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Database management

Terms related to databases, including definitions about relational databases and words and phrases about database management.

3-T - DEN

  • 3-tier application architecture - A 3-tier application architecture is a modular client-server architecture that consists of a presentation tier, an application tier and a data tier.
  • ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability) - ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability) is an acronym and mnemonic device for learning and remembering the four primary attributes ensured to any transaction by a transaction manager (which is also called a transaction monitor).
  • active directory - Active Directory (AD) is Microsoft's proprietary directory service.
  • ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) - ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) is an application program interface from Microsoft that lets a programmer writing Windows applications get access to a relational or non-relational database from both Microsoft and other database providers.
  • AdventureWorks Database - AdventureWorks Database is a sample OLTP database that Microsoft ships with all of its SQL Server database products.
  • AlwaysOn Availability Groups - AlwaysOn Availability Groups is a database mirroring technique for Microsoft SQL Server that allows administrators to pull together a group of user databases that can fail over together.
  • Amazon DynamoDB - Amazon DynamoDB is a fully managed NoSQL database service offered by AWS, designed to provide low latency and high performance for applications.
  • Amazon RDS (Relational Database Service) - Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) is a managed SQL database service provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS).
  • Amazon Simple Database Service (SimpleDB) - Amazon Simple Database Service (SimpleDB), also known as a key value data store, is a highly available and flexible non-relational database that allows developers to request and store data, with minimal database management and administrative responsibility.
  • Apache Giraph - Apache Giraph is real-time graph processing software that is mostly used to analyze social media data.
  • Apache HBase - Apache HBase is a column-oriented key/value data store built to run on top of the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).
  • Apache Hive - Apache Hive is an open source data warehouse system for querying and analyzing large data sets that are principally stored in Hadoop files.
  • application server - An application server is a server program in a computer in a distributed network that provides the business logic for an application program.
  • archive - In enterprise data storage, an archive is a collection of infrequently accessed data that needs to be stored for long periods of time to meet backup and compliance requirements.
  • AS1 (Applicability Statement 1) - AS1 (Applicability Statement is a specification for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) communications between businesses using e-mail protocols.
  • ASP.NET (ASP+) - ASP.NET (originally called ASP+) is the next generation of Microsoft's Active Server Page (ASP), a feature of their Internet Information Server (IIS).
  • Automated License Plate Recognition (ALPR) - Automated License Plate Recognition (ALPR) is a technology that uses optical character recognition (OCR) to automatically read license plate characters.
  • autonomous transaction - In Oracle's database products, an autonomous transaction is an independent transaction that is initiated by another transaction.
  • Azure Data Studio (formerly SQL Operations Studio) - Azure Data Studio is a Microsoft tool, originally named SQL Operations Studio, for managing SQL Server databases and cloud-based Azure SQL Database and Azure SQL Data Warehouse systems.
  • B-tree - A B-tree is a method of placing and locating files (called records or keys) in a database.
  • Basic Assembler Language (BAL) - BAL (Basic Assembler Language) is a version of IBM's assembler language (sometimes called assembly language) for its System/360 and System/370 mainframe operating system.
  • binary tree - A binary tree is a method of placing and locating files (called records or keys) in a database, especially when all the data is known to be in random access memory (RAM).
  • BLOB (binary large object) - In computers, a BLOB (binary large object), pronounced BLAHB and sometimes spelled in all lower case, is a large file, typically an image or sound file, that must be handled (for example, uploaded, downloaded, or stored in a database) in a special way because of its size.
  • block - A block is a contiguous set of bits or bytes that forms an identifiable unit of data.
  • blockchain - Blockchain is a record-keeping technology designed to make it impossible to hack the system or forge the data stored on it, thereby making it secure and immutable.
  • business rule - A business rule is a statement that describes a business policy or procedure.
  • C++ - C++ is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language that is viewed by many as the best language for creating large-scale applications.
  • Cassandra (Apache Cassandra) - Apache Cassandra is an open source distributed database system that is designed for storing and managing large amounts of data across commodity servers.
  • catalog - In computing, a catalog is a directory of information about data sets, files, or a database.
  • CFML (ColdFusion Markup Language) - CFML (ColdFusion Markup Language) is a Web page markup language that allows a Web site developer to create pages with variable information (text or graphics) that is filled in dynamically (on the fly) in response to variables such as user input.
  • CICS (Customer Information Control System) - CICS (Customer Information Control System) is an online transaction processing (OLTP) program from IBM that, together with the COBOL programming language, has formed over the past several decades the most common set of tools for building customer transaction applications in the world of large enterprise mainframe computing.
  • cloud database - A cloud database is a collection of informational content, either structured or unstructured, that resides on a private, public or hybrid cloud computing infrastructure platform.
  • cloud database - A cloud database is a collection of informational content, either structured or unstructured, that resides on a private, public or hybrid cloud computing infrastructure platform.
  • cloud DBMS (cloud database management system) - A cloud database management system (CDBMS) is a database management system that is hosted by a third-party service provider on a remote server and accessed over the Internet.
  • cold backup (offline backup) - Cold backups are ideal for disaster recovery because they protect important data.
  • Collaboration Data Objects (CDO) - Collaboration Data Objects (CDO) is Microsoft's technology for building messaging or collaboration applications or adding these capabilities to existing applications.
  • column database management system (CDBMS) - There are different types of CDBMS offerings, with the common defining feature being that data is stored by column (or column families) instead of as rows.
  • column-level encryption - Column-level encryption is a method of database encryption in which the information in every cell (or data field) in a particular column has the same password for access, reading, and writing purposes.
  • columnar database - A columnar database is a database management system (DBMS) that stores data in columns instead of rows.
  • columnstore index - A columnstore index is a type of index used to store, manage and retrieve data stored in a columnar format in a database.
  • comma-separated values file (CSV) - In computers, a CSV (comma-separated values) file contains the values in a table as a series of ASCII text lines organized so that each column value is separated by a comma from the next column's value and each row starts a new line.
  • Commerce XML (cXML or Commerce Extensible Markup Language) - Commerce XML (cXML) is a standard for the online exchange of business transaction information in common formats.
  • commit - A commit is the final step in the successful completion of a previously started database change as part of handling a transaction in a computing system.
  • concurrent processing - Concurrent processing is a computing model in which multiple processors execute instructions simultaneously for better performance.
