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Computing fundamentals

Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

EAS - GHO

  • Easter Egg - An Easter Egg is an unexpected surprise -- an undocumented procedure or unauthorized feature that's playful in nature or gives credit to the software developer or chip designer.
  • EDP (electronic data processing) - EDP (electronic data processing), an infrequently used term for what is today usually called "IS" (information services or systems) or "MIS" (management information services or systems), is the processing of data by a computer and its programs in an environment involving electronic communication.
  • edu - edu is one of the top-level domain names that can be used when choosing a domain name.
  • edutainment - Edutainment is a neologism (new term coinage), similar to infotainment, that expresses the marriage of education and entertainment in a work or presentation such as a television program or a Web site.
  • electronic discovery (e-discovery or ediscovery) - Electronic discovery (also called e-discovery or ediscovery) refers to any process in which electronic data is sought, located, secured, and searched with the intent of using it as evidence in a civil or criminal legal case.
  • electronic newspaper - An electronic newspaper is a self-contained, reusable, and refreshable version of a traditional newspaper that acquires and holds information electronically.
  • electronic nose (e-nose) - An electronic nose (e-nose) is a device that identifies the specific components of an odor and analyzes its chemical makeup to identify it.
  • electronic resume - An electronic resume is a plain text (ASCII), PDF or HTML document that provides an employer with information regarding a job candidate's professional experience, education and job qualifications and is meant to be read by a computer program instead of by a human being.
  • elegant solution - The word elegant, in general, is an adjective meaning of fine quality.
  • email - Email (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication.
  • embedded system - An embedded system is a combination of computer hardware and software designed for a specific function or functions within a larger system.
  • enantiomorph - An enantiomorph (pronounced en-ANT-i-o-morf) is a mirror image of something, an opposite reflection.
  • encoding and decoding - Encoding is the process of putting a sequence of characters (letters, numbers, punctuation, and certain symbols) into a specialized digital format for efficient transmission or transfer.
  • end user - In information technology, the term end user is used to distinguish the person for whom a hardware or software product is designed from the developers, installers, and servicers of the product.
  • enhancement - In an information technology product, an enhancement is a noteworthy improvement to the product as part of a new version of it.
  • ENIAC - ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was the world’s first general-purpose computer.
  • entanglement - Entanglement is a term used in quantum theory to describe the way that particles of energy/matter can become correlated to predictably interact with each other regardless of how far apart they are.
  • enterprise - In the computer industry, an enterprise is an organization that uses computers.
  • enterprise architecture (EA) - An enterprise architecture (EA) is a conceptual blueprint that defines the structure and operation of an organization.
  • entity - In general, an entity (pronounced N-tih-tee) is an existing or real thing.
  • entrepreneur (entrepreneurship) - An entrepreneur is an individual who identifies a need in the marketplace and works to fulfill it.
  • enviromatics (environmental informatics) - Enviromatics is the use of computer modeling to analyze the Earth's environment and to predict future trends.
  • environment - In computers, the term environment when unqualified usually refers to the combination of hardware and software in a computer.
  • ergonomics - Ergonomics (from the Greek word "ergon" meaning work, and "nomoi" meaning natural laws), is the science of refining the design of products to optimize them for human use.
  • euro - The euro (pronounced YUR-oh) is now the official monetary unit of 12 member nations of the European Union.
  • event - An event, in a computing context, is an action or occurrence that can be identified by a program and has significance for system hardware or software.
  • event handler - An event handler is a callback routine that operates asynchronously and handles inputs received into a program.
  • executable - In computers, to execute a program is to run the program in the computer, and, by implication, to start it to run.
  • EXL Service (EXL Services) - EXL Service, also known as EXL Services (NASDAQ: EXLS), provides business process outsourcing services to global corporations.
  • expanded memory - Expanded memory, also know as EMS (Expanded Memory Specification) was a method used to increase the 640KB upper limit of MS-DOS to 1MB using a gated memory riser card.
  • exponent - An exponent is a quantity representing the power to which some other quantity is raised.
  • exponential assembly - In nanotechnology, exponential assembly is a form of self-replication in which tiny devices called nanorobots repeatedly construct copies of themselves.
  • exponential function - An exponential function is a mathematical function of the following form:f (x) = a xwhere x is a variable, and a is a constant called the base of the function.
  • extended memory - Extended memory, also known as XMS (eXtended Memory Specification) is a technology that enables capacity above the 640KB standard MS-DOS limit of main memory.
