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Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

QUI - STI

  • radian - The radian is the Standard International (SI) unit of plane angular measure.
  • radian per second (rad/s or rad/sec) - The radian per second (symbolized rad/s or rad/sec) is the Standard International (SI) unit of angular (rotational) speed.
  • radian per second squared - The radian per second squared is the unit of angular (rotational) acceleration magnitude in the International System of Units (SI).
  • random numbers - Random numbers are numbers that occur in a sequence such that two conditions are met: ( the values are uniformly distributed over a defined interval or set, and (2) it is impossible to predict future values based on past or present ones.
  • raster graphics - Raster graphics are digital images created or captured (for example, by scanning in a photo) as a set of samples of a given space.
  • raw data (source data or atomic data) - Raw data (sometimes called source data, atomic data or primary data) is data that has not been processed for use.
  • read-only - Read-only is a file attribute which only allows a user to view a file, restricting any writing to the file.
  • read-only memory (ROM) - Read-only memory, or ROM, is a type of computer storage containing non-volatile, permanent data that, normally, can only be read, not written to.
  • real number - A real number is any element of the set R, which is the union of the set of rational numbers and the set of irrational numbers.
  • real time - Real time is a level of computer responsiveness that a user senses as sufficiently immediate or that enables the computer to keep up with some external process (for example, to present visualizations of the weather as it constantly changes).
  • real-time monitoring - Real-time (data) monitoring is the delivery of continuously updated information streaming at zero or low latency.
  • reboot (warm boot, cold boot) - To reboot is to restart a computer and reload the operating system.
  • refresh - In a computer display, to refresh is to redraw the image information from memory.
  • reliability - Reliability is an attribute of any computer-related component (software, or hardware, or a network, for example) that consistently performs according to its specifications.
  • reseller - In information technology, a reseller is a company that typically purchases IT products or services from a product manufacturer, distributor or service provider and then markets them to customers.
  • resolution - In computers, resolution is the number of pixels (individual points of color) contained on a display monitor, expressed in terms of the number of pixels on the horizontal axis and the number on the vertical axis.
  • return merchandise authorization (RMA) - An RMA (return merchandise authorization) is a numbered authorization provided by a mail-order merchant to permit the return of a product.
  • reverse-engineering - Reverse-engineering is the act of dismantling an object to see how it works.
  • RGB (red, green, and blue) - RGB (red, green, and blue) refers to a system for representing the colors to be used on a computer display.
  • RISC (reduced instruction set computer) - RISC (reduced instruction set computer) is a microprocessor that is designed to perform a smaller number of types of computer instructions so that it can operate at a higher speed (perform more millions of instructions per second, or MIPS).
  • robot - A robot is a machine designed to execute one or more tasks automatically with speed and precision.
  • robotics - Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture and operation of robots.
  • RoC (restart on crash) - RoC (restart on crash) is a functionality built into Windows that automatically restarts an operating system or application when it hangs, freezes or crashes.
  • ROI (return on investment) - Return on investment, or ROI, is a mathematical formula that investors can use to evaluate their investments and judge how well a particular investment has performed compared to others.
  • ROM emulation - ROM emulation is the process of copying data from a ROM (read-only memory) chip to a storage medium such as a hard disk or flash memory.
  • root cause analysis - Root cause analysis is a way to determine how a problematic event occurred by examining why, how and when the casual factors happened after the fact.
  • runbook - Runbooks are a set of standardized written procedures for completing repetitive IT processes within a company.
  • runtime system - A runtime system is an engine that translates a given programming language or languages into machine code.
  • sample rate - In developing an audio sound for computers or telecommunication, the sample rate is the number of samples of a sound that are taken per second to represent the event digitally.
  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act - The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is a federal law that established sweeping auditing and financial regulations for public companies.
  • satellite constellation (satellite swarm) - A satellite constellation, also called a satellite swarm, is a system of satellites that work together to achieve a single purpose.
  • scalability - Scalability is the ability of a computer application or product (hardware or software) to continue to perform well when it (or its context) is changed in size or volume in order to meet a users need.
  • Schrodinger's cat - Schrödinger's cat is a famous hypothetical experiment designed to point out a flaw in the Copenhagen interpretation of superposition as it applies to quantum theory.
  • scientific method - Scientific method is a logical approach to seeking knowledge that involves forming and testing a hypothesis.
  • scientific notation (power-of-10 notation) - Scientific notation, also called power-of-10 notation, is a method of writing extremely large and small numbers.
  • search neutrality - Search neutrality is the direct conducting of transparent search processes that do not discriminate between users or favor specific sites.
  • search operator - A search operator (sometimes referred to as a search parameter) is a character or string of characters used in a search engine query to narrow the focus of the search.
  • second (s or sec) - The second (abbreviation,s or sec) is the Standard International (SI) unit of time.
  • segmented memory - Segmented memory is a system of addressing computer memory, which may be physical or virtual and may be operating in real or protected mode.
  • sensor - A sensor is a device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment.
  • sequential logic - Sequential logic is a form of binary circuit design that employs one or more inputs and one or more outputs, whose states are related by defined rules that depend, in part, on previous states.
  • serial - Serial means one event at a time.
  • serial presence detect (SPD) - When a computer is booted (started), serial presence detect (SPD) is information stored in anelectrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) chip on a synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) memory module that tells thebasic input/output system (BIOS) the module's size, data width, speed, and voltage.