  • conformed dimension - In data warehousing, a conformed dimension is a dimension that has the same meaning to every fact with which it relates.
  • contiguity - Contiguity (from Latin contiguus and contingere, to have contact with) is the state of being in close proximity with or even touching another object.
  • contiguous - Contiguous describes two or more objects that are adjacent to each other.
  • cooked data - Cooked data is raw data after it has been processed - that is, extracted, organized, and perhaps analyzed and presented - for further use.
  • CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) - Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is an architecture and specification for creating, distributing, and managing distributed program objects in a network.
  • correlated subquery - A correlated subquery is a SQL query that depends on values executed by the outer query in order to complete.
  • CouchDB - CouchDB is an open source document-oriented database based on common web standards.
  • CRM analytics - CRM (customer relationship management) analytics comprises all programming that analyzes data about customers and presents it to help facilitate and streamline better business decisions.
  • cryptographic nonce - A nonce is a random or semi-random number that is generated for a specific use, typically related to cryptographic communication or information technology.
  • customer data integration (CDI) - Customer data integration (CDI) is the process of defining, consolidating and managing customer information across an organization's business units and systems to achieve a "single version of the truth" for customer data.
  • customer segmentation - Customer segmentation is the practice of dividing a customer base into groups of individuals that are similar in specific ways relevant to marketing, such as age, gender, interests and spending habits.
  • DAO (Data Access Objects) - DAO (Data Access Objects) is an application program interface (API) available with Microsoft's Visual Basic that lets a programmer request access to a Microsoft Access database.
  • data - In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is efficient for movement or processing.
  • data abstraction - Data abstraction is the reduction of a particular body of data to a simplified representation of the whole.
  • data aggregation - Data aggregation is any process whereby data is gathered and expressed in a summary form.
  • data analytics (DA) - Data analytics (DA) is the process of examining data sets in order to find trends and draw conclusions about the information they contain.
  • data availability - Data availability is a term used by some computer storage manufacturers and storage service providers (SSPs) to describe products and services that ensure that data continues to be available at a required level of performance in situations ranging from normal through "disastrous.
  • data corruption - Data corruption is the deterioration of computer data as a result of some external agent.
  • Data Definition Language (DDL) - Data Definition Language (DDL) is a standard for commands that define the different structures in a database.
  • data dictionary - A data dictionary is a collection of descriptions of the data objects or items in a data model for the benefit of programmers and others who need to refer to them.
  • data hiding - Data hiding is a characteristic of object-oriented programming.
  • data ingestion - Data can be ingested in real time or in batches.
  • data integrity - Data integrity is the assurance that digital information is uncorrupted and can only be accessed or modified by those authorized to do so.
  • data management-as-a-service (DMaaS) - Data Management-as-a-Service (DMaaS) is a type of cloud service that provides protection, governance and intelligence across a company’s various data sources.
  • data mart (datamart) - A data mart is a repository of data that is designed to serve a particular community of knowledge workers.
  • data mining - Data mining is the process of sorting through large data sets to identify patterns and relationships that can help solve business problems through data analysis.
  • data modeling - Data modeling is the process of documenting a complex software system design as an easily understood diagram, using text and symbols to represent the way data needs to flow.
  • data preprocessing - Data preprocessing describes any type of processing performed on raw data to prepare it for another processing procedure.
  • data profiling - Data profiling is the process of examining, analyzing and reviewing data to collect statistics surrounding the quality and hygiene of the dataset.
  • data quality - Data quality is a measure of the condition of data based on factors such as accuracy, completeness, consistency, reliability and whether it's up to date.
  • data scrubbing (data cleansing) - Data scrubbing, also referred to as data cleansing, is the process of amending or removing data in a database that is incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted or duplicated.
  • data set - A data set is a collection of data that contains individual data units organized (formatted) in a specific way and accessed by one or more specific access methods based on the data set organization and data structure.
  • data source name (DSN) - A data source name (DSN) is a data structure that contains the information about a specific database that an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) driver needs in order to connect to it.
  • data splitting - Data splitting is an approach to protecting sensitive data from unauthorized access by encrypting the data and storing different portions of a file on different servers.
  • data store - A data store is a repository for persistently storing collections of data, such as a database, a file system or a directory.
  • data structures - A data structure is a specialized format for organizing, processing, retrieving and storing data.
  • data warehouse - A data warehouse is a federated repository for all the data collected by an enterprise's various operational systems, be they physical or logical.
  • database (DB) - A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can be easily accessed, managed and updated.
  • database abstraction layer - A database abstraction layer is a simplified representation of a database in the form of a written description or a diagram.
  • database activity monitoring (DAM) - Database activity monitoring (DAM) systems monitor and record activity in a database and then generate alerts for anything unusual.
  • database automation - Database automation is the use of unattended processes and self-updating procedures for administrative tasks in a database.
  • database management system (DBMS) - A database management system (DBMS) is system software for creating and managing databases.
  • database marketing - Database marketing is a systematic approach to the gathering, consolidation and processing of consumer data.
  • database normalization - Database normalization is intrinsic to most relational database schemes.
  • database replication - Database replication is the frequent electronic copying of data from a database in one computer or server to a database in another -- so that all users share the same level of information.
  • database-agnostic - Database-agnostic is a term describing the capacity of software to function with any vendor’s database management system (DBMS).
  • Database: Glossary - This is a glossary of database-related terms.
  • Db2 - Db2 is a family of database management system (DBMS) products from IBM that serve a number of different operating system (OS) platforms.
  • DDBMS (distributed database management system) - A DDBMS (distributed database management system) is a centralized application that manages a distributed database as if it were all stored on the same computer.
  • deep analytics - Deep analytics is the application of sophisticated data processing techniques to yield information from large and typically multi-source data sets comprised of both unstructured and semi-structured data.
  • delimiter - In computer programming, a delimiter is a character that identifies the beginning or the end of a character string (a contiguous sequence of characters).
  • denormalization - Denormalization is the process of adding precomputed redundant data to an otherwise normalized relational database to improve read performance of the database.
SearchCompliance
  • OPSEC (operations security)