  • extension - In computer operating systems, a file name extension is an optional addition to the file name in a suffix of the form ".
  • eye candy - Eye candy is a term used in information technology for visual elements displayed on computer monitors that are aesthetically appealing or attention-compelling.
  • fabric - In information technology, fabric is a synonym for the words framework or platform.
  • factorial - The factorial, symbolized by an exclamation mark (!), is a quantity defined for all integers greater than or equal to 0.
  • failover - Failover is a backup operational mode in which the functions of a system component (such as a processor, server, network, or database, for example) are assumed by secondary system components when the primary component becomes unavailable through either failure or scheduled down time.
  • fair use - Fair use is a legal concept that allows the reproduction of copyrighted material for certain purposes without obtaining permission and without paying a fee or royalty.
  • falsifiability - Falsifiability is the capacity for some proposition, statement, theory or hypothesis to be proven wrong.
  • FAQ (frequently-asked questions) - The FAQ (pronounced FAK) or list of "frequently-asked questions" (and answers) has become a feature of the Internet.
  • fault-tolerant - Systems with integrated fault tolerance are designed to withstand multiple hardware failures to ensure continuous availability.
  • FCC (Federal Communications Commission) - The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) is the government body responsible for maintaining laws, censorship and broadcast licensing pertaining to interstate and international communications in the United States.
  • FDISK - WARNING: Use caution when repartitioning a hard disk drive that contains data.
  • feature creep - Feature creep (sometimes known as requirements creep or scope creep) is a tendency for product or project requirements to increase during development beyond those originally foreseen, leading to features that weren't originally planned and resulting risk to product quality or schedule.
  • femtosecond - A femtosecond is one millionth of a nanosecond or 10 -15 of a second and is a measurement sometimes used in laser technology.
  • Fermat prime - A Fermat prime is a Fermat number that is also a prime number.
  • Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT) - Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), a significant hypothesis in number theory, was first stated by Pierre de Fermat, a 17th-Century laywer and amateur mathematician.
  • ferret - In a computer or a network, a ferret is a program that searches through selected files, databases, or search engine indexes for information that meets specified search criteria.
  • field - A field is an area in a fixed or known location in a unit of data such as a record, message header, or computer instruction that has a purpose and usually a fixed size.
  • file extension (file format) - In a computer, a file extension is the layout of a file -- in terms of how the data within the file is organized.
  • file transfer - File transfer is the movement of one or more files from one location to another.
  • Finacle - Finacle is a core banking suite developed and marketed by India's Infosys Technologies.
  • finite state machine - Finite state machine (FSM) is a term used by programmers, mathematicians and other professionals to describe a mathematical model for any system with a limited number of conditional states of being.
  • firehose effect - A firehose effect occurs in a network when the source (transmitting) computer or terminal sends data too fast for a destination (receiving) computer or terminal to deal with it.
  • first call resolution (FCR) - In customer relationship management (CRM), first call resolution is properly addressing the customer's need the first time they call, thereby eliminating the need for the customer to follow up with a second call.
  • first-order logic - First-order logic is symbolized reasoning in which each sentence, or statement, is broken down into a subject and a predicate.
  • flaming - On the Internet, flaming is giving someone a verbal lashing in public.
  • flash memory card - Flash storage memory cards use nonvolatile semiconductor memory to store pictures, audio and video data on portable and remote devices.
  • flash storage - Flash storage is any type of drive, repository or system that uses flash memory to keep data for an extended period of time.
  • FlashMob supercomputer - A FlashMob supercomputer is a group of computer enthusiasts who gather together in one physical location for a brief time period in order to function as a supercomputer and work on a single problem.
  • flat address space - 1. A flat address space is a set of addresses arranged on a single level.
  • flexography (surface printing) - Flexography, sometimes referred to as "surface printing," is a method commonly used for printing on packaging and other uneven surfaces.
  • FLOPS (floating-point operations per second) - In computers, FLOPS are floating-point operations per second.
  • flowchart - A flowchart is a formalized graphic representation of a logic sequence, work or manufacturing process, organization chart, or similar formalized structure.
  • fnord - Certain words are intended to be undefinable and "fnord" is one of them.
  • folder - In the Windows, Macintosh, and some other operating system s, a folder is a named collection of related files that can be retrieved, moved, and otherwise manipulated as one entity.
  • footprint - In information technology, a footprint is the amount of space a particular unit of hardware or software occupies.
