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Hardware

Terms related to computer hardware, including definitions about cables, connectors and power supply units and words and phrases about computing peripheral devices including the keyboard, mouse, audio speakers, and printers.

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  • 3270 (Information Display System) - The 3270 Information Display System, a product from IBM, was, prior to the arrival of the PC, the way that almost the entire corporate world interfaced with a computer.
  • 8-track tape - An 8-track tape is a hard plastic cartridge about the size of an external modem that houses a continuous loop of non-digital (analog) audio data stored on magnetic tape.
  • A-weighted decibels (dBA, or dBa, or dB(a)) - A-weighted decibels, abbreviated dBA, or dBa, or dB(a), are an expression of the relative loudness of sounds in air as perceived by the human ear.
  • adapter - An adapter is a physical device that allows one hardware or electronic interface to be adapted (accommodated without loss of function) to another hardware or electronic interface.
  • Advanced Television Enhancement Forum (ATVEF) - The Advanced Television Enhancement Forum (ATVEF) is an alliance of leaders in the broadcast and cable industry, the consumer electronics industry, and the computer industry that developed the ATVEF enhanced content specification.
  • aerogel - Aerogel is a translucent, synthetic solid-state substance with extremely low density and excellent thermal insulating properties.
  • AHCI (Advanced Host Controller Interface) - Advanced Host Controller Interface, or AHCI, is a technical standard for an interface that enables software to communicate with Serial ATA (SATA) devices.
  • alien crosstalk (AXT) - Alien crosstalk (AXT) is electromagnetic noise that can occur in a cable that runs alongside one or more other signal-carrying cables.
  • AMD-V (AMD virtualization) - AMD-V (AMD virtualization) is a set of hardware extensions for the X86 processor architecture.
  • Apple - Apple is a prominent hardware and software company best known for its series of personal computers, the iPod and its innovative marketing strategies for its products.
  • AS/400 (IBM iSeries, AS/400e, eServer iSeries/400) - The AS/400 - formally renamed the 'eServer iSeries/400,' but still commonly known as AS/400 - is a middle-size server designed for small businesses and departments in large enterprises and now redesigned so that it will work well in distributed networks.
  • ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) - An ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) is a microchip designed for a special application, such as a particular kind of transmission protocol or a hand-held computer.
  • ASSP (application-specific standard product) - In computers, an ASSP (application-specific standard product) is a semiconductor device integrated circuit (IC) product that is dedicated to a specific application market and sold to more than one user (and thus, "standard").
  • ATX - ATX is an industry-wide specification for a desktop computer's motherboard.
  • automated test equipment (ATE) - Automated test equipment (ATE) is computer-controlled equipment that tests electronic devices for functionality and performance.
  • automatic transfer switch (ATS) - An automatic transfer switch (ATS) is a device that automatically transfers a power supply from its primary source to a backup source when it senses a failure or outage in the primary source.
  • AV (audio/video) - AV, an abbreviation for audio/video, is frequently used as a generic term for the audio and video components and capabilities in home entertainment system and related product descriptions and reviews.
  • backside bus - In a personal computer with an Intel processor chipset that includes a Dual Independent Bus (DIB), the frontside bus is the data path and physical interface between the processor and the main memory (RAM).
  • backup storage device - A backup storage device is used to make copies of data that is actively in use.
  • bang-bang (bang-bang control) - Bang-bang control is a type of control system that mechanically or electronically turns something on or off when a desired target (setpoint) has been reached.
  • barcode reader (POS scanner, bar code reader, price scanner) - A barcode reader, also called a price scanner or point-of-sale (POS) scanner, is a hand-held or stationary input device used to capture and read information contained in a bar code.
  • bare metal restore - In disaster recovery, a bare metal restore is the process of reformatting a computer from scratch after a catastrophic failure.
  • big-endian and little-endian - Endianness is a term that describes the order in which a sequence of bytes are stored in computer memory.
  • BIOS password - A BIOS password is a security precaution that requires a computer user to log into the machine's basic input/output system (BIOS) before a computer will boot up.
  • bit (binary digit) - A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data in a computer.
  • blade server - A blade server, sometimes referred to as a high-density server, is a compact device containing a computer used to manage and distribute data in a collection of computers and systems, called a network.
  • Bloom Energy Server (Bloom box) - A Bloom Box, officially known as an Bloom Energy Server, is a modular stack of solid oxide fuel cells that can produce electricity.
  • Blue Gene - Blue Gene is a supercomputer development project at IBM for a series of high-performance system-on-a-chip (SoC) arcitectures with minimal power demands.
  • board support package - A board support package (BSP) is essential code code for a given computer hardware device that will make that device work with the computer's OS (operating system).
  • brain-computer interface (BCI) - Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a collaboration between a brain and a device that enables signals from the brain to direct some external activity, such as control of a cursor or a prosthetic limb.
  • British thermal unit (Btu) - A British thermal unit (Btu) is a standard unit of energy that is used in the United States and sometimes in the U.
  • buckypaper - Buckypaper is a strong and lightweight substance manufactured from compressed carbon nanotubes, which are long, cylindrical carbon structures consisting of hexagonal graphite molecules attached at the edges.
  • build to order - Build to order is a methodology and manufacturing practice where a product is created once a confirmed order is received.
  • burn-in - Burn-in is a test in which a system or component is made to run for an extended period of time to detect problems.
  • bus network - A bus network is a local area network (LAN) topology in which each node -- a workstation or other device -- is connected to a main cable or link called a bus.
  • cache coherence - In a shared memory multiprocessor with a separate cache memory for each processor, it is possible to have many copies of any one instruction operand : one copy in the main memory and one in each cache memory.
  • cache memory - Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular random access memory (RAM).
  • CADE (Corporate Average Data center Efficiency) - CADE (Corporate Average Data center Efficiency) is a metric used to rate the overall energy efficiency of an organization's data centers.
  • camcorder (camera recorder) - A camcorder (camera recorder) is a portable electronic recording device capable of recording live-motion video and audio for later playback.
  • catastrophic failure - Catastrophic failure is a complete, sudden, often unexpected breakdown in a machine, electronic system, computer or network.
  • cell phone jammer - A cell phone jammer is a device that blocks transmission or reception of signals, usually by creating some form of interference at the same frequency ranges that cell phones use.
  • Centrino - Centrino is a technology package from Intel that provides built-in wireless support for laptop computers while making it possible to run a laptop all day (up to seven hours) without a battery recharge.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • channel partner - A channel partner is a person or organization that provides services or sells products on behalf of a software, hardware, networking or cloud services vendor.
  • chassis - A chassis (pronounced TCHA-see or CHA-see) is the physical frame or structure of an automobile, an airplane, a desktop computer, or other multi-component device.
  • chip - "Chip" is short for microchip, the incredibly complex yet tiny modules that store computer memory or provide logic circuitry for microprocessors.
  • chipset - A chipset is a group of integrated circuits (microchips) that can be used together to serve a single function and are therefore manufactured and sold as a unit.
