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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

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  • disaster recovery plan (DRP) - A disaster recovery plan (DRP) is a documented, structured approach that describes how an organization can quickly resume work after an unplanned incident.
  • display modes - The term display mode refers to the characteristics of a computer display, in particular the maximum number of colors and the maximum image resolution (in pixels horizontally by pixels vertically).
  • disruptive technology - A disruptive technology is one that displaces an established technology and shakes up the industry or a ground-breaking product that creates a completely new industry.
  • distance learning (e-learning) - Distance learning, sometimes called e-learning, is a formalized teaching and learning system specifically designed to be carried out remotely by using electronic communication.
  • distributed - Computing is said to be "distributed" when the computer programming and data that computers work on are spread out over more than one computer, usually over a network.
  • distribution - In marketing, distribution is the process of moving a product from its manufacturing source to its customers.
  • dithering - Dithering is the attempt by a computer program to approximate a color from a mixture of other colors when the required color is not available.
  • Do you speek Geek in the Summer? A Science Fiction Quiz - Netscape co-founder and now blogger extraordinaire Marc Andreessen took some time from his busy schedule as an entrepreneur with social networking startup Ning to name his favorite up-and-coming science fiction writers.
  • document - In general, a document (noun) is a record or the capturing of some event or thing so that the information will not be lost.
  • Document Type Definition (DTD) - A Document Type Definition (DTD) is a specific document defining and constraining definition or set of statements that follow the rules of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) or of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a subset of SGML.
  • documentation - In computer hardware and software product development, documentation is the information that describes the product to its users.
  • DOS (disk operating system) - A DOS, or disk operating system, is an operating system that runs from a disk drive.
  • dot product (scalar product) - The dot product, also called the scalar product, of two vectors is a number (scalar quantity) obtained by performing a specific operation on the vector components.
  • double factorial - The double factorial, symbolized by two exclamation marks (!!), is a quantity defined for all integers greater than or equal to -1.
  • double-slit experiment - The double-slit experiment is a nineteenth-century investigation into the properties of light that has since been found to demonstrate both the duality of photons and the concepts of superposition and quantum interference.
  • downsizing - In a business enterprise, downsizing is reducing the number of employees on the operating payroll.
  • drilldown - As currently used in information technology, to drill down (verb) is to focus in on something.
  • DRY principle - The DRY (don't repeat yourself) principle is a best practice in software development that recommends software engineers to do something once, and only once.
  • duty cycle - Duty cycle is the proportion of time during which a component, device, or system is operated.
  • dynamic and static - In general, dynamic means energetic, capable of action and/or change, or forceful, while static means stationary or fixed.
  • Earth's mean orbital speed - Earth's mean orbital speed is the average speed at which the Earth revolves around the sun.
  • Easter Egg - An Easter Egg is an unexpected surprise -- an undocumented procedure or unauthorized feature that's playful in nature or gives credit to the software developer or chip designer.
  • EDP (electronic data processing) - EDP (electronic data processing), an infrequently used term for what is today usually called "IS" (information services or systems) or "MIS" (management information services or systems), is the processing of data by a computer and its programs in an environment involving electronic communication.
  • edu - edu is one of the top-level domain names that can be used when choosing a domain name.
  • electronic discovery (e-discovery or ediscovery) - Electronic discovery -- also called e-discovery or ediscovery -- refers to any process of obtaining and exchanging evidence in a civil or criminal legal case.
  • electronic nose (e-nose) - An electronic nose (e-nose) is a device that identifies the specific components of an odor and analyzes its chemical makeup to identify it.
  • electronic resume - An electronic resume is a plain text (ASCII), PDF or HTML document that provides an employer with information regarding a job candidate's professional experience, education and job qualifications and is meant to be read by a computer program instead of by a human being.
  • elegant solution - The word elegant, in general, is an adjective meaning of fine quality.
  • email - Email (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication.
  • embedded system - An embedded system is a combination of computer hardware and software designed for a specific function.
  • encoding and decoding - Encoding and decoding are used in many forms of communications, including computing, data communications, programming, digital electronics and human communications.
  • end user - In information technology, the term end user is used to distinguish the person for whom a hardware or software product is designed from the developers, installers, and servicers of the product.
  • ENIAC - ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was the world’s first general-purpose computer.
  • enterprise architecture (EA) - An enterprise architecture (EA) is a conceptual blueprint that defines the structure and operation of an organization.
  • entity - In general, an entity (pronounced N-tih-tee) is an existing or real thing.
  • entrepreneur (entrepreneurship) - An entrepreneur is an individual who identifies a need in the marketplace and works to fulfill it.
  • enviromatics (environmental informatics) - Enviromatics is the use of computer modeling to analyze the Earth's environment and to predict future trends.
  • ergonomics - Ergonomics (from the Greek word "ergon" meaning work, and "nomoi" meaning natural laws), is the science of refining the design of products to optimize them for human use.
  • event - An event, in a computing context, is an action or occurrence that can be identified by a program and has significance for system hardware or software.
  • event handler - An event handler is a callback routine that operates asynchronously and handles inputs received into a program.
  • executable - In computers, to execute a program is to run the program in the computer, and, by implication, to start it to run.
  • EXL Service (EXL Services) - EXL Service, also known as EXL Services (NASDAQ: EXLS), provides business process outsourcing services to global corporations.
  • expanded memory - Expanded memory, also know as EMS (Expanded Memory Specification) was a method used to increase the 640KB upper limit of MS-DOS to 1MB using a gated memory riser card.
  • exponential function - An exponential function is a mathematical function of the following form:f (x) = a xwhere x is a variable, and a is a constant called the base of the function.
  • extended memory - Extended memory, also known as XMS (eXtended Memory Specification) is a technology that enables capacity above the 640KB standard MS-DOS limit of main memory.
  • extension - In computer operating systems, a file name extension is an optional addition to the file name in a suffix of the form ".
  • fabric - In information technology, fabric is a synonym for the words framework or platform.
  • factorial - The factorial, symbolized by an exclamation mark (!), is a quantity defined for all integers greater than or equal to 0.
  • fair use - Fair use is a legal concept that allows the reproduction of copyrighted material for certain purposes without obtaining permission and without paying a fee or royalty.
  • falsifiability - Falsifiability is the capacity for some proposition, statement, theory or hypothesis to be proven wrong.
