Browse Definitions :

Computing fundamentals

Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

INC - LOG

  • Incompleteness Theorem - The Incompleteness Theorem is a pair of logical proofs that revolutionized mathematics.
  • increment - An increment is a small, unspecified, nonzero change in the value of a quantity.
  • incubator - In the business world, an incubator is an enterprise that is set up to provide office space, equipment, and sometimes mentoring assistance and capital to new businesses that are just getting started.
  • indemnification - In service level agreements (SLAs) and other legal contracts such as end-user license agreements (EULAs), indemnification is the part of an agreement that provides for one party to bear the monetary costs, either directly or by reimbursement, for losses incurred by a second party.
  • indempotency - Based on our inferences about the only three uses of this term that we have discovered on the Internet, indempotency (pronounced ihn-dehm-POH-tuhns-ee, from Latin indemnis or "unharmed") is the ability to preserve the integrity of a thing or action no matter how much it is used or accessed by another thing or action.
  • industrial strength - In information technology, industrial strength is a characteristic sometimes ascribed to a hardware or software product or a system to describe its ability to work capably and dependably in the operational world of business.
  • inertia - Inertia is a property of matter that causes it to resist changes in velocity (speed and/or direction).
  • infinite sequence - An infinite sequence is a list or string of discrete objects, usually numbers, that can be paired off one-to-one with the set of positive integers {1, 2, 3,.
  • infinity - In general, infinity is the quality or state of endlessness or having no limits in terms of time, space, or other quantity.
  • infomercial - On television, an infomercial is a short or regular-length television program that combines information presentation with an integrated suggestion to buy a particular product or service.
  • infonesia - Infonesia is an inability to remember where you saw or heard an item of information.
  • information - Information is stimuli that has meaning in some context for its receiver.
  • information architecture - In technical writing, information architecture is the set of ideas about how all information in a given context should be treated philosophically and, in a general way, how it should be organized.
  • information design - Information design is the detailed planning of specific information that is to be provided to a particular audience to meet specific objectives.
  • information technology (IT) - Information technology (IT) is the use of any computers, storage, networking and other physical devices, infrastructure and processes to create, process, store, secure and exchange all forms of electronic data.
  • information theory - Information theory is a branch of mathematics that overlaps into communications engineering, biology, medical science, sociology, and psychology.
  • infotainment - Infotainment, combining information with entertainment, is a fairly recent neologism for a television program, Web site feature, or other presentation that combines information with entertainment.
  • input/output (I/O) - I/O (input/output), pronounced "eye-oh," describes any operation, program, or device that transfers data to or from a computer.
  • instruction - An instruction is an order given to a computer processor by a computer program.
  • instruction set - An instruction set is a group of commands for a CPU in machine language.
  • integer - An integer (pronounced IN-tuh-jer) is a whole number (not a fractional number) that can be positive, negative, or zero.
  • integer overflow - Integer overflow is the result of trying to place into computer memory an integer (whole number) that is too large for the integer data type in a given system.
  • integration - Integration is the act of bringing together smaller components into a single system that functions as one.
  • Intel 8086 - The Intel 8086 was Intel’s first x86 processor.
  • intelligent device - An intelligent device is any type of equipment, instrument, or machine that has its own computing capability.
  • intelligent system - An intelligent system is a machine with an embedded, Internet-connected computer that has the capacity to gather and analyze data and communicate with other systems.
  • interactivity - In computers, interactivity is the dialog that occurs between a human being (or possibly another live creature) and a computer program.
  • interface - As a noun, an interface is either:A user interface, consisting of the set of dials, knobs, operating system commands, graphical display formats, and other devices provided by a computer or a program to allow the user to communicate and use the computer or program.
  • interlaced GIF - An interlaced GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is a GIF image that seems to arrive on your display like an image coming through a slowly-opening Venetian blind.
  • intermediary - In general, an intermediary is a person or service that is involved as a third party between two or more end points in a communication or transaction.
  • internationalization (I18N) - Internationalization (sometimes shortened to "I18N, meaning "I - eighteen letters -N") is the process of planning and implementing products and services so that they can easily be adapted to specific local languages and cultures, a process called localization.
  • Internet problems - Here are:Three rules-of-thumb for dealing with Internet problemsA table showing the most common codes and messages you're likely to see on your Web browser (HTTP), when accessing Usenet, using e-mail, or using the FTP protocol to upload or download files Three Rules-of-Thumb for Dealing with Internet ProblemsIf you get a message saying the domain name server (DNS) can't find your page and you're sure you've typed it in correctly or clicked on a valid link, try it again - TWO more times! (Sometimes packets don't get there!)If you get a "Not found" message, the page may be temporarily missing because of miscoding at the target site.
  • interoperability - Interoperability (pronounced IHN-tuhr-AHP-uhr-uh-BIHL-ih-tee) is the ability of different systems, devices, applications or products to connect and communicate in a coordinated way, without effort from the end user.
  • interrupt latency - Interrupt latency, also called interrupt response time, is the length of time that it takes for a computer interrupt to be acted on after it has been generated.
  • intersection symbol - The intersection symbol denotes the intersection of two sets.
  • IPP (Internet presence provider) - An Internet presence provider (IPP) is a company that provides the disk space, high-speed Internet connection, and possibly the Web site design and other services for companies, organizations, or individuals to have a visible presence (meaning Web site) on the Internet.
  • IRQ (interrupt request) - An IRQ (interrupt request) value is an assigned location where the computer can expect a particular device to interrupt it when the device sends the computer signals about its operation.
  • irrational number - An irrational number is a real number that cannot be reduced to any ratio between an integer p and a natural number q.
  • IS (information system or information services) - An information system (IS) is the collection of technical and human resources that provide the storage, computing, distribution, and communication for the information required by all or some part of an enterprise.
  • iSCSI switch (Internet Small Computer System Interface switch) - An iSCSI switch is an appliance that processes and channels data between an iSCSI initiator and target on a storage device.
  • isotope - An isotope is a form of a chemical element whose atomic nucleus contains a specific number of neutron s, in addition to the number of protons that uniquely defines the element.
  • ISRS (information storage and retrieval system) - An information storage and retrieval system (ISRS) is a network with a built-in user interface that facilitates the creation, searching, and modification of stored data.
  • ISV (independent software vendor) - An ISV (independent software vendor) makes and sells software products that run on one or more computer hardware or operating system (OS) platforms.
  • IT Survival Kits - We've gathered a collection of resources to help you explore an IT topic you might not know much about.
  • iterative development - Iterative development is a way of breaking down the software development of a large application into smaller chunks.
