Browse Definitions :

Data and data management

Terms related to data, including definitions about data warehousing and words and phrases about data management.

10G - CRU

  • 10g - 10g is Oracle's grid computing product group including (among other things) a database management system (DBMS) and an application server.
  • 3-tier application architecture - A 3-tier application architecture is a modular client-server architecture that consists of a presentation tier, an application tier and a data tier.
  • 3Vs (volume, variety and velocity) - 3Vs (volume, variety and velocity) are three defining properties of big data.
  • 99.999 (Five nines or Five 9s) - In computers, 99.
  • access method - In computing, an access method is a program or a hardware mechanism that moves data between the computer and an outlying device such as a hard disk (or other form of storage) or a display terminal.
  • accounting error - What is an accounting error?An accounting error is a non-fraudulent discrepancy in financial documentation.
  • active archive - An active archive is a collection of data that is too valuable for a company to discard, but only needs to be accessed occasionally.
  • ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) - ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) is an application program interface from Microsoft that lets a programmer writing Windows applications get access to a relational or non-relational database from both Microsoft and other database providers.
  • Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE) - Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE) is a relational database management system (RDBMS) from Sybase, Inc.
  • Allscripts - Allscripts is a vendor of electronic health record systems for physician practices, hospitals and healthcare systems.
  • alternate data stream (ADS) - An alternate data stream (ADS) is a feature of Windows New Technology File System (NTFS) that contains metadata for locating a specific file by author or title.
  • alternative data - Alternative data is information gathered from non-traditional information sources.
  • Amalga - Amalga is a health IT data integration platform designed to retrieve and display healthcare-related information from various sources, including scanned documents, lab results, dictated notes and images such as X-rays, EKGs and MRIs.
  • Amazon Kinesis - Amazon Kinesis is the fully managed Amazon Web Service (AWS) offering for real-time processing of big data.
  • Amazon Redshift - Amazon Redshift is a fully managed petabyte-scale data warehouse service.
  • Amazon S3 - Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) is a scalable, high-speed, web-based cloud storage service designed for online backup and archiving of data and applications on Amazon Web Services.
  • Anaplan - Anaplan is a Web-based enterprise platform for business planning.
  • Andrew file system (AFS) - An Andrew file system (AFS) is a location-independent file system that uses a local cache to reduce the workload and increase the performance of a distributed computing environment.
  • Apache Falcon - Apache Falcon is a data management tool for overseeing data pipelines in Hadoop clusters, with a goal of ensuring consistent and dependable performance on complex processing jobs.
  • Apache Giraph - Apache Giraph is real-time graph processing software that is mostly used to analyze social media data.
  • Apache Hive - Apache Hive is an open source data warehouse system for querying and analyzing large data sets that are principally stored in Hadoop files.
  • Apache Parquet - Apache Parquet is a column-oriented storage format for Hadoop.
  • Apache Solr - Apache Solr is an open source search platform built upon a Java library called Lucene.
  • Apache Storm - Storm is a free and open source (FOSS) distributed real-time computation system developed by the Apache Foundation.
  • archive - In enterprise data storage, an archive is a collection of infrequently accessed data that needs to be stored for long periods of time to meet backup and compliance requirements.
  • ARJ (Archive Robert Jung) - ARJ is an archiving program created by Robert Jung for IBM-compatible computers.
  • AS1 (Applicability Statement 1) - AS1 (Applicability Statement is a specification for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) communications between businesses using e-mail protocols.
  • AS2 (Applicability Statement 2) - AS2 (Applicability Statement 2) is a specification for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) between businesses using the Internet's Web page protocol, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
  • atomic data - In a data warehouse, atomic data is the lowest level of detail.
  • AUFS (Advanced Multi-Layered Unification Filesystem) - Advanced multi-layered unification filesystem (AUFS) is a union filesystem sometimes used in platform-as-a-service environments to merge distinct directory hierarchies into a single directory.
  • autonomous transaction - In Oracle's database products, an autonomous transaction is an independent transaction that is initiated by another transaction.
  • Azure Data Studio (formerly SQL Operations Studio) - Azure Data Studio is a Microsoft tool, originally named SQL Operations Studio, for managing SQL Server databases and cloud-based Azure SQL Database and Azure SQL Data Warehouse systems.
  • B-tree - A B-tree is a method of placing and locating files (called records or keys) in a database.
  • bar graph - A bar graph is a pictorial rendition of statistical data in which the independent variable can attain only certain discrete values.
  • Bayesian statistics - Bayesian statistics is a mathematical approach to calculating probability in which conclusions are subjective and updated as additional data is collected.
