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IT standards and organizations

Terms related to information technology (IT) standards, including definitions about IT organizations and words and phrases about policies and compliance.

SWA - ZIP

  • SWAN (state wide area network) - In India, SWAN is a government-subsidized project to create a state wide area network (WAN) that will improve government efficiency.
  • SWIFT (Society for the Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) - Founded in Brussels in 1973, the Society for the Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) is a co-operative organization dedicated to the promotion and development of standardized global interactivity for financial transactions.
  • SynchML - SyncML is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) protocol under development as an open standard for the universal synchronization of data between devices, one of the most important building blocks in the development of third generation (3G) wireless.
  • syslog - Syslog is an IETF RFC 5424 standard protocol for computer logging and collection that is popular in Unix-like systems including servers, networking equipment and IoT devices.
  • systems thinking - Systems thinking is a holistic approach to analysis that focuses on the way that a system's constituent parts interrelate and how systems work over time and within the context of larger systems.
  • TDMA (time division multiple access) - TDMA (time division multiple access) is a technology used in digital cellular telephone communication that divides each cellular channel into three time slots in order to increase the amount of data that can be carried.
  • Telecommunications Act of 1996 - The Telecommunications Act of 1996, enacted by the U.
  • temperature (T) - Temperature (symbolized T) is an expression of heat energy.
  • terbo - The suffix terbo appears in the V.
  • terminology management - Terminology management is the systematized collection of concepts and terms with the purpose of unifying and standardizing technical documentation.
  • The Open Group - The Open Group is a software standards organization that is sponsored by a number of major software vendors.
  • The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) - The Open Group Architecture Framework, or TOGAF gives software architects a structured approach for organizing and governing their software technology design, development and maintenance.
  • time - Time is an observed phenomenon, by means of which human beings sense and record changes in the environment and in the universe.
  • Time Zone Registry - The Time Zone Registry is an ongoing development project at the Calendaring and Scheduling Consortium (CalConnect) to provide a global registry of time zones and a time zone service.
  • tModel - A tModel is a data structure representing a service type (a generic representation of a registered service) in the UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) registry.
  • Topic Map Query Language (TMQL) - Topic Map Query Language (TMQL) is an XML-based extension of Structured Query Language (SQL), a query language developed for use in meeting the specialized data access requirements of Topic Maps (TMs).
  • Total Information Awareness (TIA) - Total Information Awareness (TIA) is the name of a massive U.
  • Total Quality Management (TQM) - Total Quality Management is a management framework based on the belief that an organization can build long-term success by having all its members, from low-level workers to its highest ranking executives, focus on quality improvement and, thus, delivering customer satisfaction.
  • transport layer - Positioned at Layer 4 of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model, the transport layer ensures the reliable arrival of messages across a network and provides error-checking mechanisms and data flow controls.
  • Transport Layer Security (TLS) - Transport Layer Security (TLS) is a protocol that provides authentication, privacy, and data integrity between two communicating computer applications.
  • Transport Services Access Point (TSAP) - A Transport Services Access Point (TSAP) is an end-point for communication between the Transport layer (layer 4) and the Session layer in the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model.
  • Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) - Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is an Internet software utility for transferring files that is simpler to use than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) but less capable.
  • tropical year - The tropical year is the interval of time between one vernal equinox and the next and is a standard unit of time used by astronomers, physicists, and navigators.
  • TrueType - Created at Apple Computer, TrueType was designed to fill the need for an optimized, scalable font format.
  • trusted PC - The trusted PC is an industry ideal of a PC with built-in security mechanisms that place minimal reliance on the user or administrator to keep a PC and its peripheral devices secure.
  • U.K. Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA 1998) - The Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA 1998) is an act of the United Kingdom (UK) Parliament defining the ways in which information about living people may be legally used and handled.
  • UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) - UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) is an XML-based registry for businesses worldwide to list themselves on the Internet.
  • Unicode - Unicode is an entirely new idea in setting up binary codes for text or script characters.
  • Universal Disk Format (UDF) - Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a CD-ROM and DVD file system standard developed as a means of ensuring consistency among data written to various optical media, by facilitating both data interchange and the implementation of the ISO/IEC 13346 standard.
  • Universal Naming Convention (UNC) - In a network, the Universal Naming Convention (UNC) is a way to identify a shared file in a computer without having to specify (or know) the storage device it is on.
  • Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) - Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a standard that uses Internet and Web protocols to enable devices such as PCs, peripherals, intelligent appliances, and wireless devices to be plugged into a network and automatically know about each other.
  • UpperCamelCase - UpperCamelCase (part of CamelCase) is a naming convention in which a name is formed of multiple words that are joined together as a single word with the first letter of each of the multiple words capitalized within the new word that forms the name.
  • USA Patriot Act - The USA Patriot Act is a law enacted in 2001, granting new and extended data-collection abilities to federal agencies in an effort to combat terrorism after the September 11 attacks.
  • USB (Universal Serial Bus, USB 3.0, SuperSpeed USB) - USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a plug-and-play interface between a computer and add-on devices, such as media players, keyboards, telephones, digital cameras, scanners, flash drives, joysticks and printers.
  • Uuencode (Uuencode/Uudecode) - Uuencode (also called Uuencode/Uudecode) is a popular utility for encoding and decoding files exchanged between users or systems in a network.
  • V.90 - V.90 is a A Tour of the Internet, Who Runs It, Standards Org, approved by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU-TS), for transmitting data downstream to modems at 56 Kbps (thousand bits per second).
  • V.xx - The V Series Recommendations from the ITU-TS are summarized in the table below.
  • varicode - Varicode is a method of binary character encoding in which the number of bits for each character is not fixed, but varies for each character depending on how often that character occurs in general usage.
  • velocity - Velocity is a vector expression of the displacement that an object or particle undergoes with respect to time.
  • vertical market - A vertical market is a particular industry or group of enterprises in which similar products or services are developed and marketed using similar methods (and to whom goods and services can be sold).
  • VESA Local Bus (VESA VL bus) - VESA Local Bus (sometimes called the VESA VL bus) is a standard interface between your computer and its expansion slot that provides faster data flow between the devices controlled by the expansion cards and your computer's microprocessor.
  • VHS (Video Home System) - VHS (Video Home System) is a widely-adopted videocassette recording (VCR) technology that was developed by Japan Victor Company (JVC) and put on the market in 1976.
  • virtual organization - A virtual organization or company is one whose members are geographically apart, usually working by computer e-mail and groupware while appearing to others to be a single, unified organization with a real physical location.
  • VOIPSA (Voice over IP Security Alliance) - VOIPSA (Voice over IP Security Alliance) is a cross-industry coalition of individuals and organizations from the security and VoIP communications sectors.
  • volume (amount of physical bulk) - Volume (symbolized V) is a three-dimensional quantity representing amount or extent of physical bulk.
  • W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) - The W3C is an industry consortium which seeks to promote standards for the evolution of the Web and interoperability between WWW products by producing specifications and reference software.
  • watt per steradian - The watt per steradian (W · sr -1) is the standard unit of radiant intensity.
  • watt-hour (Wh) - The watt-hour (symbolized Wh) is a unit of energy equivalent to one watt (1 W) of power expended for one hour (1 h) of time.
  • wave number - The term wave number refers to the number of complete wave cycles of an electromagnetic field (EM field) that exist in one meter (1 m) of linear space.
  • Wayback Machine - The Wayback Machine is a Web site that enables anyone to see what a particular Web site looked like at some time in the past - from 1996 to the present.
  • Web Proxy Autodiscovery (WPAD) - Web Proxy Autodiscovery (WPAD) is a proposed Internet protocol that allows a client, such as a Web browser or a streaming media application, to automatically locate and interface with cache services in a network so that information can be delivered more quickly to the user.
  • Web Services Description Language (WSDL) - The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is an XML-based language used to describe the services a business offers and to provide a way for individuals and other businesses to access those services electronically.
  • Web Standards Project (WaSP) - The Web Standards Project (WaSP) is a grass roots effort to encourage the main browser makers to create a standard implementation of the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and other Web standards and recommendations of the World Wide Consortium (W3C).
  • Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) - Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) is a set of industry standards that an enterprise can use to manage its information operations in the distributed computing environment of the Internet.
  • WebDAV (World Wide Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning) - WebDAV (World Wide Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning) is the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard for collaborative authoring on the Web: a set of extensions to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that facilitates collaborative editing and file management between users located remotely from each other on the Internet.
