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High-speed networks

Terms related to high-speed communication networks, including network and end-system architecture definitions and words and phrases about high-bandwidth and low-latency communication.

100 - WIR

  • 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GbE) - 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GbE) is a standard in development that will enable the transfer of Ethernet frames at 100 gigabits per second (gp/s).
  • 1xRTT (Single-Carrier Radio Transmission Technology) - 1xRTT (Single-Carrier Radio Transmission Technology) is an operational mode for CDMA2000 wireless communications that specifies a single (1x) 1.
  • 5G new radio (NR) - 5G new radio (5G NR) is a set of standards that replaces the LTE 4G wireless network communications standard.
  • beamforming - Beamforming is a type of RF (radio frequency) management in which an access point uses multiple antennas to send out the same signal.
  • broadband - In general, broadband refers to telecommunication in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information.
  • Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) - The Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) is an initiative within the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) created to promote the development and adoption of broadband throughout the United States, particularly in unserved and underserved areas.
  • build your own broadband (BYOB) - Build your own broadband (BYOB) is a community- or individual-driven initiative to lay foundations for high-speed internet, instead of the work being performed by a traditional internet service provider (ISP) or government.
  • Carrier Ethernet - Carrier Ethernet is the use of high-bandwidth Ethernet technology for Internet access and for communication among business, academic and government local area networks (LANs).
  • carrier network - A telecommunications carrier network is the collection of devices and underlying infrastructure used to transmit data from one location to another.
  • CenturyLink - CenturyLink is an integrated telecommunications company that provides a wide variety of products and services to clients across the globe, including networking, cloud service and security solutions.
  • comfort noise generator (CNG) - A comfort noise generator (CNG) is a program used to generate background noise artificially for voice communications during periods of silence that occur during the course of conversation.
  • CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) - CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) is a form of cyclic redundancy checking (a method of checking for errors in transmitted data) that is used on E-1 trunk lines.
  • dark fiber - Dark fiber is optical fiber infrastructure (cabling and repeaters) that is currently in place but is not being used.
  • data streaming - Data streaming is the continuous transfer of data at a steady, high-speed rate.
  • dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) - Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a technology that puts together -- multiplexes -- data signals from different sources so they can share a single optical fiber pair while maintaining complete separation of the data streams.
  • destreaming - Destreaming, in a multimedia context, is the practice of saving streamed data as a file.
  • DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications) - Now known as CableLabs Certified Cable Modems, DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications) is a standard interface for cable modems, the devices that handle incoming and outgoing data signals between a cable TV operator and a personal or business computer or television set.
  • DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) - A DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) is a network device, usually at a telephone company central office, that receives signals from multiple customer Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) connections and puts the signals on a high-speed backbone line using multiplexing techniques.
  • erbium amplifier - An erbium amplifier, also called optical amplifier or an erbium-doped fiber amplifier or EDFA, is an optical or IR repeater that amplifies a modulated laser beam directly, without opto-electronic and electro-optical conversion.
  • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) - FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a set of ANSI and ISO standards for data transmission on fiber optic lines in a local area network (LAN) that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles).
  • fiber optics (optical fiber) - Fiber optics, or optical fiber, refers to the medium and the technology associated with the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic strand or fiber.
  • fiber to the home (FTTH) - Fiber to the home (FTTH), also called fiber to the premises (FTTP), is the installation and use of optical fiber from a central point directly to individual buildings such as residences, apartment buildings and businesses to provide high-speed internet access.
  • fiber to the x (FTTx) - Fiber to the x (FTTx) is a collective term for various optical fiber delivery topologies that are categorized according to where the fiber terminates.
  • free-space optics (FSO) - Free-space optics (FSO), also called free-space photonics (FSP), refers to the transmission of modulated visible or infrared (IR) beams through the atmosphere to obtain broadband communications.
  • gigabit Ethernet phone (gigE phone) - A gigabit Ethernet phone, or gigE phone, is a VoIP telephone that connects to and uses gigabit Ethernet transmission technology to communicate with other phones.
  • gigabit interface converter (GBIC) - A gigabit interface converter (GBIC) is a transceiver that converts electric currents (digital highs and lows) to optical signals, and optical signals to digital electric currents.
  • Google Fiber - Google Fiber is a project whose goal is to build a fiber optic communications infrastructure.
  • hop off - Hop off is a term used in telecommunications that refers to a point at which a signal or call leaves a network and moves to another network.
  • hundred call second or centum call second (CCS) - The hundred call second -- also known as the centum call second (CCS) -- is a unit of telecommunications traffic density that is the equivalent of one call (including call attempts and holding time) in a specific channel for 100 seconds in an hour.
  • hyperconnectivity - Hyperconnectivity is a state of unified communications (UC) in which the traffic-handling capacity and bandwidth of a network always exceed the demand.
  • interconnection - Interconnection is a strategy for ensuring that businesses can privately, securely and directly exchange digital information.
  • Internet metering - Internet metering is a service model in which an Internet service provider (ISP) tracks the customer's use of bandwidth and charges accordingly.