  • Jack Kilby - Jack Kilby is generally credited with being the inventor of the integrated circuit (IC).
  • JBoss - JBoss is a division of Red Hat that provides support for the JBoss open source application server program and related middleware services marketed under the JBoss Enterprise Middleware brand.
  • jiffy - The term jiffy refers to a brief, usually unspecified, interval of time.
  • job - In certain computer operating systems, a job is the unit of work that a computer operator gives to the operating system.
  • job step - In certain computer operating systems, a job step is part of a job, a unit of work that a computer operator (or a program called a job scheduler) gives to the operating system.
  • John von Neumann - John von Neumann was the scientist who conceived a fundamental idea that serves all modern computers - that a computer's program and the data that it processes do not have to be fed into the computer while it is working, but can be kept in the computer's memory - a notion generally referred to as the stored-program computer.
  • jolt - On the Internet, jolt is a denial of service (DoS) attack caused by a very large ICMP packet that is fragmented in such a way that the targeted machine is unable to reassemble it for use.
  • K-12 - K-12, a term used in education and educational technology in the United States, Canada, and possibly other countries, is a short form for the publicly-supported school grades prior to college.
  • Kbps (kilobits per second) - In the U.S.
  • keitai - Keitai (pronounced k-tie) is a Japanese word meaning "portable.
  • kelvin (K) - The kelvin (abbreviation K), less commonly called the degree Kelvin (symbol, o K), is the Standard International (SI) unit of thermodynamic temperature.
  • keyboard shortcut - A keyboard shortcut is a combination of keys that, when pressed simultaneously, perform some task that ordinarily requires use of a mouse or other input device and may take longer to do.
  • kilobit - In data communications, a kilobit is a thousand (103) bits.
  • kilogram (kg) - The kilogram (abbreviation, kg) is the Standard International (SI) System of Units unit of mass.
  • kinetic energy - Kinetic energy is the energy of motion, observable as the movement of an object, particle, or set of particles.
  • kiosk - A kiosk (pronounced KEE-ahsk ) is a small, free-standing physical structure that displays information or provides a service.
  • KISS Principle (Keep It Simple, Stupid) - The KISS Principle (Keep It Simple, Stupid) is self-descriptive and recognizes two things: 1.
  • kludge - In information technology, a kludge (pronounced KLOOdzh) is an awkward or clumsy (but at least temporarily effective) solution to a programming or hardware design or implementation problem.
  • knowledge - In information technology, knowledge is, to an enterprise or an individual, the possession of information or the ability to quickly locate it.
  • knowledge base - In general, a knowledge base is a centralized repository for information: a public library, a database of related information about a particular subject, and whatis.
  • knowledge worker - A knowledge worker is anyone who works for a living at the tasks of developing or using knowledge.
  • Kryder's Law - Kryder's Law describes the rate at which former Seagate CTO Mark Kryder predicted disk drive density would grow.
  • L1 and L2 - L1 and L2 are levels of cache memory in a computer.
  • lambda - Lambda, the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, is the symbol for wavelength.
  • lambda (general definition) - Lambda, the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, is used as a symbol in optical fiber networking, in mathematics and in computer programming.
  • landscape - In printing from a computer, landscape refers to a mode in which content is printed for reading on the longer length of the sheet of paper.
  • laser - A laser is a coherent and focused beam of photons; coherent, in this context, means that it is all one wavelength, unlike ordinary light which showers on us in many wavelengths.
  • laser diode (injection laser or diode laser) - A laser diode, also known as an injection laser or diode laser, is a semiconductor device that produces coherent radiation (in which the waves are all at the same frequency and phase) in the visible or infrared (IR) spectrum when current passes through it.
  • latent data (ambient data) - Latent data, also known as ambient data, is the information in computer storage that is not referenced in file allocation tables and is generally not viewable through the operating system (OS) or standard applications.
  • latitude and longitude - Latitude and longitude are angles that uniquely define points on a sphere.
  • layering - In computer programming, layering is the organization of programming into separate functional components that interact in some sequential and hierarchical way, with each layer usually having an interface only to the layer above it and the layer below it.
  • lead generation - Lead generation is the use of a computer program, a database, the Internet, or a specialized service to obtain or receive information for the purpose of expanding the scope of a business, increasing sales revenues, looking for a job or for new clients, or conducting specialized research.
  • lean manufacturing (lean production) - Lean manufacturing is a methodology that focuses on minimizing waste within manufacturing systems while simultaneously maximizing productivity.
  • learning curve - Learning curves are a visualization of the difficulty estimated in learning a subject over a period of time as well as relative progress throughout the process of learning.
  • learning management system (LMS) - A learning management system (LMS) is a software application or Web-based technology used to plan, implement, and assess a specific learning process.
  • Learning Path: Electronics - So that you can give yourself a quick tutorial on electronics, we've arranged our definitions in this Learning Path in a sequence, with more basic building block topics placed at the beginning.
  • Learning Paths - We call the idea "Learning paths.
  • legacy application - A legacy application (legacy app) is a software program that is outdated or obsolete.
  • lemniscate - A lemniscate is a plane curve with a characteristic shape, consisting of two loops that meet at a central point as shown below.
  • Leonardo da Vinci's car - Da Vinci's car is a vehicle developed from the Renaissance artist/engineer/architect's drawings.
  • level of support (support level) - Level of support indicates a specific extent of technical assistance in the total range of assistance that is provided by an information technology product (such as a software product) to its customers.
  • leverage - In the physical sense, leverage is an assisted advantage.
  • library - In computing, a library is a collection of similar objects that are stored for occasional use - most frequently, programs in source code or object code form, data files, scripts, templates, fonts, and physical storage units such as tape cartridges.
  • lights-out management (LOM) - Lights-out management (LOM) is the ability for a system administrator to monitor and manage servers by remote control.
  • lightweight - In information technology, the term lightweight is sometimes applied to a program, protocol, device, or anything that is relatively simpler or faster or that has fewer parts than something else.
  • limit - In mathematics, a limit is a value toward which an expression converges as one or more variables approach certain values.
  • linearity - Linearity is the behavior of a circuit, particularly an amplifier, in which the output signal strength varies in direct proportion to the input signal strength.
  • linkrot - Linkrot is the tendency of hypertext links from one Web site to another site to become useless as other sites cease to exist or remove or reorganize their Web pages.
  • Linus Torvalds - Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux kernel, was born in Helsinki, Finland, on December 28, 1969.
  • Linux freeware and shareware guide - Here you'll find a number of useful tools that can be used as is or customized to create your own tools.
  • load balancing - Load balancing is a technique used to distribute workloads uniformly across servers or other compute resources to optimize network efficiency, reliability and capacity.
  • localization - Localization (sometimes shortened to "L10n") is the process of adapting a product or service to a particular language, culture and desired local "look-and-feel.
  • lock - A lock is a mechanism for controlling access to something.

