktop is a computer display area that represents the kinds of objects one might find on top of a physical desk, including documents, phone books, telephones, reference sources, writing and drawing tools, and project folders.
  • desktop theme - A desktop theme is a customized graphical user interface (GUI) that replaces a computer's ordinary sounds, icons, pointer, wallpaper or screensaver with something designed to reflect the interests of the user.
  • device - In general, a device is a machine designed for a purpose.
  • digit - A digit is an element of a set that, taken as a whole, comprises a system of numeration.
  • digital accessibility - Digital accessibility is the ability of a website, mobile application or electronic document to be easily navigated and understood by a wide range of users, including those users who have visual, auditory, motor or cognitive disabilities.
  • digital audio broadcasting (DAB) - .
  • digital cash (eCash) - Digital cash is a system of purchasing cash credits in relatively small amounts, storing the credits in your computer, and then spending them when making electronic purchases over the Internet.
  • digital library - A digital library is a collection of documents in organized electronic form, available on the Internet or on CD-ROM (compact-disk read-only memory) disks.
  • digital modeling and fabrication - Digital modeling and fabrication is a design and production process that marries 3-D modeling or computing-aided design (CAD) software with additive and subtractive manufacturing.
  • digital printing - Digital printing describes the process of transferring a document on a personal computer or other digital storage device to a printing substrate by means of a device that accepts text and graphic output.
  • digitization - Digitization is the process of converting information into a digital format.
  • digizine - A digizine is a magazine that is delivered in digital (electronic form) on an electronic medium, such as a CD-ROM.
  • Direct Memory Access (DMA) - Direct Memory Access (DMA) is a capability provided by some computer bus architectures that allows data to be sent directly from an attached device (such as a disk drive) to the memory on the computer's motherboard.
  • direct-attached storage (DAS) - Direct-attached storage (DAS) is a type of storage that is attached directly to a computer without going through a network.
  • directory - A directory is, in general, an approach to organizing information, the most familiar example being a telephone directory.
SearchCompliance
  • ISO 31000 Risk Management

    The ISO 31000 Risk Management framework is an international standard that provides businesses with guidelines and principles for ...

  • pure risk

    Pure risk refers to risks that are beyond human control and result in a loss or no loss with no possibility of financial gain.

  • risk reporting

    Risk reporting is a method of identifying risks tied to or potentially impacting an organization's business processes.

SearchSecurity
  • Twofish

    Twofish is a symmetric-key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and variable-length key of size 128, 192 or 256 bits.

  • walled garden

    On the internet, a walled garden is an environment that controls the user's access to network-based content and services.

  • potentially unwanted program (PUP)

    A potentially unwanted program (PUP) is a program that may be unwanted, despite the possibility that users consented to download ...

SearchHealthIT
SearchDisasterRecovery
  • What is risk mitigation?

    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • fault-tolerant

    Fault-tolerant technology is a capability of a computer system, electronic system or network to deliver uninterrupted service, ...

  • synchronous replication

    Synchronous replication is the process of copying data over a storage area network, local area network or wide area network so ...

SearchStorage
  • Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA)

    Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is a technology that enables two networked computers to exchange data in main memory without ...

  • storage (computer storage)

    Data storage is the collective methods and technologies that capture and retain digital information on electromagnetic, optical ...

  • storage medium (storage media)

    In computers, a storage medium is a physical device that receives and retains electronic data for applications and users and ...

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