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Computing fundamentals

Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

ELE - GLO

  • electronic discovery (e-discovery or ediscovery) - Electronic discovery (also called e-discovery or ediscovery) refers to any process in which electronic data is sought, located, secured, and searched with the intent of using it as evidence in a civil or criminal legal case.
  • electronic newspaper - An electronic newspaper is a self-contained, reusable, and refreshable version of a traditional newspaper that acquires and holds information electronically.
  • electronic nose (e-nose) - An electronic nose (e-nose) is a device that identifies the specific components of an odor and analyzes its chemical makeup to identify it.
  • electronic resume - An electronic resume is a plain text (ASCII), PDF or HTML document that provides an employer with information regarding a job candidate's professional experience, education and job qualifications and is meant to be read by a computer program instead of by a human being.
  • elegant solution - The word elegant, in general, is an adjective meaning of fine quality.
  • email - Email (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication.
  • embedded system - An embedded system is a combination of computer hardware and software designed for a specific function or functions within a larger system.
  • enantiomorph - An enantiomorph (pronounced en-ANT-i-o-morf) is a mirror image of something, an opposite reflection.
  • encoding and decoding - Encoding is the process of putting a sequence of characters (letters, numbers, punctuation, and certain symbols) into a specialized digital format for efficient transmission or transfer.
  • end user - In information technology, the term end user is used to distinguish the person for whom a hardware or software product is designed from the developers, installers, and servicers of the product.
  • enhancement - In an information technology product, an enhancement is a noteworthy improvement to the product as part of a new version of it.
  • ENIAC - ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was the world’s first general-purpose computer.
  • entanglement - Entanglement is a term used in quantum theory to describe the way that particles of energy/matter can become correlated to predictably interact with each other regardless of how far apart they are.
  • enterprise - In the computer industry, an enterprise is an organization that uses computers.
  • enterprise architecture (EA) - An enterprise architecture (EA) is a conceptual blueprint that defines the structure and operation of an organization.
  • entity - In general, an entity (pronounced N-tih-tee) is an existing or real thing.
  • entrepreneur (entrepreneurship) - An entrepreneur is an individual who identifies a need in the marketplace and works to fulfill it.
  • enviromatics (environmental informatics) - Enviromatics is the use of computer modeling to analyze the Earth's environment and to predict future trends.
  • environment - In computers, the term environment when unqualified usually refers to the combination of hardware and software in a computer.
  • ergonomics - Ergonomics (from the Greek word "ergon" meaning work, and "nomoi" meaning natural laws), is the science of refining the design of products to optimize them for human use.
  • euro - The euro (pronounced YUR-oh) is now the official monetary unit of 12 member nations of the European Union.
  • event - An event, in a computing context, is an action or occurrence that can be identified by a program and has significance for system hardware or software.
  • event handler - An event handler is a callback routine that operates asynchronously and handles inputs received into a program.
  • executable - In computers, to execute a program is to run the program in the computer, and, by implication, to start it to run.
  • EXL Service (EXL Services) - EXL Service, also known as EXL Services (NASDAQ: EXLS), provides business process outsourcing services to global corporations.
  • expanded memory - Expanded memory, also know as EMS (Expanded Memory Specification) was a method used to increase the 640KB upper limit of MS-DOS to 1MB using a gated memory riser card.
  • exponent - An exponent is a quantity representing the power to which some other quantity is raised.
  • exponential assembly - In nanotechnology, exponential assembly is a form of self-replication in which tiny devices called nanorobots repeatedly construct copies of themselves.
  • exponential function - An exponential function is a mathematical function of the following form:f (x) = a xwhere x is a variable, and a is a constant called the base of the function.
  • extended memory - Extended memory, also known as XMS (eXtended Memory Specification) is a technology that enables capacity above the 640KB standard MS-DOS limit of main memory.
  • extension - In computer operating systems, a file name extension is an optional addition to the file name in a suffix of the form ".
  • eye candy - Eye candy is a term used in information technology for visual elements displayed on computer monitors that are aesthetically appealing or attention-compelling.
  • fabric - In information technology, fabric is a synonym for the words framework or platform.
  • factorial - The factorial, symbolized by an exclamation mark (!), is a quantity defined for all integers greater than or equal to 0.
