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Electronics

Terms related to electronics, including definitions about electrical components and words and phrases about computers, laptops parts, digital cameras, televisions and home appliances.

PHO - SOC

  • photoconductivity - Photoconductivity is the tendency of a substance to conduct electricity to an extent that depends on the intensity of light-radiant energy (usually infrared transmission or visible light) striking the surface of a sample.
  • photolithography - Photolithography is the standard method of printed circuit board (PCB) and microprocessor fabrication.
  • photon - In some ways, visible light behaves like a wave phenomenon, but in other respects it acts like a stream of high-speed, submicroscopic particles.
  • photonic ink (P-Ink) - Photonic ink (P-Ink) is a substance that can change color electronically.
  • photosensor - A photosensor is an electronic component that detects the presence of visible light, infrared transmission (IR), and/or ultraviolet (UV) energy.
  • photovoltaic cell (PV Cell) - A photovoltaic cell (PV cell) is a specialized semiconductor diode that converts visible light into direct current (DC).
  • PIC microcontrollers - PIC microcontrollers are a family of specialized microcontroller chips produced by Microchip Technology in Chandler, Arizona.
  • PictBridge - PictBridge is the name of an industry standard for firmware (built-in software) that allows digital cameras and printers to communicate directly with each other.
  • picture messaging (photo messaging) - Picture messaging (sometimes called photo messaging) is the practice of taking a picture with a built-in camera on a mobile phone or other handheld device and sending it to another mobile device or an e-mail recipient.
  • piezoelectricity - Piezoelectricity, also called the piezoelectric effect, is the ability of certain materials to generate an AC (alternating current) voltage when subjected to mechanical stress or vibration, or to vibrate when subjected to an AC voltage, or both.
  • pin or PIN - A pin is a pronged contact as part of a signal interface in a computer or other communications device.
  • pink noise - Pink noise is acoustical energy distributed uniformly by octave throughout the audio spectrum (the range of human hearing, approximately 20 Hz to 20 kHz).
  • pirate radio - Pirate radio is the transmission of communications over radio waves by unlicensed amateurs; such broadcasts are illegal because they are not in accordance with FCC transmission requirements.
  • Planck's constant - Planck's constant, symbolized h, relates the energy in one quantum (photon) of electromagnetic radiation to the frequency of that radiation.
  • planned obsolescence - Planned obsolescence is the concept that a product should be designed and produced with the knowledge that it will only be popular, useful and functional for a limited length of time.
  • plasma - Plasma is a form of matter in which many of the electrons wander around freely among the nuclei of the atom s.
  • plasma TV - Plasma TV is a television display technology in which each pixel on the screen is illuminated by a tiny bit of plasma (charged gas).
  • plenum - In building construction, a plenum (pronounced PLEH-nuhm, from Latin meaning full) is a separate space provided for air circulation for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (sometimes referred to as HVAC) and typically provided in the space between the structural ceiling and a drop-down ceiling.
  • plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) - A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a type of hybrid electric vehicle that combines a gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor and a large battery, which can be recharged by plugging it into an electrical outlet or charging stations.
  • podcasting - Podcasting is the preparation and distribution of audio files using RSS to the computers of subscribed users.
  • polymer LED (light-emitting polymer or polyLED) - Polymer LED (light-emitting diode) - sometimes called light-emitting polymer or polyLED - is a technology based on the use of polymer as the semiconductor material in LEDs.
  • porta-person - A porta-person is a device-based representation of an individual for teleconference applications.
  • porta-person video - NBC News demonstrates a porta-person application for the classroom, PEBBLES (Providing Education by Bringing Learning Environments to Students).
  • positron - A positron is a particle of matter with the same mass as an electron but an opposite charge.
  • potential energy (U) - Potential energy, expressed in science as U, is energy that is stored within an object, not in motion but capable of becoming active.
  • power - Electrical power is the rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form, such as motion, heat, or an electromagnetic field.
  • Powercast - Powercast is a technology that uses a low-level radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field to recharge small electrochemical cells and batteries.
  • pressure sensing - Pressure sensing is the capacity for some system to sense the force exerted on a surface per unit area and express that force in the strength of an electric signal.
  • printed circuit board (PCB) - A printed circuit board (PCB) is the board base for physically supporting and wiring surface-mounted and socketed components in most electronics.
  • processing in memory (PIM) - Processing in memory (PIM, sometimes called processor in memory) is the integration of a processor with RAM (usually DRAM or SRAM) on a single chip.
  • processor (CPU) - A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer.
  • proton - A proton is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of every atom.
  • proximity sensing - Proximity sensing is the ability of a robot to tell when it is near an object, or when something is near it.
