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Computing fundamentals

Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

DOC - FOX

  • document - In general, a document (noun) is a record or the capturing of some event or thing so that the information will not be lost.
  • Document Type Definition (DTD) - A Document Type Definition (DTD) is a specific document defining and constraining definition or set of statements that follow the rules of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) or of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a subset of SGML.
  • documentation - In computer hardware and software product development, documentation is the information that describes the product to its users.
  • dogcow - The dogcow is a drawing of a rather indiscriminate-looking animal (it looks mostly like a dog but is said to have the spots of a cow) that is or has been used in the Apple Macintosh operating system to help tell users about their printing options.
  • DOS (Disk Operating System) - DOS (Disk Operating System) can refer to a computer operating system that is loaded from a disk drive or to an operating system based on Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS).
  • dot product (scalar product) - The dot product, also called the scalar product, of two vectors is a number (scalar quantity) obtained by performing a specific operation on the vector components.
  • double factorial - The double factorial, symbolized by two exclamation marks (!!), is a quantity defined for all integers greater than or equal to -1.
  • double-slit experiment - The double-slit experiment is a nineteenth-century investigation into the properties of light that has since been found to demonstrate both the duality of photons and the concepts of superposition and quantum interference.
  • downsizing - In a business enterprise, downsizing is reducing the number of employees on the operating payroll.
  • drilldown - As currently used in information technology, to drill down (verb) is to focus in on something.
  • DRY principle - The DRY (don't repeat yourself) principle is a best practice in software development that recommends software engineers to do something once, and only once.
  • duh - In general, duh (pronounced DUH, prolonging the UH, pitching the voice a bit low, and inflecting it with an intonation of imbecility or sarcasm or both, depending on the usage) is a colloquial comment on one's (or someone else's) lack of knowledge or brain power.
  • duty cycle - Duty cycle is the proportion of time during which a component, device, or system is operated.
  • dynamic and static - In general, dynamic means energetic, capable of action and/or change, or forceful, while static means stationary or fixed.
  • Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) - In the Windows, OS/2, and (with third-party development kits) other operating systems, Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) allows information to be shared or communicated between programs.
  • e-inclusion - E-inclusion is a social movement whose goal is to end the digital divide, a term used to describe the fact that the world can be divided into people who do and people who don't have access to - and the capability to use - modern information technology (IT).
  • e-mail (electronic mail or email) - E-mail (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication.
  • e-tailing (electronic retailing) - E-tailing (less frequently: etailing) is the selling of retail goods on the Internet.
  • e-thrombosis - E-thrombosis is a newly recognized variant of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) caused by sitting at a computer for long periods of time.
  • early adopter - An early adopter is a person who embraces new technology before most other people do.
  • Earth's mean orbital speed - Earth's mean orbital speed is the average speed at which the Earth revolves around the sun.
  • Easter Egg - An Easter Egg is an unexpected surprise -- an undocumented procedure or unauthorized feature that's playful in nature or gives credit to the software developer or chip designer.
  • EDP (electronic data processing) - EDP (electronic data processing), an infrequently used term for what is today usually called "IS" (information services or systems) or "MIS" (management information services or systems), is the processing of data by a computer and its programs in an environment involving electronic communication.
  • edu - edu is one of the top-level domain names that can be used when choosing a domain name.
  • edutainment - Edutainment is a neologism (new term coinage), similar to infotainment, that expresses the marriage of education and entertainment in a work or presentation such as a television program or a Web site.
  • egosurfing - Egosurfing is looking to see how many places on the Web your name appears.
  • electronic discovery (e-discovery or ediscovery) - Electronic discovery (also called e-discovery or ediscovery) refers to any process in which electronic data is sought, located, secured, and searched with the intent of using it as evidence in a civil or criminal legal case.
  • electronic newspaper - An electronic newspaper is a self-contained, reusable, and refreshable version of a traditional newspaper that acquires and holds information electronically.
  • electronic nose (e-nose) - An electronic nose (e-nose) is a device that identifies the specific components of an odor and analyzes its chemical makeup to identify it.
  • electronic resume - An electronic resume is a plain text (ASCII), PDF or HTML document that provides an employer with information regarding a job candidate's professional experience, education and job qualifications and is meant to be read by a computer program instead of by a human being.
