Browse Definitions :

Computing fundamentals

Terms related to computer fundamentals, including computer hardware definitions and words and phrases about software, operating systems, peripherals and troubleshooting.

LOG - NAT

  • logarithm (logarithmic) - A logarithm is an exponent used in mathematical calculations to depict the perceived levels of variable quantities such as visible light energy, electromagnetic field strength, and sound intensity.
  • logical AND symbol - For a practical application, see logic gate.
  • logical block addressing (LBA) - Logical block addressing is a technique that allows a computer to address a hard disk larger than 528 megabytes.
  • logical equivalence - Logical equivalence is a type of relationship between two statements or sentences in propositional logic or Boolean algebra.
  • logical implication - Logical implication is a type of relationship between two statements or sentences.
  • logical negation symbol - The logical negation symbol is used in Boolean algebra to indicate that the truth value of the statement that follows is reversed.
  • logical OR symbol - For a practical application, see logic gate.
  • logon (or login) - In general computer usage, logon is the procedure used to get access to an operating system or application, usually in a remote computer.
  • longitudinal time code (LTC) - Longitidinal time code (LTC) is a timing signal that is part of an audio tape recording.
  • look-to-book ratio - The look-to-book ratio is a figure used in the travel industry that shows the percentage of people who visit a travel Web site compared to those who actually make a purchase.
  • lossless and lossy compression - Lossless and lossy compression are terms that describe whether or not, in the compression of a file, all original data can be recovered when the file is uncompressed.
  • lowerCamelCase - lowerCamelCase (part of CamelCase) is a naming convention in which a name is formed of multiple words that are joined together as a single word with the first letter of each of the multiple words (except the first one) capitalized within the new word that forms the name.
  • Luddite - A Luddite is a person who dislikes technology, especially technological devices that threaten existing jobs or interfere with personal privacy.
  • lurking - Lurking is the very common practice of reading an online or e-mail discussion without taking part in the discussion.
  • LZW compression - LZW compression is the compression of a file into a smaller file using a table-based lookup algorithm invented by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch.
  • m-commerce (mobile commerce) - M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless handheld devices such as smartphones and tablets.
  • M-theory - M-theory (the "M" stands for the mother of all theories, magic, mystery, or matrix, depending on the source) is an adaptation of superstring theory developed by Ed Witten of Princeton and Paul Townsend of Cambridge.
  • Mac mini - The Mac mini from Apple is a low-cost and very compact personal computer that runs the Mac OS X operating system and is sold without a display, keyboard, or mouse.
  • machine code (machine language) - Machine code, also known as machine language, is the elemental language of computers.
  • Macintosh - The Macintosh (often called "the Mac") was the first widely-sold personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) and a mouse.
  • magnetic stripe reader (magstripe reader) - A magnetic stripe reader, also called a magstripe reader, is a hardware device that reads the information encoded in the magnetic stripe located on the back of a plastic badge.
  • marcom (or marcomm) - Marcom (sometimes spelled "marcomm") is an abbreviation for "marketing communications.
  • Master Boot Record (MBR) - The Master Boot Record (MBR) is the information in the first sector of any hard disk or diskette that identifies how and where an operating system is located so that it can be boot (loaded) into the computer's main storage or random access memory.
  • master/slave - In computer networking, master/slave is a model for a communication protocol in which one device or process (known as the master) controls one or more other devices or processes (known as slaves).
  • Mathematical Symbols - This table contains mathematical symbols and links to definitions of what they represent.
  • matrix - Apart from information technology, matrix (pronounced MAY-triks) has a number of special meanings.
  • matter - Matter is a substance that has inertia and occupies physical space.
  • Mbps (megabits per second) - Megabits per second (Mbps) are a unit of measurement for bandwidth and throughput on a network.
  • mebibyte (MiB) - A mebibyte (MiB) is a unit of measurement used in computer data storage.
  • medium - A medium is a third-party or element through which a message is communicated.
  • megabit - In data communications, a megabit is a million binary pulses, or 1,000,000 (that is, 106) pulses (or "bits").
  • megabyte (MB) - As a measure of computer processor storage and real and virtual memory, a megabyte (abbreviated MB) is 2 to the 20th power bytes, or 1,048,576 bytes in decimal notation.
  • megabytes per second (MBps) - Megabytes per second (MBps) describes a unit of data transfer to and from a computer storage device.
