Browse Definitions :

Hardware

Terms related to computer hardware, including definitions about cables, connectors and power supply units and words and phrases about computing peripheral devices including the keyboard, mouse, audio speakers, and printers.

PRI - SHO

  • primary storage (main storage) - Primary storage is the collective methods and technologies used to capture and retain digital information that is in active use and critical for an organization’s operations.
  • printer - A printer is a device that accepts text and graphic output from a computer and transfers the information to paper, usually to standard size sheets of paper.
  • private cloud (internal cloud or corporate cloud) - Private cloud is a type of cloud computing that delivers similar advantages to public cloud, including scalability and self-service, but through a proprietary architecture.
  • processing in memory (PIM) - Processing in memory (PIM, sometimes called processor in memory) is the integration of a processor with RAM (usually DRAM or SRAM) on a single chip.
  • processor (CPU) - A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer.
  • product development (new product development - NPD) - Product development, also called new product management, is a series of steps that includes the conceptualization, design, development and marketing of newly created or newly rebranded goods or services.
  • product footprint - The product footprint is an assessment of the impact a particular product has on the environment.
  • programmable automation controller (PAC) - Programmable automation controller (PAC) is a term that is loosely used to describe any type of automation controller that incorporates higher-level instructions.
  • ProLiant - ProLiant, an "industry standard" computer server from Compaq, typifies the popularly-priced server that is designed to satisfy general computing needs at various levels in an enterprise.
  • propagation delay - Propagation delay, symbolized tpd, is the time required for a digital signal to travel from the input(s) of a logic gate to the output.
  • proportional control - Proportional control is a control system technology based on a response in proportion to the difference between what is set as a desired process variable (or set point) and the current value of the variable.
  • proprietary solution - A proprietary solution is a hardware or software product or combination of products and services that is tied to a specific vendor, to the exclusion of all other vendors.
  • prototype - In software development, a prototype is a rudimentary working model of a product or information system, usually built for demonstration purposes or as part of the development process.
  • proximity sensing - Proximity sensing is the ability of a robot to tell when it is near an object, or when something is near it.
  • PS/2 - The PS/2 was IBM's second generation of personal computers.
  • PS/2 connector - A PS/2 connector is a round connector with six pins that some makes of personal computer use for the keyboard or mouse connection.
  • PXE (Preboot Execution Environment) - Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) refers to various methods of getting an IBM-compatible computer, typically running Windows, to boot up without the need for a hard drive or boot diskette.
  • QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) - QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) is a method of combining two amplitude-modulated (AM) signals into a single channel, thereby doubling the effective bandwidth.
  • quad-core processor - A quad-core processor is a chip with four independent units called cores that read and execute central processing unit (CPU) instructions such as add, move data, and branch.
  • quantum dot - A quantum dot is a particle of matter so small that the addition or removal of an electron changes its properties in some useful way.
  • quantum mirage - The term quantum mirage refers to a phenomenon that may make it possible to transfer data without conventional electrical wiring.
  • QXGA (Quantum Extended Graphics Array) - QXGA (Quantum Extended Graphics Array) is a display mode in which the resolution is 2048 pixels horizontally by 1536 pixels vertically (2048 x 1536).
  • rack - A rack, in an IT (information technology) context, is a supporting framework that holds hardware modules.
  • rack server (rack-mounted server) - A rack server, also called a rack-mounted server, is a computer dedicated to use as a server and designed to be installed in a framework called a rack.
  • rack unit - A rack unit (abbreviated as U, less commonly seen as RU) is a unit of measurement (1.
  • rack-mounted - Rack-mounted describes a unit of electronic equipment that is housed in a metal framework called an equipment rack.
  • radio charging - Radio charging is a wireless charging method used to charge items with small batteries and low power requirements, such as watches, hearing aids and wireless keyboards and mice.
  • RAID (redundant array of independent disks) - RAID (redundant array of independent disks) is a way of storing the same data in different places on multiple hard disks to protect data in the case of a drive failure.
  • RAM (Random Access Memory) - RAM (Random Access Memory) is the hardware in a computing device where the operating system (OS), application programs and data in current use are kept so they can be quickly reached by the device's processor.
  • RAMAC - (IBM had an earlier system called RAMAC.
  • RAS (row address strobe) - In computer memory technology, RAS (row address strobe) is a signal sent to a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) that tells it that an associated address is a row address.
  • Raspberry Pi ($35 computer) - Raspberry Pi is a small, single-board computer that costs $35.
  • RDRAM (Rambus DRAM) - Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory, or RDRAM (Rambus DRAM), is a type of computer device active memory developed and licensed by Rambus Inc.
