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Terms related to electronics, including definitions about electrical components and words and phrases about computers, laptops parts, digital cameras, televisions and home appliances.


  • memory coherence - Memory coherence is a desirable condition in which corresponding memory locations for each processing element in a multi-core processor always contain the same cached data.
  • Memory Spot - Memory Spot is the trade name for a passive transponder under development by Hewlett-Packard that contains a chip capable of storing large data files such as digital photographs, databases or musical selections.
  • memristor - A memristor is a type of resistor in which the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit is determined by the amount of charge that has previously flowed through it.
  • MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) - A MEMS (micro-electromechanical system) is a miniature machine that has both mechanical and electronic components.
  • MFSK (multiple frequency shift keying) - MFSK (multiple frequency shift keying), also called multi-frequency shift keying, is a method of signal modulation in which discrete audio tone bursts of various frequencies convey digital data.
  • MHz - The megahertz, abbreviated MHz, is a unit of alternating current (AC) or electromagnetic (EM) wave frequency equal to one million hertz (1,000,000 Hz).
  • micro fuel cell - A micro fuel cell is a power source for electronic devices that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.
  • MicroBlaze - MicroBlaze is the trade name for a soft processor core designed for Xilinx FPGAs (field-programmable gate arrays).
  • microcontroller (MCU) - A microcontroller is a compact integrated circuit designed to govern a specific operation in an embedded system.
  • microgrid - A microgrid is a small-scale power grid that can operate independently or collaboratively with other small power grids.
  • micrometer - A micrometer (sometimes expressed using the obsolete term, micron), is one-millionth of a meter and can also be expressed as:10 -6 meterOne thousandth of a millimeterOne 25-thousandth of an inchThe micrometer is a unit of measure for the core in optical fiber, for which the most common diameter is 62.
  • micromobility technology - Micromobility technology is a category of light-weight transportation designed for individual use.
  • micron - The micron, officially obsolete as a term of measurement, is sometimes used by microchip and wiring manufacturers in place of micrometer, one-millionth of a meter.
  • microphone - A microphone is a device that translates sound vibrations in the air into electronic signals or transmits them to a recording medium.
  • microwave - The term microwave refers to electromagnetic energy having a frequency higher than 1 gigahertz (billions of cycles per second), corresponding to wavelength shorter than 30 centimeters.
  • MiFi - MiFi is a portable broadband device that allows multiple end users and mobile devices to share a 3G or 4G mobile broadband Internet connection and create an ad-hoc network.
  • milliampere hour (mAh) - A milliampere hour (mAh) is 1000th of an ampere hour (Ah).
  • MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) - MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at both the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver).
  • MISO (multiple input, single output) - MISO (multiple input, single output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at the source (transmitter).
  • modulation - Modulation is the process of converting data into radio waves by adding information to an electronic or optical carrier signal.
  • monotonicity - Monotonicity is a property of certain types of digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuits.
  • MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) - MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor is a special type of field-effect transistor (FET) that works by electronically varying the width of a channel along which charge carriers (electrons or holes) flow.
  • Mosquito teen repeller (Teen Buzz) - The Mosquito is a device that creates a high-pitched noise like an amplified version of its namesake.
  • motherboard tattoo - A motherboard tattoo is a unique code that can be written in the basic input/output system (BIOS) of a computer to ensure that system restore or diagnostic compact discs (CDs) will work only on the machine or line of machines with which the CDs are sold.
  • motion gaming (motion-controlled gaming) - A motion gaming system, sometimes called a motion-controlled gaming system, is one that allows players to interact with the system through body movements.
  • motive power - Motive power is a term in thermodynamics referring to the harnessed energy or force that is used to power a mechanical device or system.
  • multimode fiber - In optical fiber technology, multimode fiber is optical fiber that is designed to carry multiple light rays or modes concurrently, each at a slightly different reflection angle within the optical fiber core.
  • myoelectric signal (motor action potential) - A myoelectric signal, also called a motor action potential, is an electrical impulse that produces contraction of muscle fibers in the body.
  • NAND flash memory - NAND flash memory is a type of nonvolatile storage technology that does not require power to retain data.
  • nano-emissive display (NED) - A nano-emissive display (NED) is a high-resolution, full-color, lightweight, physically thin display that uses carbon nanotube technology.
  • nanoanalysis - Nanoanalysis refers to techniques for determining the atomic structures of materials, especially crystals.
  • nanochip - A nanochip is an integrated circuit (IC) that is so small, in physical terms, that individual particles of matter play major roles.
  • nanogenerator - A nanogenerator is a nanoscale (extremely small) device capable of generating electric current, electromagnetic fields or subatomic particle radiation.
  • nanolithography - Nanolithography is the art and science of etching, writing, or printing at the microscopic level, where the dimensions of characters are on the order of nanometers (units of 10 -9 meter, or millionths of a millimeter).
  • nanomachine (nanite) - A nanomachine, also called a nanite, is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometers (millionths of a millimeter, or units of 10 -9 meter).
