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Internet technologies

This WhatIs.com glossary contains terms related to Internet technologies, including definitions about port numbers, standards and protocols and words and phrases about how the Internet works.

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  • processing in memory (PIM) - Processing in memory, or PIM (sometimes called processor in memory), refers to the integration of a processor with Random Access Memory (RAM) on a single chip.
  • product development (new product development - NPD) - Product development, also called new product management, is a series of steps that includes the conceptualization, design, development and marketing of newly created or newly rebranded goods or services.
  • protocol data unit (PDU) - In networking, a protocol data unit is the basic unit of exchange between entities that communicate using a specified networking protocol.
  • proximity operator - A proximity operator is a character or word used to narrow search engine results by limiting them to those that have query keywords placed within a specific number of words in the content.
  • pull marketing - Pull marketing is an approach designed to draw customers to a brand through search engine optimization (SEO) and other non-intrusive methods.
  • push (or server-push) - Push (or "server-push") is the delivery of information on the Web that is initiated by the information server rather than by the information user or client, as it usually is.
  • push advertising - Push advertising is the traditional marketing approach, in which promotional material is presented to large groups of people through channels including flyers, magazines, television, radio and billboards.
  • Q signaling (QSIG) - Q signaling (abbreviated QSIG), a protocol for Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) communications based on the Q.
  • Q.931 - Q.931 (also called Q93 is a signaling protocol for Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) communications that is used in voice over IP (VoIP).
  • QHD (quad high definition) - QHD (Quad High Definition) is a resolution standard for high-end monitors, televisions and mobile devices.
  • quantum internet - The quantum internet is a theoretical system of interconnected quantum computers that uses quantum signals to send information rather than radio waves.
  • Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) - Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network standard designed for transmitting audio or video data that is optimized for consistent delivery of live data.
  • Reddit - Reddit is a social news website and forum where content is socially curated and promoted by site members through voting.
  • redirection - On a Web site, redirection is a technique for moving visitors to a different Web page than the one they request, usually because the page requested is unavailable.
  • Reduce, reuse, recycle (R3) - Reduce, reuse and recycle (R3) are the three essential components of environmentally-responsible consumer behavior.
  • registered port numbers - The registered port numbers are the port numbers that companies and other users register with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) for use by the applications that communicate using the Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
  • registration, admission, and status (RAS) - Registration, admission, and status (RAS) is a component of a network protocol that involves the addition of (or refusal to add) new authorized users, the admission of (or refusal to admit) authorized users based on available bandwidth, and the tracking of the status of all users.
  • registry - In the Microsoft Windows operating systems beginning with Windows 95, the registry is a single place for keeping such information as what hardware is attached, what system options have been selected, how computer memory is set up, and what application programs are to be present when the operating system is started.
  • remote deposit capture (RDC) - Remote deposit capture (RDC) is a system that allows a customer to scan checks remotely and transmit the check images to a bank for deposit, usually via an encrypted Internet connection.
  • remote desktop - A remote desktop is a program or an operating system feature that allows a user to connect to a computer in another location, see that computer's desktop and interact with it as if it were local.
  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC) - Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is a protocol that one program can use to request a service from a program located in another computer on a network without having to understand the network's details.
  • remote wakeup (RWU) - Remote wakeup (RWU) is a general term for the powering-up of (turning on) a computer over a network.
  • Request for Comments (RFC) - RFC is also an abbreviation for Remote Function Call.
  • REST (REpresentational State Transfer) - REST (REpresentational State Transfer) is an architectural style for developing web services.
  • RFM analysis (recency, frequency, monetary) - RFM analysis is a marketing technique used to quantitatively rank and group customers based on the recency, frequency and monetary total of their recent transactions to identify the best customers and perform targeted marketing campaigns.
  • Rich Internet Application (RIA) - A rich Internet application (RIA) is a Web application designed to deliver the same features and functions normally associated with deskop applications.
  • rich presence technology (RPT) - Rich presence is an enhanced form of presence awareness in which participants can determine if other users are online and if so, observe to a limited extent what they are doing and how they are doing it.
  • RickRoll - On the Internet, a RickRoll is a prank where a visitor who clicks on a specific link is intentionally misdirected to a video of pop star Rick Astley's hit "Never Gonna Give You Up.
  • Rijndael - Rijndael (pronounced rain-dahl) is an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm.
  • RIOT operating system - RIOT operating system is an open source operating system specialized for IoT (internet of things) devices.
  • Ripple - Ripple is a payment protocol, cryptocurrency creator and high-tech payment firm that uses blockchain technology to help banks conduct fast global financial settlements.
  • Robert Metcalfe - Robert 'Bob' Melancton Metcalfe, born April 7, 1946, is an American engineer, entrepreneur, professor, writer and venture capitalist.
  • route summarization (route aggregation) - Route summarization -- also known as route aggregation -- is a method to minimize the number of routing tables in an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) - Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance vector protocol that uses hop count as its primary metric.
  • routing table - A routing table is a set of rules, often viewed in table format, that is used to determine where data packets traveling over an Internet Protocol (IP) network will be directed.
  • RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol) - RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol) is a set of communication rules that allows channels or paths on the Internet to be reserved for the multicast (one source to many receivers) transmission of video and other high-bandwidth messages.
  • SAP NetWeaver - SAP NetWeaver is a technology platform that allows organizations to integrate data, business processes, elements and more from a variety of sources into unified SAP environments.
  • Scratch - Scratch is a free object-oriented software development kit (SDK) that allows children age 8-16 to create animations, interactive stories, games and music without needing to know a specific programming language.
  • screen name - In a computer network, a screen name is the name a user chooses to use when communicating with others online.
  • scumware - Scumware is any programming that gets on your computer from Internet sites without your consent and often without your knowledge.
  • search engine - A search engine is a program that gathers information (web pages) in a database and provides relevant results to user keyword queries.
  • search engine marketing (SEM) - Search engine marketing (SEM) is an approach to advertising that helps companies' content rank higher in search engine queries.
  • search string - Search strings are sequences of characters and words used to find files and their content, database information and web pages.
  • searching - On the Internet, searching is just trying to find the information you need.
  • Secure Shell (SSH) - SSH, also known as Secure Shell or Secure Socket Shell, is a network protocol that gives users, particularly system administrators, a secure way to access a computer over an unsecured network.
  • service-component architecture (SCA) - Service-component architecture (SCA) is a group of specifications intended for the development of applications based on service-oriented architecture (SOA), which defines how computing entities interact to perform work for each other.
  • service-oriented architecture (SOA) - Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a software development model that allows services to communicate across different platforms and languages to form applications.