  • readerboard - A readerboard is a visual display board that conveys information about a wide variety of subjects, including advertising for products or services, travel, news or event information.
  • reagent - A reagent is a chemical substance that is used to create a reaction in combination with some other substance.
  • real-time clock (RTC) - A real-time clock (RTC) is a battery-powered clock that is included in a microchip in a computer motherboard.
  • reconfigurable tactile display (RTD) - A reconfigurable tactile display (RTD) is a control interface that provides physical touch input, but that can be configured by programming.
  • recordable DVD (writable DVD) - Recordable DVD (sometimes called writable DVD) is a DVD technology that allows a PC user to write data one or more times to a DVD with the PC's DVD drive.
  • Reduce, reuse, recycle (R3) - Reduce, reuse and recycle (R3) are the three essential components of environmentally-responsible consumer behavior.
  • redundant - Redundancy can have several meanings, but commonly refers to spare hardware that is kept online or to duplicate data.
  • refurbish - Refurbish, in everyday language, is "to renew or to restore to a new condition and/or appearance".
  • reliability - Reliability is an attribute of any computer-related component (software, or hardware, or a network, for example) that consistently performs according to its specifications.
  • Reliability, Availability and Serviceability (RAS) - Reliability, Availability and Serviceability (RAS) is a set of related attributes that must be considered when designing, manufacturing, purchasing or using a computer product or component.
  • removable media - Removable media is any type of storage device that can be removed from a computer while the system is running.
  • replicator - A replicator is an object or organism that can make copies of itself.
  • Request for Proposal (RFP) - A request for proposal (RFP) is a document that an organization, often a government agency or large enterprise, posts to elicit a response -- a formal bid -- from potential vendors for a desired IT solution.
  • resonance charging - Resonance charging is a wireless charging method for items that require large amounts of power, such as an electric car, robot, vacuum cleaner or laptop computer.
  • Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS Directive) - The Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive is a set of criteria formulated by the European Union (EU) to regulate the use of toxic materials in electrical and electronic devices, systems, and toys.
  • reverse engineering - Reverse engineering is taking apart an object to see how it works in order to duplicate or enhance the object.
  • RIBLOE (Remote Insight Board -- Lights Out Edition) - The Remote Insight Board -- Lights Out Edition (RIBLOE) is a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) card intended for the remote management of Compaq servers.
  • ring network - A ring network is a local area network (LAN) in which the nodes (workstations or other devices) are connected in a closed loop configuration.
  • robot - A robot is a machine designed to execute one or more tasks automatically with speed and precision.
  • Robot Ethics Charter - The Robot Ethics Charter is a proposed set of rules intended to govern the interaction between humans and robot s.
  • Robot Land - Robot Land is a proposed city for robotics research, development, testing and production in South Korea.
  • robotics - Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation of robots.
  • robust - Robust (pronounced RO-buhst) is an adjective commonly applied in marketing literature to information technology products in several ways.
  • rocker switch - A rocker switch is an on/off switch that rocks (rather than trips) when pressed, which means one side of the switch is raised while the other side is depressed much like a rocking horse rocks back and forth.
  • Roentgen - Roentgen is IBM's development name for a liquid crystal display (LCD) that has 2560 x 2048 pixels and is described as providing an image "as precise as the original paper document.
  • rollout - A rollout is a staged series of activities that often accumulate meaning as they occur.
  • Roomba (robotic vacuum) - Roomba is the name of a robotic vacuum produced by iRobot Corporation of Burlington, Mass.
  • RoundTable - Microsoft RoundTable is a videoconference device designed to simulate in-person meetings.
  • rugged IT - Rugged IT is a marketing term for hardware that is designed to operate in extremely harsh environments and conditions.
  • RZ (return-to-zero) - RZ (return-to-zero) refers to a form of digital data transmission in which the binary low and high states, represented by numerals 0 and 1, are transmitted by voltage pulses having certain characteristics.
  • S-Video (Super-Video, Y/C Video, component video) - S-Video (Super-Video, sometimes referred to as Y/C Video, or component video) is a video signal transmission in which the luminance signal and the chrominance signal are transmitted separately to achieve superior picture clarity.
  • S/390 - S/390 is IBM's large server (or mainframe) line of computer systems, which are marketed to the world's Fortune 1000 and many mid-size companies as a "tried-and-true" system with a history that stretches back to the System/360 of the early 1960s.
  • SAN file system - A SAN file system (that is, a storage area network file system) is programming that enables the sharing of the same copies of files stored on common storage media among multiple servers that may have different operating systems.
  • SAN island - A SAN island is a storage area network (SAN) that exists as a discrete, isolated entity within a larger SAN.
  • SATA 2 (SATA II) - SATA 2 is a marketing term to describe products that use a revised version of the Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) standard.