  • server stack - A server stack is the collection of software that forms the operational infrastructure on a given machine.
  • service-oriented architecture (SOA) - Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a software development model that allows services to communicate across different platforms and languages to form applications.
  • shift register - A shift register is a digital memory circuit found in calculators, computers, and data-processing systems.
  • significant figures - The term significant figures refers to the number of important single digits (0 through 9 inclusive) in the coefficient of an expression in scientific notation.
  • silicon (Si) - Silicon is a chemical element (its symbol in chemical formula expressions is "Si") that is present in sand and glass and which is the best known semiconductor material in electronic components.
  • site map - A site map is a visual or textually organized model of a Web site's content that allows the users to navigate through the site to find the information they are looking for, just as a traditional geographical map helps people find places they are looking for in the real world.
  • six degrees of separation - Six degrees of separation is the theory that any person on the planet can be connected to any other person on the planet through a chain of acquaintances that has no more than five intermediaries.
  • Six Sigma - Six Sigma is a business methodology for quality improvement that measures how many defects there are in a current process and seeks to systematically eliminate them.
  • SKU (stockkeeping unit) - SKU (stockkeeping unit, sometimes spelled "Sku") is an identification, usually alphanumeric, of a particular product that allows it to be tracked for inventory purposes.
  • SkunkWorks project (Skunk Works) - A skunk works is a small group of people who work on a project that needs to be completed quickly.
  • slack space (file slack space) - Slack space is the difference between its logical and physical size.
  • sleep mode - Sleep mode, sometimes called standby or suspend mode, is a power-sparing state that a computer can enter when not in use.
  • slice and dice - To slice and dice is to break a body of information down into smaller parts or to examine it from different viewpoints so that you can understand it better.
  • slow-scan television (SSTV) - Slow-scan television (SSTV) is a mode of video communications in which a sequence of fixed images is sent and received at intervals of several seconds.
  • Small Office Home Office (SOHO) - In information technology, SOHO is a term for the small office or home office environment and business culture.
  • smart machines - A smart machine is a device embedded with machine-to-machine (M2M) and/or cognitive computing technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning or deep learning, all of which it uses to reason, problem-solve, make decisions and even, ultimately, take action.
  • SMB (small and medium-sized business or small and midsized business) - SMB is an abbreviation for small and medium-sized business, sometimes seen as small and midsized business.
  • SNAFU (situation normal, all f***ed up) - SNAFU is an acronym for "situation normal, all f***ed up.
  • sneakernet - Sneakernet is a jargon term for the method of transmitting electronic information by personally carrying it from one place to another on floppy disk or other removable medium.
  • Sniglet - Words that should be in the dictionary (but aren't) - A sniglet is a word that should be in the dictionary but isn't.
  • soft copy - A soft copy (sometimes spelled "softcopy") is an electronic copy of some type of data, such as a file viewed on a computer's display or transmitted as an e-mail attachment.
  • soft error - A soft error is an issue that causes a temporary condition in RAM that alters stored data in an unintended way.
  • soft reset - A soft reset is a restart of a device, such as a smartphone, tablet, laptop or personal computer (PC).
  • software - Software is a set of instructions, data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks.
  • software package - A software package is an assemblage of files and information about those files.
  • sound card - A sound card (also referred to as an audio card) is a peripheral device that attaches to the ISA or PCI slot on a motherboard to enable the computer to input, process, and deliver sound.
  • sound wave - A sound wave is the pattern of disturbance caused by the movement of energy traveling through a medium (such as air, water, or any other liquid or solid matter) as it propagates away from the source of the sound.
  • space - In mathematics, space is an unbounded continuum (unbroken set of points) in which exactly three numerical coordinates are necessary to uniquely define the location of any particular point.
  • spectrum analyzer - A spectrum analyzer is a device that measures and displays signal amplitude (strength) as it varies by frequency within its frequency range (spectrum).
  • speech synthesis - Speech synthesis is the computer-generated simulation of human speech.
  • Squid proxy server - Squid is a Unix-based proxy server that caches Internet content closer to a requestor than its original point of origin.
  • SRAM (static random access memory) - SRAM (static RAM) is random access memory (RAM) that retains data bits in its memory as long as power is being supplied.
  • stack - TCP/IP is frequently referred to as a "stack.
  • standard - A standard is a generally agreed-upon technology, method or format for a given application.
  • standards organization - A standards organization, sometimes referred to as a standards body, is an organization with authority to endorse official standards for given applications.
  • standby power - Standby power is electrical power that a device consumes when not in present use, but plugged in to a source of power and ready to be used.
  • state machine - In general, a state machine is any device that stores the status of something at a given time and can operate on input to change the status and/or cause an action or output to take place for any given change.
  • statistical mean, median, mode and range - The terms mean, median, mode, and range describe properties of statistical distributions.
  • STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) - STEM is an educational program developed to prepare primary and secondary students for college and graduate study in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).
  • steradian - The steradian (symbolized sr) is the Standard International (SI) unit of solid angular measure.
  • stereoscopy (stereoscopic imaging) - Stereoscopy, sometimes called stereoscopic imaging, is a technique used to enable a three-dimensional effect, adding an illusion of depth to a flat image.
  • stickiness - Stickiness is anything about a Web site that encourages a visitor to stay longer.
SearchCompliance
  • ISO 31000 Risk Management

