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Internet technologies

This WhatIs.com glossary contains terms related to Internet technologies, including definitions about port numbers, standards and protocols and words and phrases about how the Internet works.

RIP - TOM

  • Ripple - Ripple is a payment protocol, cryptocurrency creator and high-tech payment firm that uses blockchain technology to help banks conduct fast global financial settlements.
  • robots.txt - Robots.txt is a text file used on websites to provide instructions to webcrawlers or “robots” that index pages for search engines.
  • root server system - On the Internet, the root server system is the way that an authoritative master list of all top-level domain names (such as com, net, org,and individual country codes) is maintained and made available to all routers.
  • route aggregation - Route aggregation is an alternate term for route summarization, which is a method used to minimize the number of routing tables required in an IP network.
  • route summarization (route aggregation) - Route summarization, also called route aggregation, is a method of minimizing the number of routing tables in an IP (Internet Protocol) network.
  • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) - Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance vector protocol that uses hop count as its primary metric.
  • routing table - A routing table is a set of rules, often viewed in table format, that is used to determine where data packets traveling over an Internet Protocol (IP) network will be directed.
  • RSS - RSS is an XML-based vocabulary that specifies a means of sharing news headlines and other content between Web sites.
  • RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol) - RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol) is a set of communication rules that allows channels or paths on the Internet to be reserved for the multicast (one source to many receivers) transmission of video and other high-bandwidth messages.
  • SaaS - SaaS stands for at least three different "as-a-service" offerings.
  • Sable - Sable is a set of markup codes and symbols that describes spoken text in text-to-speech (TTS) applications for voice-enabled Web browsers and voice enabled e-mail.
  • Sametime - Sametime is software from Lotus for group collaboration over the Internet.
  • SAP NetWeaver - SAP NetWeaver is a technology platform that allows organizations to integrate data, business processes, elements and more from a variety of sources into unified SAP environments.
  • satellite Internet connection - A satellite Internet connection is an arrangement in which the upstream (outgoing) and the downstream (incoming) data are sent from, and arrive at, a computer through a satellite.
  • satellite return Internet connection - A satellite return Internet connection is an arrangement in which incoming data arrives at your computer from a satellite downlink and outgoing data (such as your request for the next Web page) is sent over a regular telephone line.
  • Scratch - Scratch is a free object-oriented software development kit (SDK) that allows children age 8-16 to create animations, interactive stories, games and music without needing to know a specific programming language.
  • screen name - In a computer network, a screen name is the name a user chooses to use when communicating with others online.
  • screencast - A screencast is a digital video recording that captures actions taking place on a computer desktop.
  • SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) - SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) is a protocol for transmitting multiple streams of data at the same time between two end points that have established a connection in a network.
  • searching - On the Internet, searching is just trying to find the information you need.
  • Second Life - Second Life is a massive multi-player universe (MMU) set in a 3D virtual worldcreated by San Francisco-based software maker Linden Labs.
  • Secure Shell (SSH) - SSH, also known as Secure Shell or Secure Socket Shell, is a network protocol that gives users, particularly system administrators, a secure way to access a computer over an unsecured network.
  • segmentation and reassembly (SAR) - In a packet-switched telecommunication network, segmentation and reassembly (SAR, sometimes just referred to as segmentation) is the process of breaking a packet into smaller units before transmission and reassembling them into the proper order at the receiving end of the communication.
  • self-sending spam - Self-sending spam is unsolicited e-mail that looks like you sent it to yourself: your name appears on the "from" line as well as the "to" line.
  • SEO (search engine optimization) - Search engine optimization (SEO) is an area of website development that seeks to improve the way content is ranked by search engines.
  • server - A server is a computer program or device that provides a service to another computer program and its user, also known as the client.
  • server accelerator card (SSL card) - A server accelerator card (also known as an SSL card) is a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) card used to generate encryption keys for secure transactions on e-commerce Web sites.
  • server-side include (SSI) - A server-side include is a variable value (for example, a file "Last modified" date) that a server can include in an HTML file before it sends it to the requestor.
  • Service Location Protocol (SLP) - The Service Location Protocol (SLP) is a protocol or method of organizing and locating the resources (such as printers, disk drives, databases, e-mail directories, and schedulers) in a network.
  • service-component architecture (SCA) - Service-component architecture (SCA) is a group of specifications intended for the development of applications based on service-oriented architecture (SOA), which defines how computing entities interact to perform work for each other.
  • service-oriented architecture (SOA) - Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a software development model that allows services to communicate across different platforms and languages to form applications.
  • service-oriented integration (SOI) - SOI is also an abbreviation for Silicon-On-Insulator.
  • service-oriented management (SOM) - Service-oriented management (SOM) is the operational management of service delivery within a service-oriented architecture (SOA).
