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Electronics

Terms related to electronics, including definitions about electrical components and words and phrases about computers, laptops parts, digital cameras, televisions and home appliances.

10, - DIR

  • 10,000-year clock - The 10,000-year clock is an accurate, long-term mechanical timepiece designed to tick once a year for 10,000 years.
  • 3-D chip (3D chip) - A 3-D chip is an integrated circuit (IC) containing a three-dimensional array of interconnected devices performing digital, analog, image processing and neural-network functions, either individually or in combination.
  • 3-D TV - 3-D TV is a television display technology that enables a three-dimensional effect, so that viewers perceive that an image has depth as well as height and width, similarly to objects in the real world.
  • abampere (abA) - The abampere (symbolized abA) is the unit of current in the cgs (centimeter/gram/second) system of electromagnetic units.
  • abcoulomb (abC) - The abcoulomb (abbreviated abC) is the unit of charge quantityin the cgs(centimeter/gram/second) system of electromagnetic units.
  • abhenry (abH) - The abhenry (abbreviated abH) is the unit of electromagnetic inductance in the cgs (centimeter/gram/second) system of units.
  • absiemens (abS) - The absiemens (symbolized abS) is the unit of conductance in the cgs (centimeter/gram/second) electromagnetic system of units.
  • abvolt (abV) - The abvolt (symbolized abV) is the unit of electromotive force (EMF) or potential difference in the cgs (centimeter/gram/second) electromagnetic system of units.
  • accelerometer - An accelerometer is a device that measures changes in gravitational acceleration in a device it may be installed in.
  • accumulator - An accumulator is a register for short-term, intermediate storage of arithmetic and logic data in a computer's CPU (central processing unit).
  • adapter - An adapter is a physical device that allows one hardware or electronic interface to be adapted (accommodated without loss of function) to another hardware or electronic interface.
  • admittance (Y) - Admittance (symbolized Y) is an expression of the ease with which alternating current (AC) flows through a complex circuit or system.
  • AF (audio frequency or a.f.) - AF is a frequency such that, if applied to a transducer such as a loudspeaker or headset, will produce acoustic waves within the range of human hearing.
  • agri-tech - Agri-tech is the use of technology for farming that is developed to improve efficiency and profitability.
  • AirChat - AirChat is an anonymous wireless communications and connectivity tool that works without any wireless infrastructure.
  • alien crosstalk (AXT) - Alien crosstalk (AXT) is electromagnetic noise that can occur in a cable that runs alongside one or more other signal-carrying cables.
  • aluminum battery - Aluminum batteries run longer on a charge than lithium ion batteries and are safer in use.
  • ambient energy scavenging - Ambient energy scavenging, also called ambient energy harvesting, is a process of obtaining usable energy from surrounding natural and human-made sources in the everyday environment.
  • ambient temperature - Ambient temperature is the air temperature of any object or environment where equipment is stored.
  • American Wire Gauge (AWG) - American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard way to denote wire size in North America.
  • ampere - An ampere is a unit of measure of the rate of electron flow or current in an electrical conductor.
  • ampere hour (Ah or amp hour) - An ampere hour (abbreviated Ah, or sometimes amp hour) is the amount of energy charge in a battery that will allow one ampere of current to flow for one hour.
  • amplification factor (gain) - The amplification factor, also called gain, is the extent to which an analog amplifier boosts the strength of a signal.
  • amplifier - An amplifier is an electronic device that increases the voltage, current, or power of a signal.
  • analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) - Analog-to-digital conversion is an electronic process in which a continuously variable (analog) signal is changed, without altering its essential content, into a multi-level (digital) signal.
  • Andon - An Andon is a visual control that indicates the status of a machine, manufacturing line or process.
  • Android OS - Android OS is a Linux-based mobile operating system that primarily runs on smartphones and tablets.
  • anode - An anode is the electrode in a polarized electrical device through which current flows in from an outside circuit.
  • antenna - An antenna is a specialized transducer that converts radio-frequency (RF) fields into alternating current (AC) or vice-versa.
  • apparent power - Apparent power is a measure of alternating current (AC) power that is computed by multiplying the root-mean-square (rms) current by the root-mean-square voltage.
  • Apple HomePod - Apple HomePod is the company’s Wi-Fi connected smart speaker that supports multi-room setups.
  • ARM processor - An ARM processor is any of several 32-bit RISC (reduced instruction set computer) microprocessors developed by Advanced RISC Machines, Ltd.
  • atomic clock (NIST-F1) - An atomic clock is the most accurate type of timepiece in the world, designed to measure time according to vibrations within atom s.
  • atomic force microscopy (AFM) - Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a technique for analyzing the surface of a rigid material all the way down to the level of the atom.
  • attenuation - Attenuation is a general term that refers to any reduction in the strength of a signal.
  • ATV (advanced television) - ATV (Advanced Television) is the name given by the U.
  • automated test equipment (ATE) - Automated test equipment (ATE) is computer-controlled equipment that tests electronic devices for functionality and performance.
  • automotive IT - Automotive IT is any hardware or software designed to augment and support the experience of operating a motor vehicle.
  • backplane - A backplane is an electronic circuit board containing circuitry and sockets into which additional electronic devices on other circuit boards or cards can be plugged; in a computer, generally synonymous with or part of the motherboard.