  • megatransfer - On a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) computer bus, a megatransfer is one million data transfers.
  • meme - A meme is an idea that is passed on from one human generation to another.
  • memory map - A memory map is a massive table, in effect a database, that comprises complete information about how the memory is structured in a computer system.
  • memory read error - A memory read error is a malfunction that occurs when data is being accessed from memory for use by a program, or when a value read from RAM fails to match an expected value.
  • Mersenne prime (or Marsenne prime) - A Mersenne (also spelled Marsenne) prime is a specific type of prime number.
  • message - (Using e-mail, a message is an individual piece of mail.
  • message-driven processing - Message-driven processing is an approach used within the client/server computing model in which a client (for example, your Web browser) sends a service request in the form of a specially-formatted message to a program that acts as a request broker, handling messages from many clients intended for many different server applications.
  • meta - Metadata is a description of data.
  • metabolomics - Metabolomics is a term sometimes used to describe the emerging science of measurement and analysis of metabolites, such as sugars and fats, in the cells of organisms at specific times and under specific conditions.
  • metacharacter - A metacharacter (sometimes spelled meta character or meta-character) is a special character in a program or data field that provides information about other characters.
  • metasyntactic variable - In programming, a metasyntactic (which derives from meta and syntax) variable is a variable (a changeable value) that is used to temporarily represent a function.
  • meter - The meter (abbreviation, m; the British spelling is metre) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of displacement or length.
  • meter per second squared - The meter per second squared (symbolized m/s 2 or m/sec 2) is the Standard International (SI) unit of acceleration vector magnitude.
  • metered services (pay-per-use) - Metered services (also called pay-per-use) is any type of payment structure in which a customer has access to potentially unlimited resources but only pays for what they actually use.
  • metric system - The metric system is considered almost synonymous with the Standard International System of Units (SI) and is sometimes called the meter-kilogram-second (MKS or mks) system.
  • micro fuel cell - A micro fuel cell is a power source for electronic devices that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.
  • microdata - Microdata is a type of specification language that is embedded within HTML content to improve machine readability, annotate elements and analyze web pages.
  • microrobot - A microrobot is a miniaturized, sophisticated machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision.
  • microsecond - A microsecond (us or Greek letter mu plus s) is one millionth (10 -6) of a second.
  • Microsoft Remote Desktop Web Access (Microsoft RD Web Access) - Microsoft Remote Desktop Web Access (Microsoft RD Web Access) is a feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2012 that allows users to access RemoteApp and Desktop Connection through the Start menu or a Web browser.
  • Microsoft TechNet - Microsoft TechNet is an online resource site that offers IT professionals free access to learning content and discussion forums.
  • Microsoft Windows Control Panel - The Microsoft Windows Control Panel is a management tool for the Windows operating system (OS) that allows end users to change settings and manage tasks within the OS.
  • Microsoft Windows Defender - Windows Defender is Microsoft's antimalware software.
  • middleware - Middleware is the software that connects network-based requests generated by a client to the back-end data the client is requesting.
  • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) - MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a protocol designed for recording and playing back music on digital synthesizers that is supported by many makes of personal computer sound cards.
  • midrange - In general, midrange refers to computers that are more powerful and capable than personal computers but less powerful and capable than mainframe computers.
  • millennium - A millennium is a period of one thousand years.
  • Millennium Simulation - The Millennium Simulation is a computer program that uses the laws of physics and initial conditions at the time the universe was formed to simulate the structure and the evolution of the universe, and in particular, the evolution of black hole s, galaxies, and quasar s.
  • millimeter (mm, millimetre) - A millimeter (abbreviated as mm and sometimes spelled as millimetre) is a small unit of length/distance in the metric system, one-thousandth of a meter (which is similar in length to a yard in the Imperial system of measurement).
  • millisecond - (This definition follows U.
  • Mini-ITX 2.0 - Mini-ITX 2.0 is a motherboard designed for use in small form factor personal computers (PCs).
  • MIPS (million instructions per second) - The number of MIPS (million instructions per second) is a general measure of computing performance and, by implication, the amount of work a larger computer can do.