  • BEx (Business Explorer) - In the SAP Business Information Warehouse (BW), BEx (Business Explorer) is the reporting tool used to work with data in the BW database.
  • big data - Big data is an evolving term that describes a large volume of structured, semi-structured and unstructured data that has the potential to be mined for information and used in machine learning projects and other advanced analytics applications.
  • big data (infographic) - Big data is a general term used to describe the voluminous and ever-increasing amount of structured, unstructured and semi-structured data being created -- data that would take too much time and cost too much money to load into a relational database for analysis.
  • big data analytics - Big data analytics is the often complex process of examining large and varied data sets -- or big data -- to uncover information including hidden patterns, unknown correlations, market trends and customer preferences that can help organizations make informed business decisions.
  • big data management - Big data management is the organization, administration and governance of large volumes of both structured and unstructured data.
  • big data storage - Big data storage is a compute-and-storage architecture that collects and manages large data sets and enables real-time data analytics.
  • binary tree - A binary tree is a method of placing and locating files (called records or keys) in a database, especially when all the data is known to be in random access memory (RAM).
  • bit rot - Bit rot is the slow deterioration in the performance and integrity of data stored on storage media.
  • BLOB (binary large object) - In computers, a BLOB (binary large object), pronounced BLAHB and sometimes spelled in all lower case, is a large file, typically an image or sound file, that must be handled (for example, uploaded, downloaded, or stored in a database) in a special way because of its size.
  • block - A block is a contiguous set of bits or bytes that forms an identifiable unit of data.
  • block diagram - A block diagram is a visual representation of a system that uses simple, labeled blocks that represent single or multiple items, entities or concepts, connected by lines to show relationships between them.
  • blockchain - Blockchain is a type of distributed ledger for maintaining a permanent and tamper-proof record of transactional data.
  • blockchain storage - Blockchain storage is a way of saving data in a decentralized network which utilizes the unused hard disk space of users across the world to store files.
  • Blue Cloud - Blue Cloud is an approach to shared infrastructure developed by IBM.
  • box plot - A box plot is a graphical rendition of statistical data based on the minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum.
  • brontobyte - A brontobyte is a measure of memory or data storage that is equal to 10 to the 27th power of bytes.
  • Business case analysis and a business case guide - A business case is an argument, usually documented, that is intended to convince a decision maker to approve some kind of action.
  • business intelligence dashboard - A business intelligence dashboard is a graphical interface that displays the current status of metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs) for an enterprise.
  • carrier hotel (colocation center) - A carrier hotel, also called a colocation center, is a secure physical site or building where data communications media converge and are interconnected.
  • case - A case is a particular instance of something.
  • catalog - In computing, a catalog is a directory of information about data sets, files, or a database.
  • Catalogue of Life - The Catalogue of Life project is an international initiative intended to catalog every life form on the planet according to a standardized taxonomy and to organize that information into a comprehensive and universally accessible database system.
  • causation - Causation, or causality, is the capacity of one variable to influence another.
  • CCHIT - Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology - The Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology (CCHIT) is an independent, not-for-profit group that certifies electronic health records (EHR) and networks for health information exchange (HIE) in the United States.
  • Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) - The Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) is the agency charged with providing advice to any entity within the United Kingdom that owns or operates services or property critical to commerce, public health or security.
  • CFML (ColdFusion Markup Language) - CFML (ColdFusion Markup Language) is a Web page markup language that allows a Web site developer to create pages with variable information (text or graphics) that is filled in dynamically (on the fly) in response to variables such as user input.
  • change data capture (CDC) - Change data capture (CDC) is the process of capturing changes made at the data source and applying them throughout the enterprise.
  • chief data officer (CDO) - A chief data officer (CDO) is a C-level corporate executive who is responsible for an organization's data governance.
  • CICS (Customer Information Control System) - CICS (Customer Information Control System) is an online transaction processing (OLTP) program from IBM that, together with the COBOL programming language, has formed over the past several decades the most common set of tools for building customer transaction applications in the world of large enterprise mainframe computing.