  • nanomedicine - Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines) to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body.
  • nanopaint - Nanopaint is a coating that can modify the properties of a surface or substance according to user-defined parameters.
  • nanoscale technology - Nanoscale technology is a branch of nanotechnology in which standard size tools are used to manufacture simple structures and devices with dimensions on the order of a few nanometers or less, where one nanometer (1 nm) is equal to a billionth of a meter (10 -9 m).
  • nanotechnology (molecular manufacturing) - Nanotechnology, or, as it is sometimes called, molecular manufacturing, is a branch of engineering that deals with the design and manufacture of extremely small electronic circuits and mechanical devices built at the molecular level of matter.
  • nanotransistor - A nanotransistor is a transistor - the component that acts as an electronic signal switch or amplifier - that is near the scale of a billionth of a meter (or nanometer) in size.
  • nanotube (carbon nanotube) - A carbon nanotube (CNT) is a miniature cylindrical carbon structure that has hexagonal graphite molecules attached at the edges.
  • nanowire - A nanowire is an extremely thin wire with a diameter on the order of a few nanometers (nm) or less, where 1 nm = 10 -9 meters.
  • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) - The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the largest association of electrical goods and equipment and electronic medical imaging equipment manufacturers in the United States.
  • natural user interface (NUI) - A natural user interface (NUI) is a system for human-computer interaction that the user operates through intuitive actions related to natural, everyday human behavior.
  • near-infrared illumination - Near-infrared illumination is a method of night vision wherein a device that is sensitive to invisible near infrared radiation is used in conjunction with an infrared illuminator.
  • neighborhood electric vehicle (NEV) - A neighborhood electric vehicle (NEV) is a type of battery-electric vehicle that is capable of traveling at a maximum speed of 25 mph and which has a maximum loaded weight of 3,000 lbs.
  • network node - A network node is an endpoint or redistribution connection point for data transmissions on a communications network that can process or forward transmissions to other nodes.
  • neutron - A neutron is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of every atom except that of simple hydrogen.
  • night vision - Night vision is technology that provides users with some vision in total darkness and improved vision in low-light environments.
  • Nikola Tesla - Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American scientist, electrical engineer, and inventor whose research laid much of the groundwork for modern electrical and communication systems.
  • no-fly zone - A no-fly zone is a geographic location over which aircraft cannot fly.
  • no-swipe credit card - A no-swipe credit card is a credit card equipped with a radio frequency (RF) transponder that allows for purchases without the need for passing the card through a traditional magnetic-stripe detection machine.
  • noise - Noise is unwanted electrical or electromagnetic energy that degrades the quality of signals and data.
  • nonlinearity - Nonlinearity is the behavior of a circuit, particularly an amplifier, in which the output signal strength does not vary in direct proportion to the input signal strength.
  • NOR flash memory - NOR flash memory is one of two types of non-volatile storage technologies.
  • NRZ (non-return-to-zero) - NRZ (non-return-to-zero) refers to a form of digital data transmission in which the binary low and high states, represented by numerals 0 and 1, are transmitted by specific and constant DC (direct-current) voltage s.
  • Nyquist Theorem - The Nyquist Theorem, also known as the sampling theorem, is a principle that engineers follow in the digitization of analog signals.
  • octal latch - An octal latch is an integrated circuit (IC) that contains eight binary digital circuits called latches.
  • Ohm's Law - Ohm's Law is the mathematical relationship among electric current, resistance, and voltage.
  • OLED TV - OLED TV is a television display technology based on the characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes (OLED).
  • omnidirectional antenna - An omnidirectional antenna is a wireless transmitting or receiving antenna that radiates or intercepts radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields equally well in all horizontal directions in a flat, two-dimensional (2D) geometric plane.
  • onboard intelligence - Onboard intelligence is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) that is housed locally in the device it operates.
  • Open Plugable Specification (OPS) - Open Pluggable Specification (OPS) is a set of parameters for standardizing modules that add compute ability to screen readers.
  • Optical Carrier levels (OCx) - The Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber.
  • optoelectronics - Optoelectronics is a branch of electronics that overlaps with physics.
  • optoisolator (optical coupler or optocoupler) - An optoisolator (also optical coupler or optocoupler) is a component that uses light to transfer electrical signals between circuits to keep them electrically isolated from each other, preventing surges.
  • organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) - Organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) technology involves the use of organic semiconducting compounds in electronic components, notably computer displays.
  • oscillation - Oscillation, in general, is a periodic fluctuation between two things; in the broadest sense, oscillation can occur in anything from a person's decision-making process to tides and the pendulum of a clock.
  • oscillator - An oscillator is a mechanical or electronic device that works on the principles of oscillation: a periodic fluctuation between two things based on changes in energy.
  • oscilloscope - An oscilloscope is a laboratory instrument commonly used to display and analyze the waveform of electronic signals.
  • paper battery - A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy production and storage device formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper.
