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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

INT - MIC

  • integer - An integer (pronounced IN-tuh-jer) is a whole number (not a fractional number) that can be positive, negative, or zero.
  • integer overflow - Integer overflow is the result of trying to place into computer memory an integer (whole number) that is too large for the integer data type in a given system.
  • integration - Integration is the act of bringing together smaller components into a single system that functions as one.
  • Intel 8086 - The Intel 8086 was Intel’s first x86 processor.
  • intelligent device - An intelligent device is any type of equipment, instrument, or machine that has its own computing capability.
  • intelligent system - An intelligent system is a machine with an embedded, Internet-connected computer that has the capacity to gather and analyze data and communicate with other systems.
  • interactivity - In computers, interactivity is the dialog that occurs between a human being (or possibly another live creature) and a computer program.
  • interface - As a noun, an interface is either:A user interface, consisting of the set of dials, knobs, operating system commands, graphical display formats, and other devices provided by a computer or a program to allow the user to communicate and use the computer or program.
  • interlaced GIF - An interlaced GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is a GIF image that seems to arrive on your display like an image coming through a slowly-opening Venetian blind.
  • intermediary - In general, an intermediary is a person or service that is involved as a third party between two or more end points in a communication or transaction.
  • internationalization (I18N) - Internationalization (sometimes shortened to "I18N, meaning "I - eighteen letters -N") is the process of planning and implementing products and services so that they can easily be adapted to specific local languages and cultures, a process called localization.
  • Internet problems - Here are:Three rules-of-thumb for dealing with Internet problemsA table showing the most common codes and messages you're likely to see on your Web browser (HTTP), when accessing Usenet, using e-mail, or using the FTP protocol to upload or download files Three Rules-of-Thumb for Dealing with Internet ProblemsIf you get a message saying the domain name server (DNS) can't find your page and you're sure you've typed it in correctly or clicked on a valid link, try it again - TWO more times! (Sometimes packets don't get there!)If you get a "Not found" message, the page may be temporarily missing because of miscoding at the target site.
  • interoperability - Interoperability (pronounced IHN-tuhr-AHP-uhr-uh-BIHL-ih-tee) is the ability of different systems, devices, applications or products to connect and communicate in a coordinated way, without effort from the end user.
  • interrupt latency - Interrupt latency, also called interrupt response time, is the length of time that it takes for a computer interrupt to be acted on after it has been generated.
  • intersection symbol - The intersection symbol denotes the intersection of two sets.
  • IRQ (interrupt request) - An IRQ (interrupt request) value is an assigned location where the computer can expect a particular device to interrupt it when the device sends the computer signals about its operation.
  • irrational number - An irrational number is a real number that cannot be reduced to any ratio between an integer p and a natural number q.
  • IS (information system or information services) - An information system (IS) is the collection of technical and human resources that provide the storage, computing, distribution, and communication for the information required by all or some part of an enterprise.
  • iSCSI switch (Internet Small Computer System Interface switch) - An iSCSI switch is an appliance that processes and channels data between an iSCSI initiator and target on a storage device.
  • ISRS (information storage and retrieval system) - An information storage and retrieval system (ISRS) is a network with a built-in user interface that facilitates the creation, searching, and modification of stored data.
  • ISV (independent software vendor) - An ISV (independent software vendor) makes and sells software products that run on one or more computer hardware or operating system (OS) platforms.
  • IT Survival Kits - We've gathered a collection of resources to help you explore an IT topic you might not know much about.
  • iterative development - Iterative development is a way of breaking down the software development of a large application into smaller chunks.
  • JBoss - JBoss is a division of Red Hat that provides support for the JBoss open source application server program and related middleware services marketed under the JBoss Enterprise Middleware brand.
  • job - In certain computer operating systems, a job is the unit of work that a computer operator gives to the operating system.
  • job step - In certain computer operating systems, a job step is part of a job, a unit of work that a computer operator (or a program called a job scheduler) gives to the operating system.
  • John von Neumann - John von Neumann was the scientist who conceived a fundamental idea that serves all modern computers - that a computer's program and the data that it processes do not have to be fed into the computer while it is working, but can be kept in the computer's memory - a notion generally referred to as the stored-program computer.
  • jolt - On the Internet, jolt is a denial of service (DoS) attack caused by a very large ICMP packet that is fragmented in such a way that the targeted machine is unable to reassemble it for use.
  • K-12 - K-12, a term used in education and educational technology in the United States, Canada, and possibly other countries, is a short form for the publicly-supported school grades prior to college.
  • Kbps (kilobits per second) - In the U.S.
  • keitai - Keitai (pronounced k-tie) is a Japanese word meaning "portable.