  • failover - Failover is a backup operational mode in which the functions of a system component (such as a processor, server, network, or database, for example) are assumed by secondary system components when the primary component becomes unavailable through either failure or scheduled down time.
  • fair use - Fair use is a legal concept that allows the reproduction of copyrighted material for certain purposes without obtaining permission and without paying a fee or royalty.
  • falsifiability - Falsifiability is the capacity for some proposition, statement, theory or hypothesis to be proven wrong.
  • FAQ (frequently-asked questions) - The FAQ (pronounced FAK) or list of "frequently-asked questions" (and answers) has become a feature of the Internet.
  • fault-tolerant - Systems with integrated fault tolerance are designed to withstand multiple hardware failures to ensure continuous availability.
  • FCC (Federal Communications Commission) - The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) is the government body responsible for maintaining laws, censorship and broadcast licensing pertaining to interstate and international communications in the United States.
  • FDISK - WARNING: Use caution when repartitioning a hard disk drive that contains data.
  • feature creep - Feature creep (sometimes known as requirements creep or scope creep) is a tendency for product or project requirements to increase during development beyond those originally foreseen, leading to features that weren't originally planned and resulting risk to product quality or schedule.
  • femtosecond - A femtosecond is one millionth of a nanosecond or 10 -15 of a second and is a measurement sometimes used in laser technology.
  • Fermat prime - A Fermat prime is a Fermat number that is also a prime number.
  • Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT) - Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), a significant hypothesis in number theory, was first stated by Pierre de Fermat, a 17th-Century laywer and amateur mathematician.
  • ferret - In a computer or a network, a ferret is a program that searches through selected files, databases, or search engine indexes for information that meets specified search criteria.
  • field - A field is an area in a fixed or known location in a unit of data such as a record, message header, or computer instruction that has a purpose and usually a fixed size.
  • file format - In a computer, a file format is the layout of a file in terms of how the data within the file is organized.
  • file transfer - File transfer is the movement of one or more files from one location to another.
  • Finacle - Finacle is a core banking suite developed and marketed by India's Infosys Technologies.
  • finite state machine - Finite state machine (FSM) is a term used by programmers, mathematicians and other professionals to describe a mathematical model for any system with a limited number of conditional states of being.
  • firehose effect - A firehose effect occurs in a network when the source (transmitting) computer or terminal sends data too fast for a destination (receiving) computer or terminal to deal with it.
  • first call resolution (FCR) - In customer relationship management (CRM), first call resolution is properly addressing the customer's need the first time they call, thereby eliminating the need for the customer to follow up with a second call.
  • first-order logic - First-order logic is symbolized reasoning in which each sentence, or statement, is broken down into a subject and a predicate.
  • flaming - On the Internet, flaming is giving someone a verbal lashing in public.
  • flash memory card - Flash storage memory cards use nonvolatile semiconductor memory to store pictures, audio and video data on portable and remote devices.
  • flash storage - Flash storage is any type of drive, repository or system that uses flash memory to keep data for an extended period of time.
  • FlashMob supercomputer - A FlashMob supercomputer is a group of computer enthusiasts who gather together in one physical location for a brief time period in order to function as a supercomputer and work on a single problem.
  • flat address space - 1. A flat address space is a set of addresses arranged on a single level.
  • flexography (surface printing) - Flexography, sometimes referred to as "surface printing," is a method commonly used for printing on packaging and other uneven surfaces.
  • FLOPS (floating-point operations per second) - In computers, FLOPS are floating-point operations per second.
  • flowchart - A flowchart is a formalized graphic representation of a logic sequence, work or manufacturing process, organization chart, or similar formalized structure.
  • fnord - Certain words are intended to be undefinable and "fnord" is one of them.
  • folder - In the Windows, Macintosh, and some other operating system s, a folder is a named collection of related files that can be retrieved, moved, and otherwise manipulated as one entity.
  • footprint - In information technology, a footprint is the amount of space a particular unit of hardware or software occupies.
  • forensic - Forensic, in a general sense, means "related to or used in courts of law" or "used for formal public debate or discussion.
  • form factor - In computers, the form factor is the size, configuration, or physical arrangement of a computing device.
  • format - A format (noun, pronounced FOHR-mat ) is a preestablished layout for data.
  • Fourier analysis - Fourier analysis is a method of defining periodic waveforms in terms of trigonometric function s.
  • Fourier series - A Fourier (pronounced foor-YAY) series is a specific type of infinite mathematical series involving trigonometric functions.