  • parallax - Parallax is the way an object�s position or direction changes, depending on viewing angle.
  • Parallel ATA (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment or PATA) - Parallel ATA (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment or PATA) is a standard for connecting hard drives into computer systems.
  • passive keyless entry (PKE) - Passive keyless entry (PKE) is an automotive locking system that operates automatically when the holder is in proximity to the vehicle.
  • patch cord - A patch cord is a length of cable, with connectors on the ends, that is used to connect an end device to something else, such as a power source.
  • Peltier effect - The Peltier effect is a temperature difference created by applying a voltage between two electrodes connected to a sample of semiconductor material.
  • permeability (magnetic permeability) - Permeability, also called magnetic permeability, is a constant of proportionality that exists between magnetic induction and magnetic field intensity.
  • permittivity (electric permittivity) - Permittivity, also called electric permittivity, is a constant of proportionality that exists between electric displacement and electric field intensity.
  • permittivity of free space - The permittivity of free space (a vacuum) is a physical constant equal to approximately 8.
  • personal drone - A personal drone, also known as a hobby or consumer drone, is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) designed for the mass market.
  • petabit - A petabit is one quadrillion (1015) binary digits and is used in discussing possible volumes of data traffic per second in a large telecommunications network.
  • PFC (power factor correction or power factor controller) - PFC (power factor correction; also known as power factor controller) is a feature included in some computer and other power supply boxes that reduces the amount of reactive power generated by a computer.
  • phase - In electronic signaling, phase is a definition of the position of a point in time (instant) on a waveform cycle.
  • Phase Alternation Line (PAL) - Phase Alternation Line (PAL) is the analog television display standard that is used in Europe and certain other parts of the world.
  • phase modulation (PM) - Phase modulation (PM) is a method of impressing data onto an alternating-current (AC) waveform by varying the instantaneous phase of the wave.
  • phase-change cooling (vapor cooling) - Phase-change cooling, also called vapor cooling, is a microprocessor-cooling technology that works according to the same principles as a conventional refrigerator, freezer or air conditioner.
  • phase-locked loop - A phase-locked loop (PLL) is an electronic circuit with a current-driven oscillator that constantly adjusts to match the frequency of an input signal, often used in wireless systems.
  • phase-shift keying (PSK) - Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital communication in which the phase of a transmitted signal is varied to convey information.
  • phased antenna system - .
  • photoconductivity - Photoconductivity is the tendency of a substance to conduct electricity to an extent that depends on the intensity of light-radiant energy (usually infrared transmission or visible light) striking the surface of a sample.
  • photolithography - Photolithography is the standard method of printed circuit board (PCB) and microprocessor fabrication.
  • photon - In some ways, visible light behaves like a wave phenomenon, but in other respects it acts like a stream of high-speed, submicroscopic particles.
  • photonic ink (P-Ink) - Photonic ink (P-Ink) is a substance that can change color electronically.
  • photosensor - A photosensor is an electronic component that detects the presence of visible light, infrared transmission (IR), and/or ultraviolet (UV) energy.
  • photovoltaic cell (PV Cell) - A photovoltaic cell (PV cell) is a specialized semiconductor diode that converts visible light into direct current (DC).
  • PIC microcontrollers - PIC microcontrollers are a family of specialized microcontroller chips produced by Microchip Technology in Chandler, Arizona.
  • PictBridge - PictBridge is the name of an industry standard for firmware (built-in software) that allows digital cameras and printers to communicate directly with each other.
  • picture messaging (photo messaging) - Picture messaging (sometimes called photo messaging) is the practice of taking a picture with a built-in camera on a mobile phone or other handheld device and sending it to another mobile device or an e-mail recipient.
  • piezoelectricity - Piezoelectricity, also called the piezoelectric effect, is the ability of certain materials to generate an AC (alternating current) voltage when subjected to mechanical stress or vibration, or to vibrate when subjected to an AC voltage, or both.


  • risk assessment

    Risk assessment is the identification of hazards that could negatively impact an organization's ability to conduct business.

  • PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard)

    The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a widely accepted set of policies and procedures intended to ...

  • risk management

    Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.


  • tokenization

    Tokenization is the process of replacing sensitive data with unique identification symbols that retain all the essential ...

  • incident response

    Incident response is an organized approach to addressing and managing the aftermath of a security breach or cyberattack, also ...

  • Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA)

    The Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) is United States legislation that defines a framework of guidelines and ...



  • call tree

    A call tree is a layered hierarchical communication model that is used to notify specific individuals of an event and coordinate ...

  • Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS)

    Disaster recovery as a service (DRaaS) is the replication and hosting of physical or virtual servers by a third party to provide ...

  • cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR)

    Cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR) is a combination of strategies and services intended to back up data, applications and other ...