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IT standards and organizations

Terms related to information technology (IT) standards, including definitions about IT organizations and words and phrases about policies and compliance.

CAR - EBI

  • CardBus - CardBus is the trade name for an advanced PC Card (also known as PCMCIA card) specification.
  • carrierless amplitude/phase (CAP) - Carrierless amplitude/phase (CAP) modulation was the original approach for modulation of a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) signal.
  • Categories of twisted pair cabling systems - ANSI/EIA (American National Standards Institute/Electronic Industries Association) Standard 568 is one of several standards that specify "categories" (the singular is commonly referred to as "CAT") of twisted pair cabling systems, such as wires, junctions, and connectors.
  • CCHIT - Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology - The Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology (CCHIT) is an independent, not-for-profit group that certifies electronic health records (EHR) and networks for health information exchange (HIE) in the United States.
  • CCITT or ITU-T (Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications) - The CCITT, now known as the ITU-T (for Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union), is the primary international body for fostering cooperative standards for telecommunications equipment and systems.
  • CCO (Corporate or Chief Compliance Officer) - A Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) is a corporate official in charge of overseeing and managing compliance issues within an organization, ensuring, for example, that a company is complying with regulatory requirements and that the company and its employees are complying with internal policies and procedures.
  • CD-i (Compact Disc - interactive) - CD-i (Compact Disc - interactive) is the multimedia CD format specified in 1986 (in the Green Book).
  • CD-ROM XA (Compact Disc - read-only-memory, extended architecture) - CD-ROM XA (Compact Disc - read-only-memory, extended architecture) is a modification of CD-ROM that defines two new types of sectors that enable it to read and display data, graphics, video, and audio at the same time.
  • CDAC - The Centre for Development for Advanced Computing (CDAC) is the main research and development group for the Department of Information Technology (DIT) and the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) in India.
  • CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface) - For a local area network (LAN), CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface) is a standard for data transmission based on FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) that uses shielded twisted-pair (STP) or unshielded twisted pair (UTP) copper wire instead of fiber optic lines.
  • centimeter (cm) - The centimeter (abbreviation, cm) is a unit of displacement or length in the cgs (centimeter/gram/second) system of units.
  • centimeter cubed per gram - The centimeter cubed per gram (symbolized cm 3 /g) is the standard unit of specific volume in the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) or small-unit metric system.
  • centimeter per second squared - The centimeter per second squared (symbolized cm/s 2 or cm/sec 2) is the unit of acceleration vector magnitude in the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) or small-unit metric system.
  • Centronics parallel interface - The Centronics parallel interface is an older and still widely-used standard I/O interface for connecting printers and certain other devices to computers.
  • CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) - CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) is a government-mandated information technology (IT) security organization.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • Certified Internet Webmaster (CIW) - Certified Internet Webmaster (CIW) is a set of courses and exams that, when completed successfully, certifies an individual as capable in Web site development and server administration, including security and e-commerce.
  • CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) - CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) is a more secure procedure for connecting to a system than the Password Authentication Procedure (PAP).
  • charge quantity - Charge quantity is an expression of the extent to which an object is electrically charged.
  • CHIME (College of Healthcare Information Management Executives) - The College of Healthcare Information Management Executives (CHIME) is an organization created to serve the professional development needs of CIOs working in the healthcare industry and to promote effective information management within that industry.
  • circular mil - The circular mil is a unit of area used especially when denoting the cross-sectional size of a wire or cable.
  • citation style guides - A number of generally recognized authorities and organizations offer guidance about how to cite sources when writing an academic or journalistic paper.
  • CIW (Computer Intensive Workload) - In IBM's AS/400 and iSeries line of computers, CIW (Computer Intensive Workload) is a measure that can be used to compare the workload-handling capability of different computer models when running application programs in which most of the computer processor work is done within the applications.
  • clean room technique (clean room design) - The clean room technique is a process in which a new product is developed by reverse engineering an existing product, and then the new product is designed in such a way that patent or copyright infringement is avoided.
  • closed captions - Closed captions are a text version of the spoken part of a television, movie, or computer presentation.
  • Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) - The Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) is a nonprofit organization that promotes research into best practices for securing cloud computing and the use of cloud technologies to secure other forms of computing.
  • CloudAudit - CloudAudit is a specification for the presentation of information about how a cloud computing service provider addresses control frameworks.
  • cold/warm/hot server - In the backup and recovery of a computer server, a cold server is a backup server whose purpose is solely to be there in case the main server is lost.
  • collaborative citizen journalism (CCJ) - Collaborative citizen journalism (CCJ), a concept made possible by the Internet and the advent of blogging, is the pooling of research and reporting by volunteers to develop journalistic news stories or to critically examine existing ones, especially stories from the mainstream media.
  • Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) - Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) provides unique identifiers for publicly known security threats.