  • MIS (management information systems) - MIS, or management information systems, is the software and hardware to support critical business applications.
  • mobile device - A mobile device is essentially a handheld computer.
  • mobo (motherboard) - Mobo is a short form for motherboard that is sometimes used in Usenet newsgroups and Web forum discussions.
  • modeling and simulation (M&S) - Modeling and simulation (M&S) is the use of a physical or logical representation of a given system to generate data and help determine decisions or make predictions about the system.
  • mole per meter cubed (Avogadro constant) - The mole per meter cubed (mol / m 3) is the International Unit of amount-of-substance concentration.
  • molecule - A molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound.
  • monolithic - Monolithic, in information technology, means either very large or composed all in one piece, depending on the particular context.
  • Monte Carlo method or Monte Carlo analysis - The Monte Carlo method, also called Monte Carlo analysis, is a means of statistical evaluation of mathematical functions using random samples.
  • moof monster - The moof monster is a vague and indefinable source of trouble for users of information technology.
  • Morse code - Morse code is a method of sending text messages by keying in a series of electronic pulses, usually represented as a short pulse (called a "dot") and a long pulse (a "dash").
  • Mortimer - A Mortimer is a person who knows a lot about computers or the Internet but would rather ridicule those who know less than share some knowledge.
  • Mosaic - Mosaic was the first widely-distributed graphical browser or viewer for the World Wide Web.
  • most significant bit or byte - The most significant bit (MSB) is the bit in a multiple-bit binary number with the largest value.
  • motherboard - A motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) in a computer.
  • motive power - Motive power is a term in thermodynamics referring to the harnessed energy or force that is used to power a mechanical device or system.
  • mouse miles - "Mouse miles" is slang for user time at the computer (as in "I travelled a lot of mouse miles this week") and also an actual measure of how much activity a computer mouse has had over time.
  • MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3) - MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3) is a standard technology and format for a sound sequence into a very small file (about one-twelfth the size of the original file) while preserving the original level of sound quality when it is played.
  • MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) - MPEG (pronounced EHM-pehg), the Moving Picture Experts Group, develops standards for digital video and digital audio compression.
  • mu - The lowercase Greek letter mu is used to represent the prefix multiplier 0.
  • multi-core processor - A multi-core processor is an integrated circuit (IC) to which two or more processors have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption, and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks.
  • MultiMediaCard (MMC) - A MultiMediaCard (MMC) is a tiny memory card that uses flash memory to make storage portable among various devices, such as car navigation systems, cellular phones, eBooks, PDAs, smartphones, and digital cameras, music players, and video camcorders, and personal computers.
  • multiprocessing - Multiprocessing is the coordinated processing of programs by more than one computer processor.
  • multitasking - Multitasking, in an operating system, is allowing a user to perform more than one computer task (such as the operation of an application program) at a time.
  • multithreading - It is easy to confuse multithreading with multitasking or multiprogramming, which are somewhat different ideas.
  • Murphy's Law - The original Murphy's Law was "If there are two or more ways to do something, and one of those ways can result in a catastrophe, then someone will do it.
  • NAK (negative acknowledgment or not acknowledged) - NAK is an abbreviation for negative acknowledgment or not acknowledged.
  • nanobiomechanics (nanoscale biomechanics) - Nanobiomechanics, also called nanoscale biomechanics, is a field of biomedical technology that involves measurement of the mechanical characteristics of individual living cells.
  • nanocomputer - A nanocomputer is a computer whose physical dimensions are microscopic.
  • nanomachine (nanite) - A nanomachine, also called a nanite, is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometers (millionths of a millimeter, or units of 10 -9 meter).
  • nanometer - A nanometer is a unit of spatial measurement that is 10-9 meter, or one billionth of a meter.
  • nanosecond (ns or nsec) - (This definition follows U.
  • nanotransistor - A nanotransistor is a transistor - the component that acts as an electronic signal switch or amplifier - that is near the scale of a billionth of a meter (or nanometer) in size.
  • nanotube (carbon nanotube) - A carbon nanotube (CNT) is a miniature cylindrical carbon structure that has hexagonal graphite molecules attached at the edges.

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