  • service-oriented integration (SOI) - SOI is also an abbreviation for Silicon-On-Insulator.
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) - Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol used for initiating, maintaining, modifying and terminating real-time sessions that involve video, voice, messaging and other communications applications and services between two or more endpoints on IP networks.
  • shadow banning (shadowban) - Shadow banning, in discussion forums and social media, is the practice of making a particular user's posts visible only to that user.
  • short message service center (SMSC) - The short message service center (SMSC) is the portion of a mobile phone network that handles text message operations.
  • silicon photonics - Silicon photonics is an evolving technology in which data is transferred among computer chips by optical rays.
  • simultaneous localization and mapping - Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is the synchronous location awareness and recording of the environment in a map of a computer, device, robot, drone or other autonomous vehicle.
  • site map - A site map is a visual or textually organized model of a Web site's content that allows the users to navigate through the site to find the information they are looking for, just as a traditional geographical map helps people find places they are looking for in the real world.
  • six degrees of separation - Six degrees of separation is the theory that any person on the planet can be connected to any other person on the planet through a chain of acquaintances that has no more than five intermediaries.
  • Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) - Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) is a Cisco proprietary standard for terminal control for use with voice over IP (VoIP).
  • smart home or building (home automation or domotics) - A smart home is a residence that uses internet-connected devices to enable the remote monitoring and management of appliances and systems, such as lighting and heating.
  • smart lock - A smart lock is an electronic and mechanical locking device that opens wirelessly with an authorized users’ authentication.
  • smart streetlight - A smart streetlight is a public lighting fixture that incorporates technology, such as cameras, light-sensing photocells and other sensors, to introduce real-time monitoring functionalities.
  • smart TV - A smart TV is a digital television that is, essentially, an Internet-connected, storage-aware computer specialized for entertainment.
  • snackable content - Snackable content is website content that is designed to be easy for readers to consume and to share.
  • Snapchat - Snapchat is a mobile app that allows users to send and receive 'self-destructing' photos and videos.
  • Snapchat dysmorphia - Snapchat dysmorphia is a body-image disorder characterized by the need to heavily edit one's own digital image.
  • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) - SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is a message protocol that enables the distributed elements of an application to communicate.
  • Social media management software (SMMS) - Social media management software (SMMS) is a tool that allows organizations to monitor and analyze online conversations from different communication channels.
  • social media marketing (SMM) - Social media marketing (SMM) is a form of internet marketing that uses social media apps as a marketing tool.
  • social network - A social network, in technology parlance, is a website or other application where people, often of similar interests, come together to communicate with each other and share information including photos, videos, audio and written messages.
  • social recruiting (social media recruitment) - Social media recruiting is the enterprise use of social media platforms to identify, engage and vet individuals the organization may want to hire.
  • social search engine - A social search engine is an enhanced version of a search engine that combines traditional algorithm -driven technology with online community filtering to produce highly personalized results.
  • social shopping - Social shopping is a type of e-commerce that seeks to involve people with similar tastes in an online shopping experience.
  • sock puppet - A sock puppet, in the context of online communications, is a fake identity created to promote someone or something through blogs, wikis, forums or social networking sites such as Facebook or Twitter.
  • sock puppet marketing - Sock puppet marketing is the use of a false identity to artificially stimulate demand for a product, brand or service.
  • socks - Socks (or "SOCKS") is a protocol that a proxy server can use to accept requests from client users in a company's network so that it can forward them across the Internet.
  • SODOTO (See One, Do One, Teach One) - SODOTO (See One, Do One, Teach One) is a methodology of teaching and learning skills and best practices through direct observation of a task, hands-on practical experience performing the task and teaching the task to another person.
  • soft reset - A soft reset is a restart of a device, such as a smartphone, tablet, laptop or personal computer (PC).
  • softphone (soft client telephone) - A softphone (software telephone) is an application program that enables voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone calls from computing devices.
  • spider - A spider is a program that visits Web sites and reads their pages and other information in order to create entries for a search engine index.
  • Squid proxy server - Squid is a Unix-based proxy server that caches Internet content closer to a requestor than its original point of origin.
  • stack - TCP/IP is frequently referred to as a "stack.
  • start of authority record - A start of authority (SOA) record is information stored in a domain name system (DNS) zone about that zone and about other DNS records.
  • stateful inspection - Stateful inspection, also known as dynamic packet filtering, is a firewall technology that monitors the state of active connections and uses this information to determine which network packets to allow through the firewall.
  • static IP address - A static IP address is a 32 bit number that is assigned to a computer to be its address on the internet.
  • steampunk - Steampunk is a design style inspired by Victorian-era industrialism.
  • stop word - In computer search engines, a stop word is a commonly used word (such as "the") that a search engine has been programmed to ignore, both when indexing entries for searching and when retrieving them as the result of a search query.
  • storage security - Storage security is the group of parameters and settings that make storage resources available to authorized users and trusted networks -- and unavailable to other entities.
  • Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) - Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a connection-oriented network protocol for transmitting multiple streams of data simultaneously between two endpoints that have established a connection in a network.
  • stress testing - Stress testing is the process of determining the ability of a computer, network, program or device to maintain a certain level of effectiveness under unfavorable conditions.
  • style sheet - A term extended from print publishing to online media, a style sheet is a definition of a document's appearance in terms of such elements as: The default typeface, size, and color for headings and body text How front matter (preface, figure list, title page, and so forth) should look How all or individual sections should be laid out in terms of space (for example, two newspaper columns, one column with headings having hanging heads, and so forth).
  • subscription economy - A subscription economy is a model for trade of desired content, products and services in exchange for recurring, scheduled payments.
  • Sugar - Sugar is a graphical user interface GUI developed for the $100 laptop (XO).
  • Sun Microsystems - Sun Microsystems (often just called "Sun"), the leading company in computers used as Web servers, also makes servers designed for use as engineering workstations, data storage products, and related software.
  • supercomputer - A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the highest operational rate for computers.
  • SYN flood attack - A SYN flood attack is a type of denial-of-service (DoS) attack on a computer server.
  • T-carrier system - To see the relationship between T-carrier, E-carrier, and DS0 multiples, see digital signal X.
  • T1 (T-1) - Also see the T-carrier system, of which the T1 is a part.
  • TCP Wrapper - TCP Wrapper is a public domain computer program that provides firewall services for UNIX servers.
  • TCP/IP - TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect network devices on the internet.
  • third-party cookie - A third-party cookie is a cookie that is placed on a user's hard disk by a website from a domain other than the one a user is visiting.
  • three-phase commit (3PC) - Three-phase commit (3PC) is a protocol that consists of a distributed algorithm used to ensure all transactions in a system are agreed upon and are committed to.
  • time-to-live (TTL) - Time-to-live (TTL) is a value for the period of time that a packet, or data, should exist on a computer or network before being discarded.
SearchNetworking
  • network packet

