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Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a scenario in which objects, animals or people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human interaction.

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  • machine authentication - Machine authentication is the authorization of an automated human-to-machine or machine-to-machine (M2M) communication through verification of a digital certificate or digital credentials.
  • machine data - Machine data is digital information created by the activity of computers, mobile phones, embedded systems and other networked devices.
  • machine-generated data (MGD) - Machine-generated data (MGD) is information that is produced by mechanical or digital devices.
  • machine-to-machine (M2M) - Machine-to-machine, or M2M, is a broad label that can be used to describe any technology that enables networked devices to exchange information and perform actions without the manual assistance of humans.
  • man in the browser - Man in the browser refers to an emerging tactic used by hackers to commit financial fraud.
  • man-in-the-middle attack (MitM) - A man-in-the-middle attack is one in which the attacker secretly intercepts and relays messages between two parties who think they are communicating directly with each other.
  • medical body area network (MBAN) - An MBAN (medical body area network) is composed of low-power wearable or implanted wireless medical devices.
  • meet-in-the-middle attack - Meet-in-the-middle is a type of attack that can exponentially reduce the number of brute force permutations required to decrypt text that has been encrypted by more than one key.
  • Memory Spot - Memory Spot is the trade name for a passive transponder under development by Hewlett-Packard that contains a chip capable of storing large data files such as digital photographs, databases or musical selections.
  • MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) - A MEMS (micro-electromechanical system) is a miniature machine that has both mechanical and electronic components.
  • mesh network topology (mesh network) - A mesh network is a network in which the devices -- or nodes -- are connected so that at least some, and sometimes all, have multiple paths to other nodes.
  • micro-location - Micro-location is the process of pinpointing a person's placement to within a few inches or feet using various technologies.
  • microcomputer - A microcomputer is a complete computer on a smaller scale and is generally a synonym for the more common term, personal computer or PC, a computer designed for an individual.
  • microcontroller (MCU) - A microcontroller is a compact integrated circuit designed to govern a specific operation in an embedded system.
  • microserver - A microserver, also known as a server appliance, is a compact, less expensive, modular hardware platform designed to make installation and maintenance simpler than traditional enterprise-class rack servers.
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit - Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether or not its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.
  • MindSphere - MindSphere is a cloud-based platform as a service (PaaS) OS for IoT devices in industrial and manufacturing sectors.
  • Mobileye - Mobileye is a machine vision-based assisted driving and accident prevention system and Intel-owned company of the same name.
  • MQTT (MQ Telemetry Transport) - MQTT (MQ Telemetry Transport) is a lightweight messaging protocol that provides resource-constrained network clients with a simple way to distribute telemetry information.
  • narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) - Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) is a wireless internet of things (IoT) protocol using low-power wide area network (LPWAN) technology.
  • Nest Labs - Nest Labs was a home automation specialist company that produced programmable Wi-Fi-enabled products that can be remotely controlled through a Web service or an associated smart home app.
  • network slicing - Network slicing overlays multiple virtual networks on top of a shared network.
  • onboard intelligence - Onboard intelligence is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) that is housed locally in the device it operates.
  • operational technology (OT) - Operational technology (OT) is a category of hardware and software that monitors and controls how physical devices perform.
  • passive sensor - Passive sensor technologies gather target data through the detection of vibrations, light, radiation, heat or other phenomena occurring in the subject’s environment.
  • pervasive computing (ubiquitous computing) - Pervasive computing, also called ubiquitous computing, is the growing trend of embedding computational capability (generally in the form of microprocessors) into everyday objects to make them effectively communicate and perform useful tasks in a way that minimizes the end user's need to interact with computers as computers.
  • predictive maintenance (PdM) - Predictive maintenance (PdM) is the servicing of equipment when it is estimated that service is required, within a certain tolerance.
  • pressure sensor - A pressure sensor is a device that detects a force exerted on a surface (pressure) and converts it to an electronic signal whose strength is relative to the strength of the force.
  • proximity marketing (hyperlocal marketing) - Proximity marketing, sometimes referred to as hyperlocal marketing, is the wireless delivery of promotional material to mobile users in a specific location.
  • PTC ThingWorx - PTC ThingWorx is a model-based rapid application development (RAD) platform for the Internet of Things.
  • reference architecture - A reference architecture is a document or set of documents to which a project manager or other interested party can refer to for best practices.
  • remote sensing - Remote sensing is the use of various technologies to make observations and measurements at a target that is usually at a distance or scale beyond those observable to the naked eye.
  • RF-powered computing - RF-powered computing is the use of radio frequency (RF) signals to enable the operation and communication of low-power devices, typically for machine-to-machine (M2M) networking.
  • RFID (radio frequency identification) - RFID (radio frequency identification) is a form of wireless communication that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal or person.
  • RFID skimming - RFID skimming is the wireless interception of information from RFID chip-based debit, credit and ID cards and other documents, such as passports.
  • RFID tagging - RFID tagging uses small radio frequency identification devices to track and identify objects.
  • RFID virus - An RFID (radio-frequency identification) virus is malicious code inserted into an RFID tag to alter or corrupt data in an RFID system.
  • RIOT operating system - RIOT operating system is an open source operating system specialized for IoT (internet of things) devices.
  • Semios mesh network - Semios mesh network is the communications backbone of the Semios orchard farming automation platform.
  • sensor analytics - Sensor analytics is the statistical analysis of data that’s created by wired or wireless sensors.
  • sensor data - Sensor data is the output of a device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment.
  • sensor fusion - Sensor fusion is the combined use of multiple types of sensor data for a more complete picture of the sensor’s subject or environment.