-ADS BY GOOGLE

SearchCompliance

  • risk management

    Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

  • compliance as a service (CaaS)

    Compliance as a Service (CaaS) is a cloud service service level agreement (SLA) that specified how a managed service provider (...

  • data protection impact assessment (DPIA)

    A data protection impact assessment (DPIA) is a process designed to help organizations determine how data processing systems, ...

SearchSecurity

  • spyware

    Spyware is a type of malicious software -- or malware -- that is installed on a computing device without the end user's knowledge.

  • application whitelisting

    Application whitelisting is the practice of specifying an index of approved software applications or executable files that are ...

  • botnet

    A botnet is a collection of internet-connected devices, which may include PCs, servers, mobile devices and internet of things ...

SearchHealthIT

SearchDisasterRecovery

  • business continuity plan (BCP)

    A business continuity plan (BCP) is a document that consists of the critical information an organization needs to continue ...

  • disaster recovery team

    A disaster recovery team is a group of individuals focused on planning, implementing, maintaining, auditing and testing an ...

  • cloud insurance

    Cloud insurance is any type of financial or data protection obtained by a cloud service provider. 

SearchStorage

  • DRAM (dynamic random access memory)

    Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory that is typically used for the data or program code needed ...

  • RAID 10 (RAID 1+0)

    RAID 10, also known as RAID 1+0, is a RAID configuration that combines disk mirroring and disk striping to protect data.

  • PCIe SSD (PCIe solid-state drive)

    A PCIe SSD (PCIe solid-state drive) is a high-speed expansion card that attaches a computer to its peripherals.

Close