    A network packet is a basic unit of data that's grouped together and transferred over a computer network, typically a ...

  • virtual network functions (VNFs)

    Virtual network functions (VNFs) are virtualized tasks formerly carried out by proprietary, dedicated hardware.

  • network functions virtualization (NFV)

    Network functions virtualization (NFV) is a network architecture model designed to virtualize network services that have ...

SearchSecurity
  • Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance (DMARC)

    The Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance (DMARC) protocol is one leg of the tripod of internet ...

  • data breach

    A data breach is a cyber attack in which sensitive, confidential or otherwise protected data has been accessed or disclosed in an...

  • insider threat

    An insider threat is a category of risk posed by those who have access to an organization's physical or digital assets.

SearchCIO
  • data privacy (information privacy)

    Data privacy, also called information privacy, is an aspect of data protection that addresses the proper storage, access, ...

  • leadership skills

    Leadership skills are the strengths and abilities individuals demonstrate that help to oversee processes, guide initiatives and ...

  • data governance policy

    A data governance policy is a documented set of guidelines for ensuring that an organization's data and information assets are ...

SearchHRSoftware
SearchCustomerExperience
  • recommerce

    Recommerce is the selling of previously owned items through online marketplaces to buyers who reuse, recycle or resell them.

  • implementation

    Implementation is the execution or practice of a plan, a method or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for...

  • first call resolution (FCR)

    First call resolution (FCR) is when customer service agents properly address a customer's needs the first time they call.

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