  • weight (w) - Weight (symbolized w) is a quantity representing the force exerted on a particle or object by an acceleration field, particularly the gravitational field of the Earth at the surface.
  • weights and measures - Common equivalent weights and measures (http://physics.
  • well-known port numbers - The well-known port numbers are the port numbers that are reserved for assignment by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) for use by the application end points that communicate using the Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
  • White Book - The White Book, which was released in 1993 by Sony, Philips, Matsushita, and JVC, is the specification document for Video CD (VCD).
  • Wien's constant - Wien's constant is a physical constant that defines the relationship between the thermodynamic temperature of a black body (an object that radiates electromagnetic energy perfectly) and the wavelength at which the intensity of the radiation is the greatest.
  • Windows Hardware Quality Labs (WHQL) - Windows Hardware Quality Labs (WHQL) is a Microsoft procedure for certifying that the hardware for peripherals and other components is compatible (works as expected) with Microsoft Windows operating systems.
  • Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) - Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is a set of specifications from Microsoft for consolidating the management of devices and applications in a network from Windows computing systems.
  • work - Work is force applied over distance.
  • working draft (draft document) - A working draft (sometimes called a draft document) is a type of technical report that is a work in progress, a preliminary form of a possible future document.
  • workload - In computing, the workload is the amount of processing that the computer has been given to do at a given time.
  • WS-I Organization (Web Services Interoperability) - The WS-I (Web Services Interoperability) Organization is an association of IT industry companies, including IBM and Microsoft, that aim to create Web services specifications that all companies can use.
  • WSTx (Web Services Transactions) - WSTx (Web Services Transaction) is a set of XML markup specifications designed to permit the use of open, standard protocols for secure, reliable transactions across the Web.
  • X.400 - X.400 is the messaging (notably e-mail) standard specified by the ITU-TS (International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication Standard Sector).
  • X9 (ASC X9) - ASC X9, Inc.
  • Xanadu - Xanadu (TM) is a set of ideas and a software design project for a universal system of electronic information storage and access.
  • XGA and XGA-2 (Extended Graphics Array) - XGA (Extended Graphics Array) is a high-resolution video display mode that provides screen pixel resolution of 1,024 by 768 in 256 colors or 640 by 480 in high (16-bit) color.
  • XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language) - As the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) describes it, XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language) is "a reformulation of HTML 4.
  • XML (Extensible Markup Language) - Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a text-based format that allows for the structuring of electronic documents and is not limited to a set of labels.
  • XMLNews - XMLNews is a set of specifications for exchanging news objects such as stories, images, or audio clips in a standard format across different applications and operating systems.
  • XMT (Extensible MPEG-4 Textual) - The XMT (Extensible MPEG-4 Textual) format is the use of a textual syntax to represent MPEG-4 3-D scene descriptions.
  • XPath - XPath is a language that describes a way to locate and process items in Extensible Markup Language (XML) documents by using an addressing syntax based on a path through the document's logical structure or hierarchy.
  • XPointer - XPointer is a language for locating data within an Extensible Markup Language (XML) document based on properties such as location within the document, character content, and attribute values.
  • XSD (XML Schema Definition) - XSD is a W3C recommendation that defines the way to utilize the elements in an XML document.
  • XSL Transformations (XSLT) - XSL Transformations (XSLT) is a standard way to describe how to transform (change) the structure of an XML (Extensible Markup Language) document into an XML document with a different structure.
  • Yellow Book - The Yellow Book is the informal name for Philips and Sony's ECMA-130 standard specification for compact disc, read-only-memory (CD-ROM).
  • yottabyte (YB) - A yottabyte is a measure of theoretical storage capacity and is 2 to the 80th power bytes, or, in decimal, approximately 1,000 zettabytes, a trillion terabytes or a million trillion megabytes.
  • Zachman framework - The Zachman framework is a logical structure intended to provide a comprehensive representation of an information technology enterprise.
  • Zigbee - Zigbee is a standards-based wireless technology developed to enable low-cost, low-power wireless machine-to-machine (M2M) and internet of things (IoT) networks.
  • zip codes (Zoning Improvement Plan codes) - ZIP (Zoning Improvement Plan) codes are postal codes in the United States that identify preassigned geographic boundaries and make mail sorting and delivery more efficient.

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