  • Communication and Networking Riser (CNR) - Communication and Networking Riser (CNR), which was developed by Intel, is an open industry standard for a scalable riser card, which is a hardware device that plugs into a motherboard and holds chips for functions like modems and audio devices.
  • Communications Act of 1934 - The Communications Act of 1934 is United States legislation that transfers the Federal Radio Commission’s authority over radio regulation to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which was newly formed under the Act’s provisions.
  • Complementary Code Keying (CCK) - Complementary Code Keying (CCK) is a modulation scheme used with wireless networks (WLANs) that employ the IEEE 802.
  • compliance - Compliance is the act of being in alignment with guidelines, regulations and/or legislation.
  • composite video (baseband video or RCA video) - Composite video, also called baseband video or RCA video, is the analog waveform that conveys the image data in a conventional National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) television signal.
  • CompTIA Project+ - CompTIA Project + is the Computing Technology Industry Association’s certification program designed to demonstrate validated learning and skills in project management.
  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) - A Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a group of information security experts responsible for the protection against, detection of and response to an organization’s cybersecurity incidents.
  • conformance - In information technology, a state or acts of adherence to a certain specification, standard, or guideline.
  • content aggregator - A content aggregator is an individual or organization that gathers Web content (and/or sometimes applications) from different online sources for reuse or resale.
  • Content Protection for Removable Media (CPRM) - Content Protection for Removable Media (CPRM) is a hardware-based technology designed to enforce copy protection restrictions through built-in mechanisms in storage media that would prevent unauthorized file copying.
  • Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, GMT, CUT) - Coordinated Universal Time (abbreviated as UTC, and therefore often spelled out as Universal Time Coordinated and sometimes as Universal Coordinated Time) is the standard time common to every place in the world.
  • coordinates - Coordinates are distances or angles, represented by numbers, that uniquely identify points on surfaces of two dimensions (2D) or in space of three dimensions (3D).
  • COPS (Common Open Policy Service Protocol) - COPS (Common Open Policy Service Protocol) is a proposed standard protocol for exchanging network policy information between a policy decision point (PDP) in a network and policy enforcement points (PEPs) as part of overall Quality of Service (QoS) - the allocation of network traffic resources according to desired priorities of service.
  • COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS - COTS, MOTS, GOTS, and NOTS are abbreviations that describe pre-packaged software or hardware purchase alternatives.
  • coulomb - The coulomb (symbolized C) is the standard unit of electric charge in the International System of Units (SI).
  • coulomb per meter cubed - The coulomb per meter cubed is the unit of electric charge density.
  • CPW (Commercial Processing Workload) - CPW (Commercial Processing Workload) is a measure used in IBM's AS/400 and iSeries line of computers to compare computer system models in terms of how efficiently each system processes a typical workload of commercial applications involving frequent database access.
  • Credit CARD Act (Credit Card Accountability, Responsibility, and Disclosure Act of 2009) - The Credit CARD Act is legislation governing the behavior of credit card companies in the United States.
  • CSO (Chief Security Officer) - A Chief Security Officer (CSO) is the employee responsible for the physical security of a company, including its communication and business systems.
  • cubic meter (meter cubed) - The cubic meter is the unit of volume in the International System of Units.
  • curie - The curie is a unit of ionizing radiation (radioactivity), symbolized Ci and equal to 3.
  • customer data integration (CDI) - Customer data integration (CDI) is the process of defining, consolidating and managing customer information across an organization's business units and systems to achieve a "single version of the truth" for customer data.
  • cyberpicketing - Cyberpicketing is the use of the Internet to protest a corporation or other institution's wages, work conditions, products, environmental policy, or other issues.
  • Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2009 (S.773) - The Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2009 (S.
  • DAML (DARPA Agent Markup Language) - DAML (DARPA Agent Markup Language) is a markup language for the U.
  • DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) - DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) is the independent research branch of the U.
  • Data Encryption Standard (DES) - The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is an outdated symmetric-key method of data encryption.
  • Data Security Council of India (DSCI) - The Data Security Council of India (DSCI) is a not-for-profit organization created to promote the country as a secure destination for information technology (IT) outsourcing.
  • Daylight Saving Time (DST) - Daylight Saving Time (DST) is the practice of turning the clock ahead as warmer weather approaches and back as it becomes colder again so that people will have one more hour of daylight in the afternoon and evening during the warmer season of the year.
  • DCML (Data Center Markup Language) - DCML (Data Center Markup Language), based on Extensible Markup Language (XML), is a data format and model for exchanging information that describes a data center environment.
  • de facto standard - A de facto standard is something that is used so widely that it is considered a standard for a given application although it has no official status.
  • de jure standard - A de jure standard is a technology, method or product that has been officially endorsed for a given application.
  • DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) - Unlike the analog cordless phones you may have in your home, DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) is a digital wireless telephone technology that is expected to make cordless phones much more common in both businesses and homes in the future.
  • Defense Message System (DMS) - The Defense Message System (DMS) is a secure X.