  • forensic - Forensic, in a general sense, means "related to or used in courts of law" or "used for formal public debate or discussion.
  • form factor - In computers, the form factor is the size, configuration, or physical arrangement of a computing device.
  • format - A format (noun, pronounced FOHR-mat ) is a preestablished layout for data.
  • Fourier analysis - Fourier analysis is a method of defining periodic waveforms in terms of trigonometric function s.
  • Fourier series - A Fourier (pronounced foor-YAY) series is a specific type of infinite mathematical series involving trigonometric functions.
  • FQA (frequently questioned answers) - FQA (frequently questioned answers) are conventions or mandates scrutinized by individuals or groups who doubt their validity.
  • fragmentation - In some operating system's file systems, a data file over a certain size is stored in several "chunks" or fragments rather than in a single contiguous sequence of bits in one place on the storage medium, a process that is called fragmentation.
  • framework - In general, a framework is a real or conceptual structure intended to serve as a support or guide for the building of something that expands the structure into something useful.
  • framing effect - Framing effect is a form of cognitive bias which causes people to focus more on the positive or negative aspects of a decision, situation or information based on the way it is presented.
  • free software - Free software is software that can be freely used, modified, and redistributed with only one restriction: any redistributed version of the software must be distributed with the original terms of free use, modification, and distribution (known as copyleft).
  • freeware - Freeware (not to be confused with free software) is programming that is offered at no cost and is a common class of small applications available for downloading and use in most operating systems.
  • FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt) - FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt) is the term for any strategy intended to make a company's customers insecure about future product plans with the purpose of discouraging them from adopting competitors' products.
  • full-stack developer - A full-stack developer is a type of programmer that has a functional knowledge of all techniques, languages and systems engineering concepts required in software development.
  • function - In information technology, the term function (pronounced FUHNK-shun) has a number of meanings.
  • functionality - In information technology, functionality (from Latin functio meaning "to perform") is the sum or any aspect of what a product, such as a software application or computing device, can do for a user.
  • Furby - Furby (pronounced FURR-bee) is the name of an electronic toy, five inches tall, that is covered with simulated fur, has big eyes and ears, a vocabulary of over 200 words, and a limited ability to react to its environment.
  • futzing (or futzing around) - Futzing or "futzing around" is unstructured, playful, often experimental interaction between a human being and a computer, product, or any technology, sometimes but not always with a productive purpose in mind.
  • fuzzy number - A fuzzy number is a quantity whose value is imprecise, rather than exact as is the case with "ordinary" (single-valued) numbers.
  • fuzzy search - A fuzzy search is a process that locates Web pages that are likely to be relevant to a search argument even when the argument does not exactly correspond to the desired information.
  • game theory - Game theory is the study of mathematical models of negotiation, conflict and cooperation between individuals, organizations and governments.
  • garbage - In computers, garbage has two related meanings: From a user's perceptual point-of-view, garbage is often used to mean anything on your display screen that looks unreadable or unviewable.
  • geek - In computers and the Internet, a geek is a person who is inordinately dedicated to and involved with technology.
  • general-purpose computer - A general-purpose computer is one that, given the appropriate application and required time, should be able to perform most common computing tasks.
  • genetic engineering - Genetic engineering is the deliberate, controlled manipulation of the genes in an organism with the intent of making that organism better in some way.
  • geocaching (GPS stash hunting) - Geocaching, also referred to as GPS stash hunting, is a recreational activity in which someone "buries" something for others to try to find using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver.
  • George Boole - George Boole (1815-1864) was a British mathematician and is known as the founder of mathematical logic.
  • geospatial analysis - Geospatial analysis is the gathering, display, and manipulation of imagery, GPS, satellite photography and historical data, described explicitly in terms of geographic coordinates or implicitly, in terms of a street address, postal code, or forest stand identifier as they are applied to geographic models.
  • ghost site - A ghost site is a Web site that is no longer maintained but that remains available for viewing.

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  • PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard)

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  • risk management

    Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

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  • cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR)

    Cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR) is a combination of strategies and services intended to back up data, applications and other ...

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