  • elegant solution - The word elegant, in general, is an adjective meaning of fine quality.
  • embedded system - An embedded system is a combination of computer hardware and software, either fixed in capability or programmable, designed for a specific function or functions within a larger system.
  • enantiomorph - An enantiomorph (pronounced en-ANT-i-o-morf) is a mirror image of something, an opposite reflection.
  • encoding and decoding - Encoding is the process of putting a sequence of characters (letters, numbers, punctuation, and certain symbols) into a specialized digital format for efficient transmission or transfer.
  • end user - In information technology, the term end user is used to distinguish the person for whom a hardware or software product is designed from the developers, installers, and servicers of the product.
  • enhancement - In an information technology product, an enhancement is a noteworthy improvement to the product as part of a new version of it.
  • ENIAC - ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was the world’s first general-purpose computer.
  • entanglement - Entanglement is a term used in quantum theory to describe the way that particles of energy/matter can become correlated to predictably interact with each other regardless of how far apart they are.
  • enterprise - In the computer industry, an enterprise is an organization that uses computers.
  • enterprise architecture (EA) - An enterprise architecture (EA) is a conceptual blueprint that defines the structure and operation of an organization.
  • entity - In general, an entity (pronounced N-tih-tee) is an existing or real thing.
  • entrepreneur (entrepreneurship) - An entrepreneur is an individual who identifies a need in the marketplace and works to fulfill it.
  • enviromatics (environmental informatics) - Enviromatics is the use of computer modeling to analyze the Earth's environment and to predict future trends.
  • environment - In computers, the term environment when unqualified usually refers to the combination of hardware and software in a computer.
  • ergonomics - Ergonomics (from the Greek word "ergon" meaning work, and "nomoi" meaning natural laws), is the science of refining the design of products to optimize them for human use.
  • euro - The euro (pronounced YUR-oh) is now the official monetary unit of 12 member nations of the European Union.
  • event - An event, in a computing context, is an action or occurrence that can be identified by a program and has significance for system hardware or software.
  • event handler - An event handler is a callback routine that operates asynchronously and handles inputs received into a program.
  • executable - In computers, to execute a program is to run the program in the computer, and, by implication, to start it to run.
  • EXL Service (EXL Services) - EXL Service, also known as EXL Services (NASDAQ: EXLS), provides business process outsourcing services to global corporations.
  • expanded memory - Expanded memory, also know as EMS (Expanded Memory Specification) was a method used to increase the 640KB upper limit of MS-DOS to 1MB using a gated memory riser card.
  • exponent - An exponent is a quantity representing the power to which some other quantity is raised.
  • exponential assembly - In nanotechnology, exponential assembly is a form of self-replication in which tiny devices called nanorobots repeatedly construct copies of themselves.
  • exponential function - An exponential function is a mathematical function of the following form:f (x) = a xwhere x is a variable, and a is a constant called the base of the function.
  • extended memory - Extended memory, also known as XMS (eXtended Memory Specification) is a technology that enables capacity above the 640KB standard MS-DOS limit of main memory.
  • extension - In computer operating systems, a file name extension is an optional addition to the file name in a suffix of the form ".
  • eye candy - Eye candy is a term used in information technology for visual elements displayed on computer monitors that are aesthetically appealing or attention-compelling.
  • fabric - In information technology, fabric is a synonym for the words framework or platform.
  • factorial - The factorial, symbolized by an exclamation mark (!), is a quantity defined for all integers greater than or equal to 0.
  • failover - Failover is a backup operational mode in which the functions of a system component (such as a processor, server, network, or database, for example) are assumed by secondary system components when the primary component becomes unavailable through either failure or scheduled down time.
  • fair use - Fair use is a legal concept that allows the reproduction of copyrighted material for certain purposes without obtaining permission and without paying a fee or royalty.
  • falsifiability - Falsifiability is the capacity for some proposition, statement, theory or hypothesis to be proven wrong.
  • FAQ (frequently-asked questions) - The FAQ (pronounced FAK) or list of "frequently-asked questions" (and answers) has become a feature of the Internet.
  • Fast Guide to Helpful Tips - Explore the categories below for recently submitted and archived tips.