    OPSEC (operations security) is a security and risk management process and strategy that classifies information, then determines ...

  • smart contract

    A smart contract is a decentralized application that executes business logic in response to events.

  • compliance risk

    Compliance risk is an organization's potential exposure to legal penalties, financial forfeiture and material loss, resulting ...

SearchSecurity
  • COBIT

    COBIT is an IT governance framework for businesses wanting to implement, monitor and improve IT management best practices.

  • email spam

    Email spam, also known as junk email, refers to unsolicited email messages, usually sent in bulk to a large list of recipients.

  • security policy

    A security policy is a document that states in writing how a company plans to protect its physical and information technology (IT...

SearchHealthIT
SearchDisasterRecovery
  • What is risk mitigation?

    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • change control

    Change control is a systematic approach to managing all changes made to a product or system.

  • disaster recovery (DR)

    Disaster recovery (DR) is an organization's ability to respond to and recover from an event that affects business operations.

SearchStorage
  • JBOD (just a bunch of disks)

    JBOD, which stands for 'just a bunch of disks,' is a type of multilevel configuration for disks.

  • bare-metal restore

    A bare-metal restore (also referred to as bare-metal recovery or bare-metal backup) is a data recovery and restoration process ...

  • mSATA SSD (mSATA solid-state drive)

    An mSATA SSD is a solid-state drive (SSD) that conforms to the mSATA interface specification developed by the Serial ATA (SATA) ...

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