  • Chromebook - Google Chromebook is a thin client laptop that is configured with the Chrome operating system (Chrome OS).
  • chucking - In computer and telephone use, chucking is the process of discarding a small piece of hardware by violent means, such as hurling it out a window, against a wall, or into a body of water.
  • circuit bending - Circuit bending is the practice of modifying existing electronics items, most often toys, to create other items, usually musical instruments.
  • Cisco Catalyst Blade Switch 3020 - The Cisco Catalyst Blade Switch 3020 is a switch designed for the Hewlett-Packard (HP) BladeSystem c-Class of blade servers.
  • clean computing - Clean computing is when an organization's manufacture, use and disposal of IT equipment does not produce any harmful waste at any stage.
  • clean room - A clean room (or cleanroom) is an enclosed space in which airborne particulates, contaminants, and pollutants are kept within strict limits.
  • cluster - In a computer system, a cluster is a group of servers and other resources that act like a single system and enable high availability and, in some cases, load balancing and parallel processing.
  • CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) - CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is the semiconductor technology used in the transistors that are manufactured into most of today's computer microchips.
  • coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) - Coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) is a method of combining multiple signals on laser beams at various wavelengths for transmission along fiber optic cables, such that the number of channels is fewer than in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) but more than in standard wavelength division multiplexing (WDM).
  • cold backup (offline backup) - Cold backups are ideal for disaster recovery because they protect important data.
  • collaborative robot (cobot) - A collaborative robot, also known as a cobot, is a robot that is capable of learning multiple tasks so it can assist human beings.
  • commodity - A commodity is a type of widely-available product that is not markedly dissimilar from one unit to another.
  • commodity hardware - Commodity hardware, in an IT context, is a device or device component that is relatively inexpensive, widely available and more or less interchangeable with other hardware of its type.
  • common test platform (CTP) - A common test platform (CTP), also called an open test standard (OTS), is a set of specifications defining test methods for diverse components of computer and electronic systems to be marketed as complete products.
  • compact disc (CD) - A compact disc is a portable storage medium that can be used for recording, storing and playing back audio, video and other data in digital form.
  • compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL) - A compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL) is a fluorescent light bulb that has been compressed into the size of a standard-issue incandescent light bulb.
  • CompactFlash card (CF card) - A CompactFlash card (CF card) is a memory card format developed by SanDisk in 1994 that uses flash memory technology to store data on a very small portable device.
  • compaction - In a data center, compaction is the reduction or consolidation of hardware to make better use of physical floor space.
  • compatibility - Compatibility is the capacity for two systems to work together without having to be altered to do so.
  • composable infrastructure - A composable infrastructure is a framework that decouples device resources in order to treat them as services.
  • computer forensics (cyber forensics) - Computer forensics is the application of investigation and analysis techniques to gather and preserve evidence from a particular computing device in a way that is suitable for presentation in a court of law.
  • computer hardware chart - This handy computer hardware quick look-up was designed by Sonic84.
  • Computer Misuse Act 1990 (CMA) - The Computer Misuse Act 1990 (CMA) is an act of the UK Parliament passed in 1990.
  • computer worm - A computer worm is a type of malware whose primary function is to self-replicate and infect other computers while remaining active on infected systems.
  • computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) - A computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) is software that helps operations and maintenance staff identify and track the status of maintenance tasks and availability of replacement parts.
  • consumer device - Consumer device is an industry term for Internet-capable mobile computers that are marketed to individuals, not businesses.
  • conventional memory - DOS memory, sometimes referred to as conventional memory, refers to the memory -addressing scheme used in the original IBM and compatible PCs.
  • converged infrastructure reference architecture - A converged infrastructure reference architecture is a document that stipulates the components, design and configuration a CI appliance, which includes storage, compute and networking resources within a single-box system.
  • convertible tablet - A convertible tablet is a computer that can function as either a standalone touch screen device or as a notebook with a physical keyboard.
  • coprocessor - A coprocessor is a special set of circuits in a microprocessor chip that is designed to manipulate numbers or perform some other specialized function more quickly than the basic microprocessor circuits could perform the same task.
  • core router - A core router is a router that forwards packets to computer hosts within a network (but not between networks).
  • CPE device - A CPE device is telecommunications hardware located at the home or business of a customer.
  • cryogenics - Cryogenics is the study of material sciences at extremely low temperatures.
  • customer premises equipment (CPE) - Customer premises equipment (CPE) is telecommunications and information technology equipment kept at the customer's physical location rather than on the service provider's premises.
  • cycle time - Cycle time is the time, usually measured in nanosecond s, between the start of one random access memory (RAM) access to the time when the next access can be started.
  • DASD (direct access storage device) - Direct access storage device (DASD, pronounced DAZ-dee), is a general term for magnetic disk storage devices.
  • data center chiller - A data center chiller is a cooling system used in a data center to remove heat from one element and deposit it into another element.
  • data center evaporative cooling (swamp cooling) - Evaporative cooling, also known as swamp cooling, is a strategy for cooling air that takes advantage of the drop in temperature that occurs when water that's exposed to moving air begins to change to gas.
  • data glove - A data glove is an interactive device, resembling a glove worn on the hand, which facilitates tactile sensing and fine-motion control in robotics and virtual reality.
  • datacard - A datacard is any removable computer component, approximately the size of a credit card, that contains data, or that contains nonvolatile memory to which data can be written and from which data can be recovered.
  • daughterboard (or daughter board, daughter card, or daughtercard) - A daughterboard (or daughter board, daughter card, or daughtercard) is a circuit board that plugs into and extends the circuitry of another circuit board.
  • Daylight Saving Time patch - A Daylight Saving Time patch is a modular piece of code created to update systems, devices and programs for compatibility with new start and end dates for Daylight Saving Time (DST) in the United States, Canada and Bermuda.
  • decibels related to dipole antenna (dBd) - dBd (decibels related to dipole antenna) is a measure of the gain of an antenna system relative to a dipole antenna at radio frequency.
  • defragmenter - A defragmenter is a software utility that rearranges the fragments or discontiguous parts of each file stored on a computer hard disk so that the small, empty storage spaces adjacent to fragments can be used, effectively creating new storage space and possibly making file access faster.
  • design reuse - In information technology, design reuse is the inclusion of previously designed components (blocks of logic or data) in software and hardware.
  • desktop gadget - A desktop gadget is a software widget, or a small application, that is designed to sit on a user's desktop screen in much the same way that apps reside on smartphones and tablets.
  • device ID (device identification) - A device ID (device identification) is a distinctive number associated with a smartphone or similar handheld device.
SearchCompliance
  • OPSEC (operations security)