  • session - In telecommunication, a session is a series of interactions between two communication end points that occur during the span of a single connection.
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) - Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol used for initiating, maintaining, modifying and terminating real-time sessions that involve video, voice, messaging and other communications applications and services between two or more endpoints on IP networks.
  • shared hosting - Shared hosting is Web hosting in which the service provider serves pages for multiple Web sites, each having its own Internet domain name, from a single Web server.
  • shoppable video - A shoppable video is a multimedia recording that allows a user to initiate an order from within the video.
  • shopping cart - On a Web site that sells products or services online, the shopping cart is a common metaphor (from the original grocery store shopping cart) for the catalog or other pages where a user reads and makes selections.
  • SIGTRAN (Signaling Transport) - SIGTRAN (for Signaling Transport) is the standard telephony protocol used to transport Signaling System 7 (SS7) signals over the Internet.
  • SIMPLE (SIP for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions) - SIMPLE is an add-on to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) that some industry insiders predict will be the basis for a new Instant Messaging and Presence Protocol (IMPP).
  • Sina Weibo - Sina Weibo is a social networking and microblogging service based in China with more than 368 million registered users.
  • single-sourcing - Single-sourcing is the development of information content in a form that can conveniently be the basis for other forms of content.
  • site map - A site map is a visual or textually organized model of a Web site's content that allows the users to navigate through the site to find the information they are looking for, just as a traditional geographical map helps people find places they are looking for in the real world.
  • sitelet - A sitelet is a small section of a Web site that has a special purpose and identity.
  • Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) - Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) is a Cisco proprietary standard for terminal control for use with voice over IP (VoIP).
  • skyscraper - A skyscraper ad is a tall and narrow banner advertisement usually placed to the right of content on a Web page.
  • slivercasting (narrowcasting) - Slivercasing, or narrowcasting, is the transmission of video programming to a niche audience, often through relatively inexpensive means like streaming video over high-speed connections.
  • smart grid sensor - A smart grid sensor is a small, lightweight node that serves as a detection station in a sensor network.
  • smart home or building (home automation or domotics) - A smart home is a residence that uses internet-connected devices to enable the remote monitoring and management of appliances and systems, such as lighting and heating.
  • smart lock - A smart lock is an electronic and mechanical locking device that opens wirelessly with an authorized users’ authentication.
  • smart meter - A smart meter is an Internet-capable device that measures energy, water or natural gas consumption of a building or home.
  • smart streetlight - A smart streetlight is a public lighting fixture that incorporates technology, such as cameras, light-sensing photocells and other sensors, to introduce real-time monitoring functionalities.
  • Smart Tags - Microsoft's Smart Tags were a proposed feature of Windows XP that would allow Microsoft and its partners to insert their own links into any Web page viewed through its Internet Explorer browser.
  • smart TV - A smart TV is a digital television that is, essentially, an Internet-connected, storage-aware computer specialized for entertainment.
  • SMI-S (Storage Management Initiative Specification) - SMI-S (Storage Management Initiative Specification) is a standard developed by the Storage Network Industry Association (SNIA) that is intended to facilitate the management of storage devices from multiple vendors in storage area networks (SANs).
  • Snapchat - Snapchat is a mobile app that allows users to send and receive 'self-destructing' photos and videos.
  • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) - SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), which is based in Extensible Markup Language (XML), facilitates communication between application and operating systems.
  • Social media management software (SMMS) - Social media management software (SMMS) is a tool that allows organizations to monitor and analyze online conversations from different communication channels.
  • social media marketing (SMM) - Social media marketing (SMM) is a form of Internet marketing that utilizes social networking websites as a marketing tool.
  • social media recruiting (social media recruitment) - Social media recruiting is an HR strategy to better attract active and passive job candidates.
  • social network - A social network, in technology parlance, is a website or other application where people, often of similar interests, come together to communicate with each other and share information including photos, videos, audio and written messages.
  • social search engine - A social search engine is an enhanced version of a search engine that combines traditional algorithm -driven technology with online community filtering to produce highly personalized results.
  • social shopping - Social shopping is a type of e-commerce that seeks to involve people with similar tastes in an online shopping experience.
  • socks - Socks (or "SOCKS") is a protocol that a proxy server can use to accept requests from client users in a company's network so that it can forward them across the Internet.
  • softphone (soft client telephone) - A softphone (software telephone) is an application program that enables voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone calls from computing devices.
  • Source Quench Introduced Delay (SQuID) - Also see SQUID, a UNIX-based program for caching Web pages and other Internet content closer to the user.
  • spider - A spider is a program that visits Web sites and reads their pages and other information in order to create entries for a search engine index.
  • sping (spam ping) - A sping (for spam ping) is a ping sent from a splog (spam blog) to make recipients think content of interest has been updated although that may not be the case.