  • IPTV (Internet Protocol television) - IPTV (Internet Protocol television) is a service that provides television programming and other video content using the TCP/IP protocol suite as opposed to traditional cable or satellite signals.
  • long-haul optics - Long-haul optics refers to the transmission of visible light signals over optical fiber cable for great distances, especially without or with minimal use of repeaters.
  • LTE (Long-Term Evolution) - LTE (Long-Term Evolution) is a standard for 4G wireless technology that offers increased network capacity and speed for cellphones and other cellular devices compared with 3G.
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit - Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether or not its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.
  • MiFi - MiFi is a portable broadband device that allows multiple end users and mobile devices to share a 3G or 4G mobile broadband Internet connection and create an ad-hoc network.
  • mobile Internet device (MID) - A mobile Internet device (MID) is a handheld device that is larger than a smartphone but smaller than a netbook.
  • multi-carrier modulation (MCM) - Multi-carrier modulation (MCM) is a method of transmitting data by splitting it into several components, and sending each of these components over separate carrier signals.
  • Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) - Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) is a digital video broadcasting (DVB) standard intended to combine digital television (DTV) with the Internet and the World Wide Web.
  • network coding - Network coding is a method of optimizing the flow of digital data in a network by transmitting digital evidence about messages.
  • network convergence - Network convergence is the efficient coexistence of telephone, video and data communication within a single network.
  • network protocol - A network protocol is a set of established rules that dictate how to format, transmit and receive data so that computer network devices -- from servers and routers to endpoints -- can communicate, regardless of the differences in their underlying infrastructures, designs or standards.
  • OC-768 - OC-768 is currently the fastest synchronous optical network (SONET) standard rate for data transmission on optical fiber as part of the broadband ISDN (BISDN).
  • Optical Carrier levels (OCx) - The Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber.
  • P4P (proactive provider participation for P2P) - P4P (proactive provider participation for P2P) is a protocol designed to improve the use of available bandwidth in a P2P network by reducing the overall volume of traffic.
  • phase-change cooling (vapor cooling) - Phase-change cooling, also called vapor cooling, is a microprocessor-cooling technology that works according to the same principles as a conventional refrigerator, freezer or air conditioner.
  • progressive download - A progressive download is a process that allows the user to access content before the data transfer is complete.
  • Q signaling (QSIG) - Q signaling (abbreviated QSIG), a protocol for Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) communications based on the Q.
  • Q.931 - Q.931 (also called Q93 is a signaling protocol for Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) communications that is used in voice over IP (VoIP).
  • radio access network (RAN) - A radio access network (RAN) is a major component of a wireless telecommunications system that connects individual devices to other parts of a network through a radio link.
  • real-time communications (RTC) - Real-time communications (RTC) is any mode of telecommunications in which all users can exchange information instantly or with negligible latency.
  • satellite Internet connection - A satellite Internet connection is an arrangement in which the upstream (outgoing) and the downstream (incoming) data are sent from, and arrive at, a computer through a satellite.
  • SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) - SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media.
  • Serial Digital Interface (SDI) - Serial Digital Interface (SDI) is a standard for digital video transmission over coaxial cable.
  • small cell - A small cell is an umbrella term used to describe a miniature radio access point or wireless network base station with a low radio frequency power output, footprint and range.
  • small form factor (SFF) - Small form factor (SFF) refers to any of several physically compact connector designs that have been developed for use in fiber optic systems.
  • small form-factor pluggable (SFP) - Small form-factor pluggable (SFP) is a specification for a new generation of optical modular transceivers.
  • Squid proxy server - Squid is a Unix-based proxy server that caches Internet content closer to a requestor than its original point of origin.
  • T-carrier system - To see the relationship between T-carrier, E-carrier, and DS0 multiples, see digital signal X.
  • T1 (T-1) - Also see the T-carrier system, of which the T1 is a part.
  • TD-SCDMA (time division synchronous code division multiple access) - TD-SCDMA (time division synchronous code division multiple access) is a mobile telephone standard for wireless network operators who want to move from a second generation (2G) wireless network to a third-generation (3G) one.
  • ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM) - Ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM) is a specialized type of high-speed memory that searches its entire contents in a single clock cycle, with the term “ternary” referring to its ability to store and query data using three different inputs: 0, 1 and X.
  • Tsunami UDP - Tsunami UDP is an open source file transfer protocol that enables high-speed data transfer over network paths with a large bandwidth delay product.
  • Verizon Communications v. Federal Communications Commission (2014) - Verizon Communications v.
  • video telephony - Video telephony is full-duplex, real-time audio-visual communication between or among end users.
  • virtual phone number - A virtual phone number is a telephone number is used to route calls to the user's actual phone number or numbers.
  • weighted fair queueing (WFQ) - Weighted fair queueing (WFQ) is a method of automatically smoothing out the flow of data in packet-switched communication networks by sorting packets to minimize the average latency and prevent exaggerated discrepancies between the transmission efficiency afforded to narrowband versus broadband signals.
  • What is 5G? - Fifth-generation wireless (5G) is the latest iteration of cellular technology.
  • wideband - Wideband is a transmission medium or channel that has a wider bandwidth than one voice channel (with a carrier wave of a certain modulated frequency).
  • wireless broadband (WiBB) - Wireless broadband (WiBB) is high-speed internet and data service delivered through a wireless local area network (WLAN) or wireless wide area network (WWAN).
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