    The ISO 31000 Risk Management framework is an international standard that provides businesses with guidelines and principles for ...

  • pure risk

    Pure risk refers to risks that are beyond human control and result in a loss or no loss with no possibility of financial gain.

  • risk reporting

    Risk reporting is a method of identifying risks tied to or potentially impacting an organization's business processes.

SearchSecurity
  • Twofish

    Twofish is a symmetric-key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and variable-length key of size 128, 192 or 256 bits.

  • walled garden

    On the internet, a walled garden is an environment that controls the user's access to network-based content and services.

  • potentially unwanted program (PUP)

    A potentially unwanted program (PUP) is a program that may be unwanted, despite the possibility that users consented to download ...

SearchHealthIT
SearchDisasterRecovery
  • What is risk mitigation?

    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • fault-tolerant

    Fault-tolerant technology is a capability of a computer system, electronic system or network to deliver uninterrupted service, ...

  • synchronous replication

    Synchronous replication is the process of copying data over a storage area network, local area network or wide area network so ...

SearchStorage
  • Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA)

    Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is a technology that enables two networked computers to exchange data in main memory without ...

  • storage (computer storage)

    Data storage is the collective methods and technologies that capture and retain digital information on electromagnetic, optical ...

  • storage medium (storage media)

    In computers, a storage medium is a physical device that receives and retains electronic data for applications and users and ...

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