  • fault-tolerant - Systems with integrated fault tolerance are designed to withstand multiple hardware failures to ensure continuous availability.
  • FCC (Federal Communications Commission) - The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) is the government body responsible for maintaining laws, censorship and broadcast licensing pertaining to interstate and international communications in the United States.
  • FDISK - WARNING: Use caution when repartitioning a hard disk drive that contains data.
  • feature creep - Feature creep (sometimes known as requirements creep or scope creep) is a tendency for product or project requirements to increase during development beyond those originally foreseen, leading to features that weren't originally planned and resulting risk to product quality or schedule.
  • femtosecond - A femtosecond is one millionth of a nanosecond or 10 -15 of a second and is a measurement sometimes used in laser technology.
  • Fermat prime - A Fermat prime is a Fermat number that is also a prime number.
  • Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT) - Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), a significant hypothesis in number theory, was first stated by Pierre de Fermat, a 17th-Century laywer and amateur mathematician.
  • ferret - In a computer or a network, a ferret is a program that searches through selected files, databases, or search engine indexes for information that meets specified search criteria.
  • field - A field is an area in a fixed or known location in a unit of data such as a record, message header, or computer instruction that has a purpose and usually a fixed size.
  • file format - In a computer, a file format is the layout of a file in terms of how the data within the file is organized.
  • file transfer - File transfer is the movement of one or more files from one location to another.
  • Finacle - Finacle is a core banking suite developed and marketed by India's Infosys Technologies.
  • finite state machine - Finite state machine (FSM) is a term used by programmers, mathematicians and other professionals to describe a mathematical model for any system with a limited number of conditional states of being.
  • firehose effect - A firehose effect occurs in a network when the source (transmitting) computer or terminal sends data too fast for a destination (receiving) computer or terminal to deal with it.
  • first call resolution (FCR) - In customer relationship management (CRM), first call resolution is properly addressing the customer's need the first time they call, thereby eliminating the need for the customer to follow up with a second call.
  • first-order logic - First-order logic is symbolized reasoning in which each sentence, or statement, is broken down into a subject and a predicate.
  • flaming - On the Internet, flaming is giving someone a verbal lashing in public.
  • flash memory card - Flash storage memory cards use nonvolatile semiconductor memory to store pictures, audio and video data on portable and remote devices.
  • flash storage - Flash storage is any type of drive, repository or system that uses flash memory to keep data for an extended period of time.
  • FlashMob supercomputer - A FlashMob supercomputer is a group of computer enthusiasts who gather together in one physical location for a brief time period in order to function as a supercomputer and work on a single problem.
  • flat address space - 1. A flat address space is a set of addresses arranged on a single level.
  • flexography (surface printing) - Flexography, sometimes referred to as "surface printing," is a method commonly used for printing on packaging and other uneven surfaces.
  • FLOPS (floating-point operations per second) - In computers, FLOPS are floating-point operations per second.
  • flowchart - A flowchart is a formalized graphic representation of a logic sequence, work or manufacturing process, organization chart, or similar formalized structure.
  • fnord - Certain words are intended to be undefinable and "fnord" is one of them.
  • folder - In the Windows, Macintosh, and some other operating system s, a folder is a named collection of related files that can be retrieved, moved, and otherwise manipulated as one entity.
  • Foo Camp - Foo Camp was a gathering of about 200 computer and Internet thinkers and inventors who were invited by publisher O'Reilly and Associates to spend a week-end brainstorming, collaborating, and otherwise advancing progress in information technology.
  • footprint - In information technology, a footprint is the amount of space a particular unit of hardware or software occupies.
  • forensic - Forensic, in a general sense, means "related to or used in courts of law" or "used for formal public debate or discussion.
  • form factor - In computers, the form factor is the size, configuration, or physical arrangement of a computing device.
  • format - A format (noun, pronounced FOHR-mat ) is a preestablished layout for data.
  • Fourier analysis - Fourier analysis is a method of defining periodic waveforms in terms of trigonometric function s.
  • Fourier series - A Fourier (pronounced foor-YAY) series is a specific type of infinite mathematical series involving trigonometric functions.
  • foxed - A fan club Web site can be said to have been "foxed" when it has received a letter of warning about copyright violations from the owners of images or other copyrighted material it is using.

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