  • pulse - A pulse is a burst of current, voltage, or electromagnetic-field energy.
  • pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) - Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) is the transmission of data by varying the amplitudes (voltage or power levels) of the individual pulses in a regularly timed sequence of electrical or electromagnetic pulses.
  • Qi (Wireless Power Consortium) - Qi (pronounced CHEE) is a manufacturer-agnostic standard for wirelessly charging battery-powered devices.
  • Qik - Qik is an online video streaming service that allows anyone with a strong wireless Internet connection and a video camera-equipped smartphone to broadcast live events.
  • quad gate - A quad gate is an IC (integrated circuit or chip) containing four logic gates.
  • quad-core processor - A quad-core processor is a chip with four independent units called cores that read and execute central processing unit (CPU) instructions such as add, move data, and branch.
  • quantum dot - A quantum dot is a particle of matter so small that the addition or removal of an electron changes its properties in some useful way.
  • quantum interference - Quantum interference is one of the most challenging principles of quantum theory.
  • quantum mirage - The term quantum mirage refers to a phenomenon that may make it possible to transfer data without conventional electrical wiring.
  • Quarter Video Graphics Array (QVGA) - QVGA (Quarter Video Graphics Array) is a small-screen display mode in which the resolution is 320 pixels horizontally by 240 pixels vertically (320 x 240).
  • raceway - A raceway is an enclosed conduit that forms a physical pathway for electrical wiring.
  • radiation shield - In mobile phones, a radiation shield is an accessory that serves to decrease the amount of radio frequency (RF) energy being absorbed by a mobile phone user.
  • radio charging - Radio charging is a wireless charging method used to charge items with small batteries and low power requirements, such as watches, hearing aids and wireless keyboards and mice.
  • radio frequency (RF, rf) - Radio frequency is a measurement representing the oscillation rate of electromagnetic radiation spectrum, or electromagnetic radio waves, from frequencies ranging from 300 GHz to as low as 9 kHz.
  • reactance - Reactance, denoted X, is a form of opposition that electronic components exhibit to the passage of alternating current (alternating current) because of capacitance or inductance.
  • reactive power - In a direct current (DC) circuit, or in an alternating current (AC) circuit whose impedance is a pure resistance, the voltage and current are in phase, and the following formula holds: P = ErmsIrms where P is the power in watts, Erms is the root-mean-square (rms) voltage in volts, and Irms is the rms current in amperes.
  • reagent - A reagent is a chemical substance that is used to create a reaction in combination with some other substance.
  • rechargeable battery - Rechargeable batteries allow for multiple usages from a cell, reducing waste and generally providing a better long-term investment in terms of dollars spent for usable device time.
  • reciprocal meter - The reciprocal meter is the standard unit of wave number for electromagnetic fields (EM fields).
  • recordable DVD (writable DVD) - Recordable DVD (sometimes called writable DVD) is a DVD technology that allows a PC user to write data one or more times to a DVD with the PC's DVD drive.
  • Reduce, reuse, recycle (R3) - Reduce, reuse and recycle (R3) are the three essential components of environmentally-responsible consumer behavior.
  • replicator - A replicator is an object or organism that can make copies of itself.
  • resistance - Resistance is the opposition that a substance offers to the flow of electric current; the term contrasts with conductance, which is a measure of the ease with which current flows through a substance.
  • resistor - A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit.
  • resonance charging - Resonance charging is a wireless charging method for items that require large amounts of power, such as an electric car, robot, vacuum cleaner or laptop computer.
  • RFID tagging - RFID tagging uses small radio frequency identification devices to track and identify objects.
  • robot - A robot is a machine designed to execute one or more tasks automatically with speed and precision.
  • root-mean-square (RMS) - In a direct current (DC) circuit, voltage or current is simple to define, but in an alternating current (AC) circuit, the definition is more complicated, and can be done in several ways.
  • RoundTable - Microsoft RoundTable is a videoconference device designed to simulate in-person meetings.
  • RZ (return-to-zero) - RZ (return-to-zero) refers to a form of digital data transmission in which the binary low and high states, represented by numerals 0 and 1, are transmitted by voltage pulses having certain characteristics.
  • S-Video (Super-Video, Y/C Video, component video) - S-Video (Super-Video, sometimes referred to as Y/C Video, or component video) is a video signal transmission in which the luminance signal and the chrominance signal are transmitted separately to achieve superior picture clarity.
  • saser (sound amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) - The SASER is the sonic equivalent to the laser and is often referred to as a sound laser or acoustic laser.
  • satellite radio or Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS) - Satellite radio, more formally known as Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS), is a broadcasting network in which digital high-fidelity (hi-fi) audio entertainment is transmitted from orbiting satellites to receivers on the surface.