  • kelvin (K) - The kelvin (abbreviation K), less commonly called the degree Kelvin (symbol, o K), is the Standard International (SI) unit of thermodynamic temperature.
  • kilobit - In data communications, a kilobit is a thousand (103) bits.
  • kilogram (kg) - The kilogram (abbreviation, kg) is the Standard International (SI) System of Units unit of mass.
  • kinetic energy - Kinetic energy is the energy of motion, observable as the movement of an object, particle, or set of particles.
  • kiosk - A kiosk (pronounced KEE-ahsk ) is a small, free-standing physical structure that displays information or provides a service.
  • kludge - In information technology, a kludge (pronounced KLOOdzh) is an awkward or clumsy (but at least temporarily effective) solution to a programming or hardware design or implementation problem.
  • knowledge - In information technology, knowledge is, to an enterprise or an individual, the possession of information or the ability to quickly locate it.
  • knowledge base - In general, a knowledge base is a centralized repository for information: a public library, a database of related information about a particular subject, and whatis.
  • knowledge worker - A knowledge worker is anyone who works for a living at the tasks of developing or using knowledge.
  • Kryder's Law - Kryder's Law describes the rate at which former Seagate CTO Mark Kryder predicted disk drive density would grow.
  • L1 and L2 - L1 and L2 are levels of cache memory in a computer.
  • lambda (general definition) - Lambda, the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, is used as a symbol in optical fiber networking, in mathematics and in computer programming.
  • landscape - In printing from a computer, landscape refers to a mode in which content is printed for reading on the longer length of the sheet of paper.
  • laser - A laser is a coherent and focused beam of photons; coherent, in this context, means that it is all one wavelength, unlike ordinary light which showers on us in many wavelengths.
  • laser diode (injection laser or diode laser) - A laser diode, also known as an injection laser or diode laser, is a semiconductor device that produces coherent radiation (in which the waves are all at the same frequency and phase) in the visible or infrared (IR) spectrum when current passes through it.
  • latent data (ambient data) - Latent data, also known as ambient data, is the information in computer storage that is not referenced in file allocation tables and is generally not viewable through the operating system (OS) or standard applications.
  • latitude and longitude - Latitude and longitude are angles that uniquely define points on a sphere.
  • layering - In computer programming, layering is the organization of programming into separate functional components that interact in some sequential and hierarchical way, with each layer usually having an interface only to the layer above it and the layer below it.
  • lean manufacturing (lean production) - Lean manufacturing is a methodology that focuses on minimizing waste within manufacturing systems while simultaneously maximizing productivity.
  • learning curve - Learning curves are a visualization of the difficulty estimated in learning a subject over a period of time as well as relative progress throughout the process of learning.
  • learning management system (LMS) - A learning management system (LMS) is a software application or web-based technology used to plan, implement and assess a specific learning process.
  • legacy application - A legacy application (legacy app) is a software program that is outdated or obsolete.
  • lemniscate - A lemniscate is a plane curve with a characteristic shape, consisting of two loops that meet at a central point as shown below.
  • level of support (support level) - Level of support indicates a specific extent of technical assistance in the total range of assistance that is provided by an information technology product (such as a software product) to its customers.
  • leverage - In the physical sense, leverage is an assisted advantage.
  • lights-out management (LOM) - Lights-out management (LOM) is a form of out-of-band management.
  • lightweight - In information technology, the term lightweight is sometimes applied to a program, protocol, device, or anything that is relatively simpler or faster or that has fewer parts than something else.
  • limit - In mathematics, a limit is a value toward which an expression converges as one or more variables approach certain values.
  • linearity - Linearity is the behavior of a circuit, particularly an amplifier, in which the output signal strength varies in direct proportion to the input signal strength.
  • linkrot - Linkrot is the tendency of hypertext links from one Web site to another site to become useless as other sites cease to exist or remove or reorganize their Web pages.
  • Linus Torvalds - Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux kernel, was born in Helsinki, Finland, on December 28, 1969.
  • load balancing - Load balancing is a technique used to distribute workloads uniformly across servers or other compute resources to optimize network efficiency, reliability and capacity.
  • localization - Localization (sometimes shortened to "L10n") is the process of adapting a product or service to a particular language, culture and desired local "look-and-feel.
  • lock - A lock is a mechanism for controlling access to something.
  • logical AND symbol - For a practical application, see logic gate.
  • logical block addressing (LBA) - Logical block addressing is a technique that allows a computer to address a hard disk larger than 528 megabytes.
  • logical equivalence - Logical equivalence is a type of relationship between two statements or sentences in propositional logic or Boolean algebra.
  • logical implication - Logical implication is a type of relationship between two statements or sentences.
  • logical negation symbol - The logical negation symbol is used in Boolean algebra to indicate that the truth value of the statement that follows is reversed.
  • logical OR symbol - For a practical application, see logic gate.