  • clinical decision support system (CDSS) - A clinical decision support system (CDSS) is an application that analyzes data to help healthcare providers make decisions and improve patient care.
  • Cloud Data Management Interface - Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) is a Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) industry standard that defines the interface that applications will use to create, retrieve, update and delete data elements from the cloud.
  • cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR) - Cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR) is a backup and restore strategy that involves storing and maintaining copies of electronic records in a cloud computing environment as a security measure.
  • cloud SLA (cloud service-level agreement) - A cloud SLA (cloud service-level agreement) is an agreement between a cloud service provider and a customer that ensures a minimum level of service is maintained.
  • cloud storage - Cloud storage is a service model in which data is maintained, managed, backed up remotely and made available to users over a network (typically the Internet).
  • cloud storage API - A cloud storage API is an application program interface that connects a locally-based application to a cloud-based storage system, so that a user can send data to it and access and work with data stored in it.
  • cloud storage service - A cloud storage service is a business that maintains and manages its customers' data and makes that data accessible over a network, usually the internet.
  • CloudAudit - CloudAudit is a specification for the presentation of information about how a cloud computing service provider addresses control frameworks.
  • CMDB (configuration management database) - A configuration management database (CMDB) is a database that contains all relevant information about the hardware and software components used in an organization's IT services and the relationships between those components.
  • Cognos - Cognos is IBM's business intelligence (BI) and performance management software suite.
  • cohort - A cohort is a group of people that have some demographic or statistical characteristic in common.
  • cold backup (offline backup) - Cold backups are ideal for disaster recovery because they protect important data.
  • Collaboration Data Objects (CDO) - Collaboration Data Objects (CDO) is Microsoft's technology for building messaging or collaboration applications or adding these capabilities to existing applications.
  • Collaborative Master Data Management (CMDM) - Collaborative Master Data Management (CMDM) is an integration tool from SAP, the German software company.
  • column database management system (CDBMS) - There are different types of CDBMS offerings, with the common defining feature being that data is stored by column (or column families) instead of as rows.
  • comma-separated values file (CSV) - In computers, a CSV (comma-separated values) file contains the values in a table as a series of ASCII text lines organized so that each column value is separated by a comma from the next column's value and each row starts a new line.
  • commit - A commit is the final step in the successful completion of a previously started database change as part of handling a transaction in a computing system.
  • Compiere - Compiere is a popular open-source system of software applications that provide enterprise resource planning (ERP), customer relationship management (CRM), supply chain management (SCM), tax accounting, and general accounting for the small and medium-size enterprise.
  • confidentiality - Confidentiality is a set of rules or a promise that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
  • conformed dimension - In data warehousing, a conformed dimension is a dimension that has the same meaning to every fact with which it relates.
  • consensus algorithm - A consensus algorithm is a process in computer science used to achieve agreement on a single data value among distributed processes or systems.
  • consumer data - Consumer data is the information trail customers leave behind as a result of their Internet use.
  • content management application (CMA) - A content management application (CMA) is the front end component of a content management system (CMS).
  • contiguous - Contiguous describes two or more objects that are adjacent to each other.
  • continuum - A continuum is a continuous system or range in which adjacent elements do not vary from each other in any marked degree although the endpoints of the system may be drastically different.
  • cooked data - Cooked data is raw data after it has been processed - that is, extracted, organized, and perhaps analyzed and presented - for further use.
  • copy data - Copy data is the electronic data that is created as a result of data protection functions like backups, snapshots and disaster recovery.
  • core banking system - A core banking system is the software used to support a bank’s most common transactions.
  • correlation - Correlation is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two or more variables fluctuate in tandem.
  • correlation coefficient - A correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the degree to which changes to the value of one variable predict change to the value of another.
  • CouchDB - CouchDB is an open source document-oriented database based on common web standards.
  • CRM analytics - CRM (customer relationship management) analytics comprises all programming that analyzes data about customers and presents it to help facilitate and streamline better business decisions.
  • CRUD cycle (Create, Read, Update and Delete Cycle) - The CRUD cycle describes the elemental functions of a persistent database in a computer.

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