  • SPML (Services Provisioning Markup Language) - SPML (Services Provisioning Markup Language) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based language that facilitates the exchange of provisioning information among applications and organizations, corporations, or agencies.
  • Spoken Text Markup Language (STML) - Spoken Text Markup Language (STML) is an early set of markup codes and symbols for text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis for voice-enabled Web browsers and voice enabled e-mail.
  • Squid proxy server - Squid is a Unix-based proxy server that caches Internet content closer to a requestor than its original point of origin.
  • stack - TCP/IP is frequently referred to as a "stack.
  • start of authority record - A start of authority (SOA) record is information stored in a domain name system (DNS) zone about that zone and about other DNS records.
  • stateful inspection - Stateful inspection is a firewall technology that monitors the state of active connections and uses this information to determine which network packets to allow through the firewall.
  • static IP address - A static IP address is a 32 bit number that is assigned to a computer to be its address on the internet.
  • static URL - A static uniform resource locator (URL) is a name-based website address that is direct, unchanging, clear and contains no session or user identification information.
  • stop word - In computer search engines, a stop word is a commonly used word (such as "the") that a search engine has been programmed to ignore, both when indexing entries for searching and when retrieving them as the result of a search query.
  • storage security - Storage security is the group of parameters and settings that make storage resources available to authorized users and trusted networks - and unavailable to other entities.
  • style sheet - A term extended from print publishing to online media, a style sheet is a definition of a document's appearance in terms of such elements as: The default typeface, size, and color for headings and body text How front matter (preface, figure list, title page, and so forth) should look How all or individual sections should be laid out in terms of space (for example, two newspaper columns, one column with headings having hanging heads, and so forth).
  • Sun Microsystems - Sun Microsystems (often just called "Sun"), the leading company in computers used as Web servers, also makes servers designed for use as engineering workstations, data storage products, and related software.
  • Sun ONE (Sun Open Net Environment) - Sun ONE (Sun Open Net Environment) is a marketing strategy and set of products from Sun Microsystems aimed at enabling an enterprise to build Web services for its own internal use and for its customers.
  • supercomputer - The first commercially successful supercomputer, the CDC (Control Data Corporation) 6600 was designed by Seymour Cray.
  • supercomputer center - In general, a supercomputer center is a site with a supercomputer that is shared by a number of other sites, usually research sites.
  • superheterodyne - Superheterodyne refers to a method of designing and building wireless communications or broadcast equipment, particularly radio receivers.
  • SYN flood (half open attack) - SYN flooding is a method that the user of a hostile client program can use to conduct a denial-of-service (DoS) attack on a computer server.
  • T-carrier system - To see the relationship between T-carrier, E-carrier, and DS0 multiples, see digital signal X.
  • T1 (T-1) - Also see the T-carrier system, of which the T1 is a part.
  • TCP Wrapper - TCP Wrapper is a public domain computer program that provides firewall services for UNIX servers.
  • TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) - TCP/IP, or the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect network devices on the internet.
  • TCP/IP offload engine (TOE) - The TCP/IP offload engine (TOE for short) is a technology that is gaining popularity in high-speed Ethernet systems for the purpose of optimizing throughput.
  • third-party cookie - A third-party cookie is one that is placed on a user’s hard disk by a Web site from a domain other than the one a user is visiting.
  • THREAD protocol - The THREAD protocol is a home automation device communication method owned by Nest, a subsidiary of Google.
  • three-phase commit (3PC) - Three-phase commit (3PC) is a protocol that consists of a distributed algorithm used to ensure all transactions in a system are agreed upon and are committed to.
  • time-to-live (TTL) - Time-to-live (TTL) is a value in an Internet Protocol (IP) packet that tells a network router whether or not the packet has been in the network too long and should be discarded.
  • timeline - A timeline is the presentation of a chronological sequence of events along a drawn line that enables a viewer to understand temporal relationships quickly.
  • tModel - A tModel is a data structure representing a service type (a generic representation of a registered service) in the UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) registry.
  • Tomcat - Tomcat is an application server from the Apache Software Foundation that executes Java servlets and renders Web pages that include Java Server Page coding.

SearchCompliance

  • risk assessment

    Risk assessment is the identification of hazards that could negatively impact an organization's ability to conduct business.

  • PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard)

    The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a widely accepted set of policies and procedures intended to ...

  • risk management

    Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

SearchSecurity

SearchHealthIT

SearchDisasterRecovery

  • call tree

    A call tree is a layered hierarchical communication model that is used to notify specific individuals of an event and coordinate ...

  • Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS)

    Disaster recovery as a service (DRaaS) is the replication and hosting of physical or virtual servers by a third party to provide ...

  • cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR)

    Cloud disaster recovery (cloud DR) is a combination of strategies and services intended to back up data, applications and other ...

SearchStorage

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