  • degree Fahrenheit - The degree Fahrenheit (o F) is the unit of temperature used by most people in the United States in describing weather.
  • degree per second squared - The degree per second squared is an alternative unit of angular (rotational) acceleration magnitude, which is the rate of change of angular speed or velocity.
  • demutualization - Demutualization is the process through which a member-owned company becomes shareholder-owned; frequently this is a step toward the initial public offering (IPO) of a company.
  • design by committee - Design by committee is a term sometimes used to describe a design that is flawed because too many people provided input.
  • dielectric constant - The dielectric constant is the ratio of the permittivity of a substance to the permittivity of free space.
  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ, or DS) - Differentiated Services (DiffServ, or DS) is a protocol for specifying and controlling network traffic by class so that certain types of traffic get precedence - for example, voice traffic, which requires a relatively uninterrupted flow of data, might get precedence over other kinds of traffic.
  • digital audio broadcasting (DAB) - .
  • Digital Data Storage (DDS, DDS-1, DDS-2, DDS-3, DDS-4) - Digital Data Storage (DDS) is a format for storing and backing up computer data on tape that evolved from the Digital Audio Tape (DAT) technology.
  • Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) - The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a controversial United States digital rights management (DRM) law enacted October 28, 1998 by then-President Bill Clinton.
  • Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) - Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) is a set of standards that define digital broadcasting using existing satellite, cable, and terrestrial infrastructures.
  • DIME (Direct Internet Message Encapsulation) - DIME (Direct Internet Message Encapsulation) is a communications specification that defines a format for attaching files to Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages between application programs over the Internet.
  • DirXML - DirXML is Novell's directory interchange software that uses XML to keep different directories synchronized.
  • displacement - Displacement (symbolized d or s), also called length or distance, is a one-dimensional quantity representing the separation between two defined points.
  • DisplayPort - DisplayPort is an interface for digital displays, particularly computer monitors.
  • division sign - The division sign resembles a dash or double dash with a dot above and a dot below.
  • do not call list - The "do not call" list is a registry of phone numbers in the United States that telemarketers are prohibited from calling in most circumstances.
  • DoCoMo (NTT DoCoMo) - DoCoMo, also known as NTT DoCoMo, is a Japanese communications corporation that has introduced a line of cell phone sets that contain the equivalent of a digital smart card.
  • Document Type Definition (DTD) - A Document Type Definition (DTD) is a specific document defining and constraining definition or set of statements that follow the rules of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) or of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a subset of SGML.
  • dot pitch - The dot pitch specification for a display monitor tells you how sharp the displayed image can be.
  • double integral sign - The double integral sign is used to indicate mathematical integration performed twice in succession.
  • Double-Density Compact Disk (DDCD) - Double-Density Compact Disk (DDCD) is a CD format that increases the storage capacity of the disk through means such as increasing the number of tracks and pits (scores on the disk that are used to encode the data).
  • downsizing - In a business enterprise, downsizing is reducing the number of employees on the operating payroll.
  • DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and Specification Language) - DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and Specification Language) is a standard for the processing of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) documents.
  • Dublin Core - Dublin Core is an initiative to create a digital "library card catalog" for the Web.
  • DVD Forum - The DVD Forum is an international organization made up of companies using or manufacturing digital versatile disc (DVD)-related products.
  • DVI (Digital Visual Interface) - DVI (Digital Visual Interface) is a specification created by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG) to accommodate analog and digital monitors with a single connector.
  • DVMRP (Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol) - DVMRP (Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol) is the oldest routing protocol that has been used to support multicast data transmission over networks.
  • dynamic port numbers (private port numbers) - The dynamic port numbers (also known as the private port numbers) are the port numbers that are available for use by any application to use in communicating with any other application, using the Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
  • dyne - The dyne (dyn) is the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) unit of force.
  • e-Choupal - e-Choupal is an India-based business initiative by ITC Limited that links rural farmers with internet access to inform and empower them, improving both the quality of agricultural goods and the quality of life for farmers.
  • e-prescribing (eRx) incentive program - The Electronic Prescribing (eRx) Incentive Program is a US government program that provides financial incentives to physicians, practitioners and therapists who meet certain criteria for the use of qualified e-prescribing systems.
  • e-voting (electronic voting) - E-voting is an election system that allows a voter to record his or her secure and secret ballot electronically.
  • E.164 - E.164 is an international numbering plan for public telephone systems in which each assigned number contains a country code (CC), a national destination code (NDC), and a subscriber number (SN).
  • E911 (Enhanced 911) - In the United States, E911 (Enhanced 91 is support for wireless phone users who dial 911, the standard number for requesting help in an emergency.
  • Earth's mean orbital speed - Earth's mean orbital speed is the average speed at which the Earth revolves around the sun.
  • Earth's mean radius - The Earth's mean radius is determined as the average distance from the physical center to the surface, based on a large number of samples.

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