  • fault-tolerant - Fault-tolerant technology is a capability of a computer system, electronic system or network to deliver uninterrupted service, despite one or more of its components failing.
  • FCC (Federal Communications Commission) - The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) is the government body responsible for maintaining laws, censorship and broadcast licensing pertaining to interstate and international communications in the United States.
  • FDISK - WARNING: Use caution when repartitioning a hard disk drive that contains data.
  • field - A field is an area in a fixed or known location in a unit of data such as a record, message header, or computer instruction that has a purpose and usually a fixed size.
  • file extension (file format) - In a computer, a file extension is the layout of a file -- in terms of how the data within the file is organized.
  • Finacle - Finacle is a core banking suite developed and marketed by India's Infosys Technologies.
  • finite state machine - Finite state machine (FSM) is a term used by programmers, mathematicians and other professionals to describe a mathematical model for any system with a limited number of conditional states of being.
  • first call resolution (FCR) - In customer relationship management (CRM), first call resolution is properly addressing the customer's need the first time they call, thereby eliminating the need for the customer to follow up with a second call.
  • first-order logic - First-order logic is symbolized reasoning in which each sentence, or statement, is broken down into a subject and a predicate.
  • flaming - On the Internet, flaming is giving someone a verbal lashing in public.
  • flash memory card - Flash storage memory cards use nonvolatile semiconductor memory to store pictures, audio and video data on portable and remote devices.
  • flash storage - Flash storage is any type of drive, repository or system that uses flash memory to keep data for an extended period of time.
  • FlashMob supercomputer - A FlashMob supercomputer is a group of computer enthusiasts who gather together in one physical location for a brief time period in order to function as a supercomputer and work on a single problem.
  • flat address space - 1. A flat address space is a set of addresses arranged on a single level.
  • flexography (surface printing) - Flexography, sometimes referred to as "surface printing," is a method commonly used for printing on packaging and other uneven surfaces.
  • FLOPS (floating-point operations per second) - In computers, FLOPS are floating-point operations per second.
  • flowchart - A flowchart is a formalized graphic representation of a logic sequence, work or manufacturing process, organization chart, or similar formalized structure.
  • folder - In the Windows, Macintosh, and some other operating system s, a folder is a named collection of related files that can be retrieved, moved, and otherwise manipulated as one entity.
  • footprint - In information technology, a footprint is the amount of space a particular unit of hardware or software occupies.
  • form factor - In computers, the form factor is the size, configuration, or physical arrangement of a computing device.
  • format - A format (noun, pronounced FOHR-mat ) is a preestablished layout for data.
  • Fourier analysis - Fourier analysis is a method of defining periodic waveforms in terms of trigonometric function s.
  • FQA (frequently questioned answers) - FQA (frequently questioned answers) are conventions or mandates scrutinized by individuals or groups who doubt their validity.
  • framework - In general, a framework is a real or conceptual structure intended to serve as a support or guide for the building of something that expands the structure into something useful.
  • framing effect - Framing effect is a form of cognitive bias which causes people to focus more on the positive or negative aspects of a decision, situation or information based on the way it is presented.
  • free software - Free software is software that can be freely used, modified, and redistributed with only one restriction: any redistributed version of the software must be distributed with the original terms of free use, modification, and distribution (known as copyleft).
  • freeware - Freeware (not to be confused with free software) is programming that is offered at no cost and is a common class of small applications available for downloading and use in most operating systems.
  • full-stack developer - A full-stack developer is a type of programmer that has a functional knowledge of all techniques, languages and systems engineering concepts required in software development.
  • function - In information technology, the term function (pronounced FUHNK-shun) has a number of meanings.
  • futzing (or futzing around) - Futzing or "futzing around" is unstructured, playful, often experimental interaction between a human being and a computer, product, or any technology, sometimes but not always with a productive purpose in mind.
  • fuzzy number - A fuzzy number is a quantity whose value is imprecise, rather than exact as is the case with "ordinary" (single-valued) numbers.
  • fuzzy search - A fuzzy search is a process that locates Web pages that are likely to be relevant to a search argument even when the argument does not exactly correspond to the desired information.
  • game theory - Game theory is the study of mathematical models of negotiation, conflict and cooperation between individuals, organizations and governments.
  • geek - In computers and the Internet, a geek is a person who is inordinately dedicated to and involved with technology.
  • general-purpose computer - A general-purpose computer is one that, given the appropriate application and required time, should be able to perform most common computing tasks.
  • genetic engineering - Genetic engineering is the deliberate, controlled manipulation of the genes in an organism with the intent of making that organism better in some way.
  • geospatial analysis - Geospatial analysis is the gathering, display, and manipulation of imagery, GPS, satellite photography and historical data, described explicitly in terms of geographic coordinates or implicitly, in terms of a street address, postal code, or forest stand identifier as they are applied to geographic models.
  • gibibyte (GiB) - A gibibyte (GiB) is a unit of measure of capacity used in computing.
  • gigaflop - As a measure of computer speed, a gigaflop is a billion floating-point operations per second (FLOPS).
  • glitch - In several usages in information technology, a glitch (pronounced GLIHTCH) is a sudden break in function or continuity, sometimes of a transient nature, with a varying degree of seriousness.
  • going forward - Going forward is a relatively new and apparently convenient way to indicate a progression in time from the present.
  • googol and googolplex - A googol is 10 to the 100th power (which is 1 followed by 100 zeros).
  • Gopher - From about 1992 through 1996, Gopher was an Internet application in which hierarchically-organized text files could be brought from servers all over the world to a viewer on your computer.
  • gopherspace - Gopherspace is a term used to describe the aggregate of all the information on the thousands of Gopher servers in the world.
  • GPGPU (general purpose graphics processing unit) - A general-purpose GPU (GPGPU) is a graphics processing unit (GPU) that performs non-specialized calculations that would typically be conducted by the CPU (central processing unit).
  • GPU supercomputer - A GPU supercomputer is a networked group of computers with multiple graphics processing units working as general-purpose GPUs (GPGPUs) in tandem on a single task.
  • Grace Hopper nanosecond - A Grace Hopper nanosecond is a visual aid that represents how fast electricity can travel in one billionth of a second.
  • graphics processing unit (GPU) - A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a computer chip that renders graphics and images by performing rapid mathematical calculations.
  • gravity (or gravitation) - Gravity, also called gravitation, is a force that exists among all material objects in the universe, attracting objects with non-zero mass toward each other.
  • gray goo (or grey goo) - Gray goo (in British spelling, "grey goo") is a term used to describe what life on our planet might become if self-replicating robots or nanomachines got out of control and began to use up life forms for their own energy needs in some unstoppable way.
SearchCompliance
  • ISO 31000 Risk Management