  • saturation - Saturation is the fully conducting state in a semiconductor junction.
  • scanning tunneling microscope (STM) - A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a device that obtains images of the atoms on the surfaces of materials.
  • SCART connector - A SCART connector is a physical and electrical interconnection between two pieces of audio-visual equipment, such as a television set and a video cassette recorder (VCR).
  • Seebeck effect - The Seebeck effect describes the generation of electricity following the connection of two dissimilar electrical conductors or semiconductors that illustrates the thermoelectric effect.
  • segmented memory - Segmented memory is a system of addressing computer memory, which may be physical or virtual and may be operating in real or protected mode.
  • selenium - What is selenium?Selenium is a non-metallic element that is often used as a semiconductor material, as a rectifier or in xerography.
  • semiconductor - A semiconductor is a substance, usually a solid chemical element or compound, that can conduct electricity under some conditions but not others, making it a good medium for the control of electrical current.
  • sensor - A sensor is a device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment.
  • SerDes (serializer/deserializer) - A SerDes or serializer/deserializer is an integrated circuit (IC or chip) transceiver that converts parallel data to serial data and vice-versa.
  • Serial ATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or SATA) - The SATA storage protocol transmits data in serial fashion between hard drives and computer systems.
  • serial peripheral interface (SPI) - In a computer, a serial peripheral interface (SPI) is an interface that enables the serial (one bit at a time) exchange of data between two devices, one called a master and the other called a slave.
  • servo (servomechanism) - A servo or servomechanism is an electromagnetic device that converts electricity into precise controlled motion by use of negative feedback mechanisms.
  • seven wastes - The seven wastes are categories of unproductive manufacturing practices identified by Taiichi Ohno, the father of the Toyota Production System (TPS).
  • seven-segment display - A seven-segment display is a set of seven bar-shaped LED (light-emitting diode) or LCD (liquid crystal display) elements, arranged to form a squared-off figure 8.
  • shift register - A shift register is a digital memory circuit found in calculators, computers, and data-processing systems.
  • sideband - In electronic signal transmission, a sideband is the portion of a modulated carrier wave that is either above or below the basic (baseband) signal.
  • siemens (mho) - (Siemens AG is a German company engaged in electrical engineering and electronics.
  • signature analysis - Signature analysis has two meanings.
  • silence machine or Electronic Controlled Acoustic Shadow System (ECASS) - The Electronic Controlled Acoustic Shadow System (ECASS), called the silence machine by its creator Selwyn Wright, an engineer at the University of Huddersfield in Yorkshire, UK, is the first device capable of blocking out a specified noise while leaving everything else audible.
  • silicon photonics - Silicon photonics is an evolving technology in which data is transferred among computer chips by optical rays.
  • Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) - Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) is a semiconductor fabrication technique developed by IBM that uses pure crystal silicon and silicon oxide for integrated circuits (IC) and microchips.
  • SIMO (single input, multiple output) - SIMO (single input, multiple output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at the destination (receiver).
  • single mode fiber - In optical fiber technology, single mode fiber is optical fiber that is designed for the transmission of a single ray or mode of light as a carrier and is used for long-distance signal transmission.
  • single-electron memory (SEM) - Single-electron memory (SEM) refers to experimental hardware technologies in which the position or presence of a single charge carrier, usually an electron, makes the difference between the logical low (0) and high (1) states in a digital system.
  • single-level cell (SLC) flash - Single-level cell (SLC) flash is a type of solid-state storage that stores one bit of data per cell of flash media.
  • SISO (single input, single output) - SISO (single input, single output) refers to a wireless communications system in which one antenna is used at the source (transmitter) and one antenna is used at the destination (receiver).
  • skin effect - Skin effect is a tendency for alternating current (AC) to flow mostly near the outer surface of an electrical conductor, such as metal wire.
  • Slingbox - Slingbox is a hardware device that transmits signals from a cable or satellite television connection to a personal computer over the Internet.
  • small form factor (SFF) - Small form factor (SFF) refers to any of several physically compact connector designs that have been developed for use in fiber optic systems.
  • small form-factor pluggable (SFP) - Small form-factor pluggable (SFP) is a specification for a new generation of optical modular transceivers.
  • smart antenna - A smart antenna is a digital wireless communications antenna system that takes advantage of diversity effect at the source (transmitter), the destination (receiver), or both.
  • smart matter - This definition generally duplicates our definition for MEMS.
  • snoopware - In mobile computing, snoopware is malware that is capable of monitoring activity on a smartphone.
  • soap opera effect (motion interpolation) - Soap opera effect is consumer lingo for a visual effect caused by motion interpolation, a process that high definition televisions use to display content at a higher refresh rate than the original source.

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