  • logon (or login) - In general computer usage, logon is the procedure used to get access to an operating system or application, usually in a remote computer.
  • longitudinal time code (LTC) - Longitidinal time code (LTC) is a timing signal that is part of an audio tape recording.
  • look-to-book ratio - The look-to-book ratio is a figure used in the travel industry that shows the percentage of people who visit a travel Web site compared to those who actually make a purchase.
  • lossless and lossy compression - Lossless and lossy file compression describe whether all original data can be recovered when the file is uncompressed.
  • lowerCamelCase - lowerCamelCase (part of CamelCase) is a naming convention in which a name is formed of multiple words that are joined together as a single word with the first letter of each of the multiple words (except the first one) capitalized within the new word that forms the name.
  • Luddite - A Luddite is a person who dislikes technology, especially technological devices that threaten existing jobs or interfere with personal privacy.
  • LZW compression - LZW compression is the compression of a file into a smaller file using a table-based lookup algorithm invented by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch.
  • m-commerce (mobile commerce) - M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless handheld devices such as smartphones and tablets.
  • machine code (machine language) - Machine code, also known as machine language, is the elemental language of computers.
  • Macintosh - The Macintosh (often called "the Mac") was the first widely-sold personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) and a mouse.
  • magnetic stripe reader (magstripe reader) - A magnetic stripe reader, also called a magstripe reader, is a hardware device that reads the information encoded in the magnetic stripe located on the back of a plastic badge.
  • marcom (or marcomm) - Marcom (sometimes spelled "marcomm") is an abbreviation for "marketing communications.
  • Master Boot Record (MBR) - The Master Boot Record (MBR) is the information in the first sector of a hard disk or a removable drive.
  • master/minion (formerly master/slave) - In computer networking, master/slave is a model for a communication protocol in which one device or process (known as the master) controls one or more other devices or processes (known as slaves).
  • Mathematical symbols - This table contains mathematical symbols and links to definitions of what they represent and how they are used.
  • matrix - Apart from information technology, matrix (pronounced MAY-triks) has a number of special meanings.
  • matter - Matter is a substance that has inertia and occupies physical space.
  • mebibyte (MiB) - A mebibyte (MiB) is a unit of measurement used in computer data storage.
  • medium - A medium is a third-party or element through which a message is communicated.
  • megabits per second (Mbps) - Megabits per second (Mbps) are units of measurement for network bandwidth and throughput.
  • megabyte (MB) - As a measure of computer processor storage and real and virtual memory, a megabyte (abbreviated MB) is 2 to the 20th power bytes, or 1,048,576 bytes in decimal notation.
  • megabytes per second (MBps) - Megabytes per second (MBps) is a unit of measurement for data transfer speed to and from a computer storage device.
  • memory - Memory is the electronic holding place for the instructions and data a computer needs to reach quickly.
  • memory map - A memory map is a massive table, in effect a database, that comprises complete information about how the memory is structured in a computer system.
  • memory read error - A memory read error is a malfunction that occurs when data is being accessed from memory for use by a program, or when a value read from RAM fails to match an expected value.
  • Merkle tree - A Merkle tree is a data structure in blockchain and cryptography that labels leaf nodes with the cryptographic hash of a data block and non-leaf nodes with the hash of their child nodes.
  • message-driven processing - Message-driven processing is an approach used within the client/server computing model in which a client (for example, your Web browser) sends a service request in the form of a specially-formatted message to a program that acts as a request broker, handling messages from many clients intended for many different server applications.
  • metabolomics - Metabolomics is a term sometimes used to describe the emerging science of measurement and analysis of metabolites, such as sugars and fats, in the cells of organisms at specific times and under specific conditions.
  • metacharacter - A metacharacter (sometimes spelled meta character or meta-character) is a special character in a program or data field that provides information about other characters.
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    Parameter tampering is a type of web-based cyber attack in which certain parameters in a URL are changed without a user's ...

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  • e-business (electronic business)

    E-business (electronic business) is the conduct of business processes on the internet.

  • business resilience

    Business resilience is the ability an organization has to quickly adapt to disruptions while maintaining continuous business ...

  • chief procurement officer (CPO)

    The chief procurement officer, or CPO, leads an organization's procurement department and oversees the acquisitions of goods and ...

SearchHRSoftware
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  • first call resolution (FCR)

    First call resolution (FCR) is when customer service agents properly address a customer's needs the first time they call.

  • customer intelligence (CI)

    Customer intelligence (CI) is the process of collecting and analyzing detailed customer data from internal and external sources ...

  • clickstream data (clickstream analytics)

    Clickstream data and clickstream analytics are the processes involved in collecting, analyzing and reporting aggregate data about...

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