    The ISO 31000 Risk Management framework is an international standard that provides businesses with guidelines and principles for ...

  • pure risk

    Pure risk refers to risks that are beyond human control and result in a loss or no loss with no possibility of financial gain.

  • risk reporting

    Risk reporting is a method of identifying risks tied to or potentially impacting an organization's business processes.

SearchSecurity
  • Twofish

    Twofish is a symmetric-key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and variable-length key of size 128, 192 or 256 bits.

  • walled garden

    On the internet, a walled garden is an environment that controls the user's access to network-based content and services.

  • potentially unwanted program (PUP)

    A potentially unwanted program (PUP) is a program that may be unwanted, despite the possibility that users consented to download ...

SearchHealthIT
SearchDisasterRecovery
  • What is risk mitigation?

    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • fault-tolerant

    Fault-tolerant technology is a capability of a computer system, electronic system or network to deliver uninterrupted service, ...

  • synchronous replication

    Synchronous replication is the process of copying data over a storage area network, local area network or wide area network so ...

SearchStorage
  • Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA)

    Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is a technology that enables two networked computers to exchange data in main memory without ...

  • storage (computer storage)

    Data storage is the collective methods and technologies that capture and retain digital information on electromagnetic, optical ...

  • storage medium (storage media)

    In computers, a storage medium is a physical device that receives and retains electronic data for applications and users and ...

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