  • FQA (frequently questioned answers) - FQA (frequently questioned answers) are conventions or mandates scrutinized by individuals or groups who doubt their validity.
  • fragmentation - In some operating system's file systems, a data file over a certain size is stored in several "chunks" or fragments rather than in a single contiguous sequence of bits in one place on the storage medium, a process that is called fragmentation.
  • framework - In computer systems, a framework is often a layered structure indicating what kind of programs can or should be built and how they would interrelate.
  • framing effect - Framing effect is a form of cognitive bias which causes people to focus more on the positive or negative aspects of a decision, situation or information based on the way it is presented.
  • free software - Free software is software that can be freely used, modified, and redistributed with only one restriction: any redistributed version of the software must be distributed with the original terms of free use, modification, and distribution (known as copyleft).
  • freeware - Freeware (not to be confused with free software) is programming that is offered at no cost and is a common class of small applications available for downloading and use in most operating systems.
  • FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt) - FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt) is the term for any strategy intended to make a company's customers insecure about future product plans with the purpose of discouraging them from adopting competitors' products.
  • full-stack developer - A full-stack developer is a type of programmer that has a functional knowledge of all techniques, languages and systems engineering concepts required in software development.
  • function - In information technology, the term function (pronounced FUHNK-shun) has a number of meanings.
  • functionality - In information technology, functionality (from Latin functio meaning "to perform") is the sum or any aspect of what a product, such as a software application or computing device, can do for a user.
  • Furby - Furby (pronounced FURR-bee) is the name of an electronic toy, five inches tall, that is covered with simulated fur, has big eyes and ears, a vocabulary of over 200 words, and a limited ability to react to its environment.
  • futzing (or futzing around) - Futzing or "futzing around" is unstructured, playful, often experimental interaction between a human being and a computer, product, or any technology, sometimes but not always with a productive purpose in mind.
  • fuzzy number - A fuzzy number is a quantity whose value is imprecise, rather than exact as is the case with "ordinary" (single-valued) numbers.
  • fuzzy search - A fuzzy search is a process that locates Web pages that are likely to be relevant to a search argument even when the argument does not exactly correspond to the desired information.
  • game theory - Game theory is the study of mathematical models of negotiation, conflict and cooperation between individuals, organizations and governments.
  • garbage - In computers, garbage has two related meanings: From a user's perceptual point-of-view, garbage is often used to mean anything on your display screen that looks unreadable or unviewable.
  • geek - In computers and the Internet, a geek is a person who is inordinately dedicated to and involved with technology.
  • general-purpose computer - A general-purpose computer is one that, given the appropriate application and required time, should be able to perform most common computing tasks.
  • genetic engineering - Genetic engineering is the deliberate, controlled manipulation of the genes in an organism with the intent of making that organism better in some way.
  • geocaching (GPS stash hunting) - Geocaching, also referred to as GPS stash hunting, is a recreational activity in which someone "buries" something for others to try to find using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver.
  • George Boole - George Boole (1815-1864) was a British mathematician and is known as the founder of mathematical logic.
  • geospatial analysis - Geospatial analysis is the gathering, display, and manipulation of imagery, GPS, satellite photography and historical data, described explicitly in terms of geographic coordinates or implicitly, in terms of a street address, postal code, or forest stand identifier as they are applied to geographic models.
  • ghost site - A ghost site is a Web site that is no longer maintained but that remains available for viewing.
  • gibibyte (GiB) - A gibibyte (GiB) is a unit of measure of capacity used in computing.
  • gigabit - In data communications, a gigabit is one billion bits, or 1,000,000,000 (that is, 10^9) bits.
  • gigaflop - As a measure of computer speed, a gigaflop is a billion floating-point operations per second (FLOPS).
  • glass house - Glass house is a term for centralized computing in an enterprise and the mindset of those who plan and administer it.
  • glitch - In several usages in information technology, a glitch (pronounced GLIHTCH) is a sudden break in function or continuity, sometimes of a transient nature, with a varying degree of seriousness.
  • globbing - Globbing is the process of expanding a non-specific file name containing a wildcard character into a set of specific file names that exist in storage on a computer, server, or network.
  • glocalization - Glocalization is the concept that in a global market, a product or service is more likely to succeed when it is customized for the locality or culture in which it is sold.

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