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Internet technologies

This WhatIs.com glossary contains terms related to Internet technologies, including definitions about port numbers, standards and protocols and words and phrases about how the Internet works.

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  • Instagram - Instagram is a free, online photo-sharing application and social network platform that was acquired by Facebook in 2012.
  • instant messaging (IM) - Instant messaging, often shortened to IM or IM'ing, is the exchange of near real-time messages through a stand-alone application or embedded software.
  • instant translation - Instant translation is the translation from one language to another of Web pages, e-mail, and online chat text by a computer program so that the translated results appear almost instantly.
  • INSTEON protocol - INSTEON protocol is a communication language for home automation device control by Smartlabs.
  • int - "int" is one of the top-level domain names that can be used when choosing a domain name.
  • integrated T1 (channelized T1) - Integrated T1 (also called channelized T is a digital carrier modulation method in which a T1 line is divided into 24 channels, each having a maximum data speed of 64 thousand bits per second (Kbps), and each capable of supporting a unique application that can run concurrently with, but independently of, other applications on different channels.
  • integration server - An integration server is a computer server used to facilitate interaction between diverse operating systems and applications across internal and external networked computer systems.
  • intelligent agent - On the Internet, an intelligent agent (or simply an agent) is a program that gathers information or performs some other service without your immediate presence and on some regular schedule.
  • interactive video - Interactive video (IV) is a multimedia recording that can take user input to perform some action.
  • Interactive Voice Response (IVR) - Interactive Voice Response (IVR) is an automated telephony system that interacts with callers, gathers information and routes calls to the appropriate recipients.
  • interactivity - In computers, interactivity is the dialog that occurs between a human being (or possibly another live creature) and a computer program.
  • intermediary - In general, an intermediary is a person or service that is involved as a third party between two or more end points in a communication or transaction.
  • internalnet - An internalnet is a network that transmits information between computing devices located inside (and perhaps on) a living body.
  • Internet - The Internet, sometimes called simply "the Net," is a worldwide system of computer networks -- a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers).
  • Internet appliance - An Internet appliance (sometimes called a Net appliance, a smart appliance or an information appliance) is a machine designed for a specific function that also has a built-in Web-enabled computer.
  • Internet Information Services (IIS) - Internet Information Services (IIS) is a flexible, general-purpose web server from Microsoft that runs on Windows systems to serve requested HTML pages or files.
  • Internet map - An Internet map is any kind of map that attempts to portray all or some aspect of the Internet.
  • Internet metering - Internet metering is a service model in which an Internet service provider (ISP) tracks the customer's use of bandwidth and charges accordingly.
  • Internet Movie Database (IMDb) - The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database that provides information to consumers about movies, TV and film industry professionals.
  • Internet Protocol - The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet.
  • Internet reboot keys - Internet reboot keys are encrypted DNSSEC keys that can restore the Internet root zone in the event of an attack or natural catastrophe.
  • Internet refrigerator (Net fridge or Web-enabled refrigerator) - An Internet refrigerator (sometimes called a Net fridge) is a version of the familiar kitchen appliance with a built-in computer that can be connected to the Internet.
  • Internet time - Internet time is the concept that events occur at a faster rate on the Internet than elsewhere or that, everywhere, the Internet is affecting the pace of change.
  • Internet Transaction Server (ITS) - An integral component of SAP's mySAP product group, the Internet Transaction Server (ITS) is the interface that enables efficient communication between an R/3 system of applications and the Internet.
  • Internet TV - Internet TV (ITV) is generally-available content distributed over the Internet.
  • Internet.org - Internet.org is an initiative to make the Web affordable and accessible for people in developing and disadvantaged areas of the world.
  • interstitial (in between) - An interstitial (something "in between") is a page that is inserted in the normal flow of editorial content structure on a Web site for the purpose of advertising or promotion.
  • intranet - An intranet is a private network contained within an enterprise that is used to securely share company information and computing resources among employees.
  • IOTA - IOTA is a distributed ledger technology for IoT devices that will facilitate machine to machine (M2M) transactions in the M2M economy.
  • IP address (Internet Protocol Address) - This definition is based on Internet Protocol Version 4.
  • IP PBX (private branch exchange) - An IP PBX is a private branch exchange (telephone switching system within an enterprise) that switches calls between VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol or IP) users on local lines while allowing all users to share a certain number of external phone lines.
  • IP storage - IP storage is a general term for several approaches to using the Internet Protocol (IP) in a storage area network (SAN) usually over Gigabit Ethernet.
