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Electronics

Terms related to electronics, including definitions about electrical components and words and phrases about computers, laptops parts, digital cameras, televisions and home appliances.

FRE - MAG

  • frequency - For an oscillating or varying current, frequency is the number of complete cycles per second in alternating current direction.
  • frequency jammer - Frequency jamming is the disruption of radio signals through use of an over-powered signal in the same frequency range.
  • frequency modulation (FM) - Also see modulation and frequency-shift keying (FSK).
  • frequency-hopping spread spectrum - Frequency hopping is one of two basic modulation techniques used in spread spectrum signal transmission.
  • fullerene - A fullerene is a pure carbon molecule composed of at least 60 atoms of carbon.
  • functional requirements - Functional requirements are the desired operations of a program, or system as defined in software development and systems engineering.
  • gallium arsenide (GaAs) - Gallium arsenide (chemical formula GaAs) is a semiconductor compound used in some diode s, field-effect transistors (FETs), and integrated circuits (ICs).
  • gallium arsenide field-effect transistor (GaAsFET) - A gallium arsenide field-effect transistor (GaAsFET) is a specialized type of field-effect transistor (FET) that is used in amplifier circuits at very-high, ultra-high, and microwave radio frequencies.
  • gallium nitride (GaN) - Gallium nitride (GaN) is a semiconductor compound expected to make possible miniaturized, high-power wireless transmitters.
  • gauss (G) - The gauss (symbolized G) is the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) unit of magnetic flux density.
  • geo-fencing (geofencing) - Geo-fencing is a feature in a software program that uses the global positioning system (GPS) or radio frequency identification (RFID) to define geographical boundaries.
  • gigabit interface converter (GBIC) - A gigabit interface converter (GBIC) is a transceiver that converts electric currents (digital highs and lows) to optical signals, and optical signals to digital electric currents.
  • gigahertz (GHz) - The gigahertz, abbreviated GHz, is a unit of alternating current (AC) or electromagnetic (EM) wave frequency equal to one thousand million hertz (1,000,000,000 Hz).
  • glassfet - Glassfet is jargon for vacuum tube.
  • glue logic - Glue logic is a special form of digital circuitry that allows different types of logic chips or circuits to work together by acting as an interface between them.
  • graph theory - Graph theory is the study of points and lines.
  • graphene - Graphene is a highly conductive allotrope of carbon whose atoms are arranged in a mesh- like form a single atom thick.
  • graphene transistor - A graphene transistor is a nanoscale device based on graphene, a component of graphite with electronic properties far superior to those of silicon.
  • grating light valve (GLV) - Using grating light valve (GLV) technology, picture elements (pixels) are formed on the surface of a silicon chip and become the source for display projection on anything from an auditorium screen down to a handheld computer display.
  • green networking - Green networking is the practice of selecting energy-efficient networking technologies and products, and minimizing resource use whenever possible.
  • gummy bear hack - A gummy bear hack is an attempt to fool a biometric fingerprint scanner by using a gelatin-based candy to hold a fingerprint.
  • Hall effect - The Hall effect is the movement of charge carriers through a conductor towards a magnetic attraction.
  • hard drive overwriter - In e-cycling, a hard drive overwriter is a program or utility that repeatedly overwrites the data on a computer's hard drive with gibberish.
  • harmonic - A harmonic is a signal or wave whose frequency is an integral (whole-number) multiple of the frequency of some reference signal or wave.
  • Haswell - Haswell is the code name for Intel's 4th generation Core i-based processors.
  • HAVA (Help America Vote Act of 2002) - The Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA)is a federal program that reformed aspects of the United States election system.
  • Hayes command set - Hayes command set is a specific programming language originally developed for the Hayes Smartmodem 300 baud modem during the late 1970s.
  • HD downconverter (high-definition downconverter) - An HD (high-definition) downconverter is a device that converts high-definition television (HDTV) video to standard-definition video that can be viewed on conventional television (TV) receivers or computer monitors, or recorded on DVD.
  • HD upconverter (high-definition upconverter) - An HD (high-definition) upconverter, also known as a digital television (DTV) upconverter, is a device that converts the digital data on a DVD to a format that can be viewed directly on a high-definition television (HDTV) receiver without intermediate conversion to an analog signal.
  • HDCD (High Definition Compatible Digital) - HDCD (High Definition Compatible Digital) is a digital encoding and decoding process for compact disc and DVD audio recording.