  • balun - A balun is a device that joins a balanced line (one that has two conductors, with equal currents in opposite directions, such as a twisted pair cable) to an unbalanced line (one that has just one conductor and a ground, such as a coaxial cable).
  • band - In telecommunication, a band - sometimes called a frequency band - is a specific range of frequencies in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum, which is divided among ranges from very low frequencies (vlf) to extremely high frequencies (ehf).
  • bandpass filter - A bandpass filter is an electronic device or circuit that allows signals between two specific frequencies to pass, but that discriminates against signals at other frequencies.
  • battery life - Battery life is a measure of  battery performance and longevity, which can be quantified in several ways: as run time on a full charge, as estimated by a manufacturer in milliampere hours, or as the number of charge cycles until the end of useful life.
  • battery management system (BMS) - A battery management system (BMS) is an electronic regulator that monitors and controls the charging and discharging of rechargeable batteries.
  • battery memory effect - The battery memory effect is a reduction in the longevity of a rechargeable battery's charge, due to incomplete discharge in previous uses.
  • betamaxed - To be betamaxed is to have your superior product lose out in the market to an inferior one as a result of marketing, influence or some other factor unrelated to product quality.
  • bezel - A bezel is the border between the screen and frame of a computer monitor, smartphone or any other computing device.
  • bias - Bias is direct current (DC) deliberately made to flow, or DC voltage deliberately applied, between two points for the purpose of controlling a circuit.
  • bioprinting - Although bioprinting is still in the experimental stage and is currently used primarily in scientific study rather than applied science, the possibility of creating functional replacement tissues or organs could one day transform medical treatment.
  • bipolar transistor - A bipolar transistor is a semiconductor device commonly used for amplification.
  • bit slicing - Bit slicing is a method of combining processor modules to multiply the word length.
  • brownout reset - A brownout reset is a circuit that causes a computer processor to reset (or reboot) in the event of a brownout, which is a significant drop in the power supply output voltage.
  • burn-in - Burn-in is a test in which a system or component is made to run for an extended period of time to detect problems.
  • cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaics - Cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaics is a technology that uses the compound cadmium telluride (CdTe) as the semiconductor material in photovoltaic (PV) cells that convert sunlight into DC (direct current) electricity.
  • capacitor (capacitance) - In its simplest form, a capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulating material called thedielectric.
  • catastrophic failure - Catastrophic failure is a complete, sudden, often unexpected breakdown in a machine, electronic system, computer or network.
  • cathode - A cathode is the metallic electrode through which current flows out in a polarized electrical device.
  • cathode ray tube (CRT) - A cathode ray tube (CRT) is a specialized vacuumtube in which images are produced when an electron beam strikes aphosphorescent surface.
  • cell phone jammer - A cell phone jammer is a device that blocks transmission or reception of signals, usually by creating some form of interference at the same frequency ranges that cell phones use.
  • characteristic impedance of free space - The characteristic impedance of free space, also called the Z o of free space, is an expression of the relationship between the electric-field and magnetic-field intensities in an electromagnetic field (EM field) propagating through a vacuum.
  • charge (electric charge) - In physics, charge, also known as electric charge, electrical charge, or electrostatic charge and symbolized q, is a characteristic of a unit of matter that expresses the extent to which it has more or fewer electrons than protons.
  • charge cycle - The number of charge cycles a rechargeable battery can withstand before performance degrades is the accepted method of measurement for rating rechargeables’ charge cycles.
  • charge quantity - Charge quantity is an expression of the extent to which an object is electrically charged.
  • chipset - A chipset is a group of integrated circuits (microchips) that can be used together to serve a single function and are therefore manufactured and sold as a unit.
  • Chromebook - Google Chromebook is a thin client laptop that is configured with the Chrome operating system (Chrome OS).
  • cinema pulldown 3:2 (telecine) - Cinema pulldown 3:2 is an algorithm for matching the slower frame rate of film to the faster refresh rate of a 60 Hz television.
  • circuit - In electronics, a circuit is a path between two or more points along which an electrical current can be carried.
  • clean electricity - Clean electricity is electrical power that is free from voltage spikes and drops.
  • clean room - A clean room (or cleanroom) is an enclosed space in which airborne particulates, contaminants, and pollutants are kept within strict limits.
  • CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) - CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is the semiconductor technology used in the transistors that are manufactured into most of today's computer microchips.
  • coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) - Coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) is a method of combining multiple signals on laser beams at various wavelengths for transmission along fiber optic cables, such that the number of channels is fewer than in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) but more than in standard wavelength division multiplexing (WDM).
  • coexistence testing - Coexistence testing, similar to compatibility testing, is a method of measuring the ability of multiple devices to interact in a single environment with limited bandwidth.
  • compressed air - Compressed air is a gas, or a combination of gases, that has been put under greater pressure than the air in the general environment.