  • ScanDisk - ScanDisk is a Windows utility used to check your hard disk for errors and to correct problems that are found.
  • scanning tunneling microscope (STM) - A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a device that obtains images of the atoms on the surfaces of materials.
  • Scooba - Scooba is the name of a robot designed for vacuuming, scrubbing, and drying floors in households and businesses.
  • seat management - Seat management is a method of coordinating all the workstations in an enterprise network by overseeing the installation, operation, and maintenance of hardware and software at each workstation.
  • secondary storage - Secondary storage is storage for noncritical data that does not need to be frequently accessed.
  • sector - On a computer diskette or hard disk, a sector is one of the "pie slices" the diskette or disk is divided into.
  • SED TV (surface-conduction electron-emitter display television) - SED (surface-conduction electron-emitter display) is a flat-panel, high-resolution display developed by Canon and Toshiba that will compete with LCD and plasma displays.
  • Seebeck effect - The Seebeck effect describes the generation of electricity following the connection of two dissimilar electrical conductors or semiconductors that illustrates the thermoelectric effect.
  • Self-Monitoring Analysis & Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T.) - Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology (S.
  • Self-Scanned Amorphous Silicon Integrated Display (SASID) - Self-Scanned Amorphous Silicon Integrated Display (SASID) is the trade name for an active-matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) technology developed by Sarnoff Corporation.
  • self-scanning checkout (self-checkout) - Self-scanning checkout, also called "self-checkout" is an automated process that enables shoppers to scan, bag, and pay for their purchases without human assistance.
  • semiconductor fab - A semiconductor fab is a manufacturing plant in which raw silicon wafers are turned into integrated circuits.
  • sensor competition - Sensor competition is the use of multiple redundant sensors to detect, measure or analyze a single phenomenon.
  • sequential consistency - In computers, sequential consistency is best defined by its inventor, Leslie Lamport, who declared that a multiprocessing system had sequential consistency if:".
  • sequential logic - Sequential logic is a form of binary circuit design that employs one or more inputs and one or more outputs, whose states are related by defined rules that depend, in part, on previous states.
  • SerDes (serializer/deserializer) - A SerDes or serializer/deserializer is an integrated circuit (IC or chip) transceiver that converts parallel data to serial data and vice-versa.
  • Serial ATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or SATA) - The SATA storage protocol transmits data in serial fashion between hard drives and computer systems.
  • serial communications interface (SCI) - A serial communications interface (SCI) is a device that enables the serial (one bit at a time) exchange of data between a microprocessor and peripherals such as printers, external drives, scanners, or mice.
  • serial peripheral interface (SPI) - In a computer, a serial peripheral interface (SPI) is an interface that enables the serial (one bit at a time) exchange of data between two devices, one called a master and the other called a slave.
  • serial port server (serial server or port redirector) - A serial port server, also called a serial server or port redirector, is a device that transfers data between a computer serial port (COM port) and an Ethernet local area network (LAN).
  • serial presence detect (SPD) - When a computer is booted (started), serial presence detect (SPD) is information stored in anelectrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) chip on a synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) memory module that tells thebasic input/output system (BIOS) the module's size, data width, speed, and voltage.
  • serial-attached SCSI (SAS) - Serial-attached SCSI (SAS) is a point-to-point protocol used to transfer digital data between servers and SAS storage devices.
  • server accelerator card (SSL card) - A server accelerator card (also known as an SSL card) is a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) card used to generate encryption keys for secure transactions on e-commerce Web sites.
  • server farm (Web farm, Web server farm) - A server farm is a group of computers acting as servers and housed together in a single location.
  • server hardware degradation - Server hardware degradation is the gradual breakdown of the physical parts of a server.
  • server refresh cycle - The server refresh cycle is the length of time that normally passes between installations of new servers and related hardware in a data center.
  • server virtualization - Server virtualization is a process that creates and abstracts multiple virtual instances on a single server.
  • seven wastes - The seven wastes are categories of unproductive manufacturing practices identified by Taiichi Ohno, the father of the Toyota Production System (TPS).
  • SGI (Silicon Graphics) - SGI (Silicon Graphics) is a leading manufacturer of high-performance computing, data management, and visualization products.
  • shadow RAM - Shadow RAM is a copy of Basic Input/Output Operating System (BIOS) routines from read-only memory (ROM) into a special area of random access memory (RAM) so that they can be accessed more quickly.
  • shared memory - In computer programming, shared memory is a method by which program processes can exchange data more quickly than by reading and writing using the regular operating system services.
  • shotgun debugging - Shotgun debugging is the debugging of a program, hardware, or system problem using the approach of trying several possible solutions at the same time in the hope that one of them will work.

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