    OPSEC (operations security) is a security and risk management process and strategy that classifies information, then determines ...

  • smart contract

    A smart contract is a decentralized application that executes business logic in response to events.

  • compliance risk

    Compliance risk is an organization's potential exposure to legal penalties, financial forfeiture and material loss, resulting ...

SearchSecurity
  • What is cybersecurity?

    Cybersecurity is the protection of internet-connected systems such as hardware, software and data from cyberthreats.

  • DOS (disk operating system)

    A DOS, or disk operating system, is an operating system that runs from a disk drive. The term can also refer to a particular ...

  • private key

    A private key, also known as a secret key, is a variable in cryptography that is used with an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt ...

SearchHealthIT
SearchDisasterRecovery
  • What is risk mitigation?

    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • change control

    Change control is a systematic approach to managing all changes made to a product or system.

  • disaster recovery (DR)

    Disaster recovery (DR) is an organization's ability to respond to and recover from an event that affects business operations.

SearchStorage
  • NOR flash memory

    NOR flash memory is one of two types of non-volatile storage technologies.

  • What is RAID 6?

    RAID 6, also known as double-parity RAID, uses two parity stripes on each disk. It allows for two disk failures within the RAID ...

  • PCIe SSD (PCIe solid-state drive)

    A PCIe SSD (PCIe solid-state drive) is a high-speed expansion card that attaches a computer to its peripherals.

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