  • conductance - Conductance is an expression of the ease with which electric current flows through materials like metals and nonmetals.
  • conductor - ln electronics, a conductor is a substance in which electrical charge carriers move easily from atom to atom with the application of voltage.
  • cook-off test - A cook-off test is a controlled experiment conducted to determine if or how soon a component, device or system will malfunction because of internally generated heat.
  • coprocessor - A coprocessor is a special set of circuits in a microprocessor chip that is designed to manipulate numbers or perform some other specialized function more quickly than the basic microprocessor circuits could perform the same task.
  • cosine wave - A cosine wave is a signal waveform with a shape identical to that of a sine wave, except each point on the cosine wave occurs exactly 1/4 cycle earlier than the corresponding point on the sine wave.
  • coulomb - The coulomb (symbolized C) is the standard unit of electric charge in the International System of Units (SI).
  • coulomb per centimeter squared - The coulomb per centimeter squared (symbolized C/cm 2) is a unit of electric flux density.
  • cow power (biogas) - Cow power is a term for the conversion of manure to usable energy.
  • CPE device - A CPE device is telecommunications hardware located at the home or business of a customer.
  • crosstalk - Crosstalk is a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of one telecommunication signal affecting a signal in an adjacent circuit.
  • current - Current is a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons or electron-deficient atoms.
  • Daylight Saving Time patch - A Daylight Saving Time patch is a modular piece of code created to update systems, devices and programs for compatibility with new start and end dates for Daylight Saving Time (DST) in the United States, Canada and Bermuda.
  • DC (direct current) - DC (direct current) is the unidirectional flow or movement of electric charge carriers (which are usually electrons).
  • debouncing - Bouncing is the tendency of any two metal contacts in an electronic device to generate multiple signals as the contacts close or open; debouncing is any kind of hardware device or software that ensures that only a single signal will be acted upon for a single opening or closing of a contact.
  • decibel - In electronics and communications, the decibel (abbreviated as dB, and also as db and DB) is a logarithmic expression of the ratio between two signal power, voltage, or current levels.
  • decibels relative to one milliwatt (dBm) - The expression dBm is used to define signal strength in wires and cables at RF and AF frequencies.
  • delivery drone - A delivery drone is a type of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) used for distributing packages to consumers through advanced AI technology.
  • dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) - Dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) is an optical fiber multiplexing technology that is used to increase the bandwidth of existing fiber networks.
  • dielectric constant - The dielectric constant is the ratio of the permittivity of a substance to the permittivity of free space.
  • dielectric material - A dielectric material is a substance that is a poor conductor of electricity, but an efficient supporter of electrostatic fields.
  • digital - Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive.
  • digital audio broadcasting (DAB) - .
  • digital signal processing (DSP) - Digital signal processing (DSP) refers to various techniques for improving the accuracy and reliability of digital communications.
  • digital wallet - A digital wallet is a software application that serves as an electronic version of a physical wallet, digitizing credit and debit card information to enable consumers to make purchases from their smartphones.
  • digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) - Digital-to-analog conversion is a process in which signals having a few (usually two) defined levels or states (digital) are converted into signals having a theoretically infinite number of states (analog).
  • diode - A diode is a specialized electronic component with two electrodes called the anode and the cathode.
  • directional antenna - A directional antenna is a radio-frequency (RF) wireless antenna designed to function more effectively in some directions than in others.
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    OPSEC (operations security) is a security and risk management process and strategy that classifies information, then determines ...

  • smart contract

    A smart contract is a decentralized application that executes business logic in response to events.

  • compliance risk

    Compliance risk is an organization's potential exposure to legal penalties, financial forfeiture and material loss, resulting ...

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  • Secure Shell (SSH)

    SSH, also known as Secure Shell or Secure Socket Shell, is a network protocol that gives users, particularly system ...

  • NIST Cybersecurity Framework

    The NIST Cybersecurity Framework (NIST CSF) is a policy framework surrounding IT infrastructure security.

  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric block cipher chosen by the U.S. government to protect classified ...

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    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • change control

    Change control is a systematic approach to managing all changes made to a product or system.

  • disaster recovery (DR)

    Disaster recovery (DR) is an organization's ability to respond to and recover from an event that affects business operations.

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  • secondary storage

    Secondary storage is persistent storage for noncritical data that doesn't need to be accessed as frequently as data in primary ...

  • optical storage

    Optical storage is any storage type in which data is written and read with a laser.

  • JBOD (just a bunch of disks)

    JBOD, which stands for 'just a bunch of disks,' is a type of multilevel configuration for disks.

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