  • IP telephony (Internet Protocol telephony) - IP telephony (Internet Protocol telephony) is a general term for the technologies that use the Internet Protocol's packet-switched connections to exchange voice, fax, and other forms of information that have traditionally been carried over the dedicated circuit-switched connections of the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
  • iPad - The iPad is a touchscreen tablet PC made by Apple.
  • iPad 2 - The iPad 2 is a 9.
  • iPhone 3G - iPhone 3G is the second generation of iPhone, a smartphone made by Apple that combines an iPod, a tablet PC, a digital camera and a cellular phone.
  • iPlanet - iPlanet is Sun Microsystem's solution for a Web server and related programs intended to allow an enterprise to take advantage of the Internet.
  • IPP (Internet presence provider) - An Internet presence provider (IPP) is a company that provides the disk space, high-speed Internet connection, and possibly the Web site design and other services for companies, organizations, or individuals to have a visible presence (meaning Web site) on the Internet.
  • iptables - Iptables is a generic table structure that defines rules and commands as part of the netfilter framework that facilitates Network Address Translation (NAT), packet filtering, and packet mangling in the Linux 2.
  • IPv6 address - An IPv6 address is a 128-bit alphanumeric string that identifies an endpoint device in the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) addressing scheme.
  • IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System protocol) - One of the most commonly used routing protocols, the Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System protocol (IS-IS) is based on a routing method known as DECnet Phase V routing, in which routers known as intermediate systems exchange data about routing using a single metric to determine the network topology.
  • ISA Server (Internet Security and Acceleration Server) - Microsoft's ISA Server (Internet Security and Acceleration Server) is the successor to Microsoft's Proxy Server 2.
  • iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) - The iSCSI transport layer protocol allows the SCSI command to be sent over LANs, WANs and the Internet.
  • ISP (Internet service provider) - An ISP (Internet service provider) is a company that provides individuals and other companies access to the Internet and other related services such as Web site building and virtual hosting.
  • IT consumerization (information technology consumerization) - IT consumerization is the blending of personal and business use of technology devices and applications.
  • Java Card - Java Card is an open standard from Sun Microsystems for a smart card development platform.
  • Java Server Page (JSP) - Java Server Page (JSP) is a technology for controlling the content or appearance of Web pages through the use of servlets, small programs that are specified in the Web page and run on the Web server to modify the Web page before it is sent to the user who requested it.
  • JavaScript hijacking - JavaScript hijacking is a technique that an attacker can use to read sensitive data from a vulnerable Web application, particularly one using Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML).
  • JAX-RPC (Java API for XML-Based RPC) - JAX-RPC.
  • JHTML (Java within Hypertext Markup Language) - JHTML (Java within Hypertext Markup Language) is a standard for including a Java program as part of a Web page (a page written using the Hypertext Markup Language, or HTML).
  • join.me - Join.me is an online meeting and screen-sharing application by LogMeIn.
  • JRun - JRun is an application server from Macromedia that is based on Sun Microsystems' Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE).
  • JSML (Java Speech API Markup Language) - JSML also stands for JScript Markup Language.
  • JSON (Javascript Object Notation) - JSON (JS Object Notation) is a text-based, human-readable data interchange format used for representing simple data structures and objects in Web browser-based code.
  • JTAPI (Java Telephony Application Programming Interface) - JTAPI (Java Telephony Application Programming Interface) is a Java-based application programming interface (API) for computer telephony applications.
  • Jughead - For most of the 1990s, Jughead was a tool for searching the information on Gopher sites for particular subjects.
  • jump page - In Web advertising and marketing, a jump page is a Web page that is made to appear temporarily in order to capture the user's attention as a promotion or to gather user information in a survey.
  • Kazaa Media Desktop (KMD) - Kazaa (its full name is Kazaa Media Desktop or KMD) is a decentralized Internet peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing program owned by Sharman Networks.
  • Keyhole Markup Language (KML) - Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML-based markup language designed to annotate and overlay visualizations on various two-dimensional, Web-based online maps or three-dimensional Earth browsers (such as Google Earth).
  • LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) - LAMP is an open source Web development platform that uses Linux as the operating system, Apache as the Web server, MySQL as the relational database management system and PHP as the object-oriented scripting language.
  • lawful interception (LI) - Lawful interception (LI) is the legally sanctioned official access to private communications, such as telephone calls or e-mail messages.
  • Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) - Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is an extension of the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) used by an Internet service provider (ISP) to enable the operation of a virtual private network (VPN) over the Internet.
  • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) - LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is a software protocol for enabling anyone to locate organizations, individuals, and other resources such as files and devices in a network, whether on the public Internet or on a corporate intranet.
  • lead generator - A lead generator is any marketing-related activity intended to publicize the availability of a vendor's product or service.
  • leaderboard - A leaderboard is a popular type of banner advertisement.
  • LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) - LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco-proprietary version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections.
  • LexiBot - LexiBot is a specialized search tool developed by BrightPlanet, as a means of searching the deep Web (the hidden part of the Web that may contain 500 times the content accessible to conventional search engines).
  • lights-out management (LOM) - Lights-out management (LOM) is the ability for a system administrator to monitor and manage servers by remote control.
  • link - Using hypertext, a link is a selectable connection from one word, picture, or information object to another.
  • Link Control Protocol (LCP) - In the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), the Link ControlProtocol (LCP) establishes, configures, and tests data-link Internet connections.
  • link type - In Hyper-G and possibly other hypertext systems, a link type is the specification of the nature of the information object being linked to.
  • LiveJournal - LiveJournal is a social media platform that allows users to keep a blog, journal or diary and share their interests with LiveJournal friends or communities around the world.
  • load balancing - Load balancing is a technique used to distribute workloads uniformly across servers or other compute resources to optimize network efficiency, reliability and capacity.
  • Logical Link Control layer (LCL layer) - The Logical Link Control (LCL) layer is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer in the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of communication.
  • long tail - The long tail is a frequency distribution pattern in which occurences are most densely clustered close to the Y-axis and the distribution curve tapers along the X-axis.
  • look-to-book ratio - The look-to-book ratio is a figure used in the travel industry that shows the percentage of people who visit a travel Web site compared to those who actually make a purchase.
  • MAE - A MAE (pronounced MAY), originally an abbreviation for Metropolitan Area Exchange and now a service mark of MCI WorldCom, is a major center in the United States for interconnecting traffic between Internet service providers (ISPs).
  • Marimba - Marimba is a company that has introduced a somewhat new way of using the World Wide Web.
  • MathML - MathML is an application of XML (Extensible Markup Language) designed to facilitate the use of mathematical expressions in Web pages.
  • MBone (Multicast Internet) - The MBone, now sometimes called the Multicast Internet, is an arranged use of a portion of the Internet for Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting (sending files - usually audio and video streams - to multiple users at the same time somewhat as radio and TV programs are broadcast over airwaves).
  • Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) - Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP), also known as H.
  • meta tag - A meta tag is a tag (that is, a coding statement) in the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) that describes some aspect of the contents of a Web page.
  • Metcalfe's Law - Metcalfe's Law is expressed in two general ways: The number of possible cross-connections in a network grow as the square of the number of computers in the network increases.
  • microformat - A microformat is a type of open source data format built upon existing and widely adopted frameworks like XML.
  • microsite - As used in at least one leading Web design book, a microsite is a separately promoted part of a larger Web site.
  • Microsoft Live Mesh - Live Mesh is a software-plus-services platform from Microsoft that synchronizes data between multiple computers, mobile devices and online services.
  • middleware - Middleware is the software that connects network-based requests generated by a client to the back-end data the client is requesting.
  • mil - mil is one of the top-level domain names that can be used when choosing a domain name.
  • MILNET - MILNET was the name given to the part of ARPANET, the forerunner of the Internet, that was designated for nonclassified U.
  • MIME (Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions) - What is MIME? MIME (Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions) is an extension of the original Internet e-mail protocol that lets people use the protocol to exchange different kinds of data files on the Internet: audio, video, images, application programs, and other kinds, as well as the ASCII text handled in the original protocol, the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP).
  • minisite - A minisite is a small Web site with a narrow subject focus or few pages that is sometimes a section in a larger Web site.
  • mobile computing (nomadic computing) - Mobile computing is the use of portable computing devices in conjunction with mobile technology that enables users to access the internet and data on mobile devices anytime, anywhere.
  • mobile Internet device (MID) - The mobile Internet device (MID) is a mini-tablet communications unit aimed at the consumer market and designed to provide entertainment, information and location-based services.
  • Mobile IP - Mobile IP is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard communications protocol that is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining their permanent IP address.
  • Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6 or Mobile Internet Protocol version 6) - Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) is a protocol developed as a subset of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) to support mobile connections.
  • mobile payment (m-payment) - Mobile payment is a point-of-sale transaction made through a mobile device.
  • mobility agent - In Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP), a mobility agent is a router that facilitates Internet traffic forwarding for a mobile node when its location is changed to somewhere other than its home network.

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