  • HDTV (high definition television) - HDTV (high definition television) is a television display technology that provides picture quality similar to 35 mm.
  • heat pump - A heat pump is a device that takes heat from one source and moves it to another location through electric or mechanical means.
  • heatsink - A heatsink is a device that is attached to a microprocessor chip to keep it from overheating by absorbing its heat and dissipating it into the air.
  • helical scan - Helical scan is a way of recording information onto magnetic tape.
  • henry (H) - The henry (symbolized H) is the Standard International (SI) unit of inductance.
  • hertz - Hertz is a unit of frequency (of change in state or cycle in a sound wave, alternating current, or other cyclical waveform) of one cycle per second.
  • HiP7 and HiP8 - HiP7 and HiP8 are abbreviations for two versions of HiPerMOS, a complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) microchip technology invented by Motorola.
  • hole - In physics, a hole is an electric charge carrier with a positive charge, equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity to the charge on the electron.
  • hot/cold aisle - Hot aisle/cold aisle is a layout design for server racks and other computing equipment in a data center.
  • hydraulics - Hydraulics is mechanical function that operates through the force of liquid pressure.
  • HyperTransport - HyperTransport is a high-speed, point-to-point, 32-bit technology for data transfer within the integrated circuits (IC s) in computers and other devices.
  • IBM Roadrunner - Roadrunner is the fastest supercomputer in the world, twice as fast as Blue Gene and six times as fast as any of the other current supercomputers.
  • iButton - An iButton is a microchip similar to those used in a smart card but housed in a round stainless steel button of 17.
  • impedance - Impedance, denoted Z, is an expression of the opposition that an electronic component, circuit, or system offers to alternating and/or direct electric current.
  • in-circuit emulator (ICE) - An in-circuit emulator (ICE) is a hardware interface that allows a programmer to change or debug the software in an embedded system.
  • index register - An index register is a circuit that receives, stores, and outputs instruction-changing codes in a computer.
  • inductive charging - Inductive charging is a wireless charging method used for charging mid-sized items such as cell phones, MP3 players and PDAs.
  • inductor - An inductor is a passive electronic component that storesenergy in the form of a magnetic field.
  • infrared radiation (IR) - Infrared radiation (IR), sometimes referred to simply as infrared, is a region of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum where wavelengths range from about 700 nanometers (nm) to 1 millimeter (mm).
  • infrared transmission - Infrared transmission refers to energy in the region of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum at wavelength s longer than those of visible light, but shorter than those of radio.
  • integrated circuit (IC) - An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated.
  • integrated solar - Integrated solar is the inclusion of solar power technology as a part of original construction rather than as a separate module that is added later.
  • Intel 80286 - The Intel 80286 (often called simply the 286) was a 16-bit microprocessor chip introduced in 1982.
  • Intel 80486 - Intel 80486, also known as i486 or just 486, is the fourth-generation generation Intel x86 microprocessor.
  • Intel 8086 - The Intel 8086 was Intel’s first x86 processor.
  • Intel Atom - Atom is Intel's family of x86 and x86-64 processors that are optimized for small computing devices, such as smartphones and mobile Internet devices (MIDs).
  • Intel Quark - Intel Quark is an embedded system-on-a-chip (SoC) processor design intended for smaller mobile devices like wearable computers.
  • intelligent verification - Intelligent verification is a software process that allows engineers and technicians to use computers to ensure that a hardware design will perform as expected once the device has been fabricated or built.
  • inverse-square law - The inverse-square law is a principle that expresses the way radiant energy propagates through space.
  • ion pump - An ion pump is a device that can cool, clean and filter air without the use of conventional fans or other moving parts.
  • IP core (intellectual property core) - An IP (intellectual property) core is a block of logic or data that is used in making a field programmable gate array (FPGA) or application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for a product.
  • IP surveillance - IP surveillance is a digitized and networked version of closed-circuit television (CCTV).
  • iPhone - IPhone is a smartphone made by Apple that combines a computer, iPod, digital camera and cellular phone into one device with a touchscreen interface.
  • IR LED (infrared light-emitting diode) - An IR LED (infrared light emitting diode) is a solid state lighting (SSL) device that emits light in the infrared range of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum.
  • isotropic radiator - An isotropic radiator is a transducer that produces useful electromagnetic field output in all directions with equal intensity, and at 100-percent efficiency, in three-dimensional space.
  • Ivy Bridge - Ivy Bridge is the code name for Intel's third generation of Core processors.
  • Josephson junction - A Josephson junction is a type of electronic circuit capable of switching at very high speeds when operated at temperatures approaching absolute zero.
  • joule - The joule (pronounced DJOOL) is the standard unit of energy in electronics and general scientific applications.
  • judder - Judder is a television screen artifact that occurs when content recorded on film is shown on a television with a 60Hz refresh rate.
  • just-in-case manufacturing (JIC manufacturing) - Just-in-case (JIC) manufacturing is the traditional model of production, in which products are created in advance and in excess of demand.
  • kHz (kilohertz) - The kilohertz, abbreviated kHz, is a unit of alternating current (AC) or electromagnetic (EM) wave frequency equal to one thousand hertz (1,000 Hz).
  • kill switch - A kill switch is a mechanism used to shut down or disable machinery or a device or program.
  • Kindle Fire - Kindle Fire is a low-priced tablet computer from Amazon.
  • Kinect - Kinect is Microsoft’s motion gaming system for the Xbox 360.
  • Kirchhoff's Laws for current and voltage - Kirchhoff's Laws for current and voltage are two principles that apply to DC circuits and networks.
  • Langmuir-Blodgett film (LB film) - A Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film is a set of monolayers, or layers of organic material one molecule thick, deposited on a solid substrate.
  • laser - A laser is a coherent and focused beam of photons; coherent, in this context, means that it is all one wavelength, unlike ordinary light which showers on us in many wavelengths.
  • laser diode (injection laser or diode laser) - A laser diode, also known as an injection laser or diode laser, is a semiconductor device that produces coherent radiation (in which the waves are all at the same frequency and phase) in the visible or infrared (IR) spectrum when current passes through it.
  • LCD TV - LCD TV is a television display technology based on a liquid crystal display.
  • Learning Path: Electronics - So that you can give yourself a quick tutorial on electronics, we've arranged our definitions in this Learning Path in a sequence, with more basic building block topics placed at the beginning.
  • LED light bulb - An LED light bulb is a solid-state lighting (SSL) device that fits in standard screw-in connections but uses LEDs (light-emitting diodes) to produce light.
  • LED TV (LED-backlight LCD television) - LED TV is a type of LCD television that uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to backlight the display instead of the cold cathode fluorescent lights (CCFLs) used in standard LCD televisions.
  • Lidar - Lidar typically uses a low-power, eye-safe pulsing laser working in conjunction with a camera.
  • light field camera - A light field camera (also called a plenoptic camera) is an imaging device that creates images that can be readjusted after the picture has been taken, for example, to alter the focus or the depth of field.
  • light field photography - Light-field photography (also known as plenoptic photography) is an imaging technology that makes it possible to adjust the focus in an existing picture.
  • light-emitting diode (LED) - A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it.
  • line doubler - A line doubler is an electronic device that converts analog or digital television (TV) video signals into a format suitable for display on a computer monitor.
  • linear integrated circuit (linear IC) - A linear integrated circuit (linear IC) is a solid-state analog device characterized by a theoretically infinite number of possible operating states.
  • Lithium Ion battery (Li-Ion) - A Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) battery is a rechargeable battery with twice the energy capacity of a Nickel-Cadmium battery and greater stability and safety.
  • lithium polymer battery (LiPo) - A lithium-polymer battery (LiPo) is a rechargeable battery that, in the case of true LiPo, uses solid polymer for the electrolyte and lithium for one of the electrodes.
  • loading coil - A loading coil is an induction device placed on a local loop longer than 18,000 feet that carries analog signals.
  • logic analyzer - A logic analyzer (occasionally called a logical analyzer) is a laboratory test instrument designed to display and evaluate digital signals.
  • logic gate (AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XNOR) - A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit.
  • logic level - A logic level is one of several states that a digital signal can possess, expressed as a DC (direct-current) voltage with respect to electrical ground.
  • logic simulator - A logic simulator is a computer program that allows designers and experimenters to conduct virtual tests of complex digital systems before working with any hardware.
  • low-light imaging - Low-light imaging is a technology used to improve visibility in dimly lit environments.
  • M-theory - M-theory (the "M" stands for the mother of all theories, magic, mystery, or matrix, depending on the source) is an adaptation of superstring theory developed by Ed Witten of Princeton and Paul Townsend of Cambridge.
  • machine-to-machine (M2M) - Machine-to-machine, or M2M, is a broad label that can be used to describe any technology that enables networked devices to exchange information and perform actions without the manual assistance of humans.

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