  • sensor hub - A sensor hub is a connection point for multiple sensors that uses a multipoint control unit (MCU), coprocessor or digital signal processor (DSP) to compile and process data gathered from those sensors.
  • smart bulb (smart light bulb) - A smart bulb is a networked LED light bulb that has additional features to enable automation, presence-sensing capabilities and customization.
  • smart city - A smart city is a municipality that uses information and communication technologies (ICT) to increase operational efficiency, share information with the public and improve both the quality of government services and citizen welfare.
  • smart data - Smart data is digital information that is formatted so it can be acted upon at the collection point before being sent to a downstream analytics platform for further data consolidation and analytics.
  • smart farming - Smart farming is a management concept focused on providing the agricultural industry with the infrastructure to leverage advanced technology – including big data, the cloud and the internet of things (IoT) – for tracking, monitoring, automating and analyzing operations.
  • smart grid sensor - A smart grid sensor is a small, lightweight node that serves as a detection station in a sensor network.
  • smart hard hat - A smart hard hat is personal protective equipment (PPE) designed to enhance worker performance and safety in construction and related industries through embedded technology.
  • smart home app (home automation app) - A smart home app, sometimes referred to as a home automation app or a smart home automation app, is an application used to remotely control and manage connected non-computing devices in the home, typically from a smartphone or tablet.
  • smart home hub (home automation hub) - A smart home hub is hardware or software that connects devices on a home automation network and controls communications among them.
  • smart home kit (home automation kit) - A smart home kit, sometimes called a home automation kit or an Internet of Things (IoT) platform, is a product that includes all the hardware and software required to connect, control and manage compatible smart devices for home automation.
  • smart home or building (home automation or domotics) - A smart home is a residence that uses internet-connected devices to enable the remote monitoring and management of appliances and systems, such as lighting and heating.
  • smart label - A smart label is a slip of paper, plastic or other material on a product that contains an RFID tag in addition to bar code data.
  • smart meter - A smart meter is an Internet-capable device that measures energy, water or natural gas consumption of a building or home.
  • smart meter hack - A smart meter hack is the unauthorized access of such a device or its data transmissions for the purpose of obtaining or altering communications between it and the responsible utility.
  • smart sensor - A smart sensor is a device that takes input from the physical environment and uses built-in compute resources to perform predefined functions upon detection of specific input and then process data before passing it on.
  • smart speaker - A smart speaker is a wireless and smart audio playback device that uses several types of connectivity for additional functions.
  • smart streetlight - A smart streetlight is a public lighting fixture that incorporates technology, such as cameras, light-sensing photocells and other sensors, to introduce real-time monitoring functionalities.
  • smart warehouse - A smart warehouse is a large building in which raw materials and manufactured goods are stored that uses machines and computers to complete common warehouse operations previously performed by humans.
  • smartwatch - A smartwatch is a wearable computing device that closely resembles a wristwatch or other time-keeping device.
  • SoC testing (system-on-a-chip testing) - SoC (system-on-a-chip) testing is the testing of system-on-a-chip (SoC) devices.
  • Splunk - Splunk Inc. is a San Francisco-based multinational company whose software platform indexes machine data, and makes it searchable so it can be turned into actionable intelligence.
  • spray-on antenna - A spray-on antenna is a conductive material that can be sprayed onto nearly any surface to create a thin, lightweight and flexible antenna.
  • supervised learning - Supervised learning is an approach to creating artificial intelligence, where the program is given labeled input data and the expected output results.
  • supply chain transformation - Supply chain transformation is the addition and integration of technology to improve supply chain performance.
  • swarm intelligence - Swarm intelligence is the study of decentralized, self-organized systems that move quickly in a coordinated manner.
  • switch-on-a-chip (SOC) - A switch-on-a-chip (SOC) is a network - typically a storage network - switch (a device that channels incoming data flow from any of multiple input ports to the output port appropriate for its destination) that is built into a single microchip (integrated circuit).
  • system-on-a-chip (SoC) - System-on-a-chip (SoC) technology is the packaging of all the necessary electronic circuits and parts for a "system" (such as a cell phone or digital camera) on a single integrated circuit (IC), generally known as a microchip.
  • systems engineering (SE) - Systems engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary area of technology that encompasses software and hardware systems design and development with consideration to their interconnections and the environment in which they operate.
  • thing (in the Internet of Things) - A thing, in the context of the Internet of things (IoT), is an entity or physical object that has a unique identifier, an embedded system and the ability to transfer data over a network.
  • Thing hacking - Thing hacking is an attack that exploits a vulnerability in a connected non-computing device – a Thing, in the Internet of Things -- to gain control of the device or access to a network it connects to.
  • thingbot - A thingbot is something with an embedded system and an Internet connection that has been coopted by a hacker as a part of a botnet.
  • THREAD protocol - The THREAD protocol is a home automation device communication method owned by Nest, a subsidiary of Google.
  • Thunder (Salesforce Thunder) - Salesforce Thunder is a big data pipeline and rules engine designed to capture, filter and respond to events in real time; the platform was created to operate in streaming scenarios such as machine-to-machine (M2M) and Internet of Things (IoT) environments.
  • transponder - A transponder is a wireless communications, monitoring, or control device that picks up and automatically responds to an incoming signal.
  • trillion-node network - A trillion-node network refers to a near future state wherein trillions of devices, people, organizations, places and things are connected to the Internet.
  • ubiquitous networking - Ubiquitous networking is the pervasion of communications infrastructure and wireless technologies throughout the environment such that they enable continuous connectivity.
  • ubiquitous sensor network (USN) - A ubiquitous sensor network (USN) is one that connects all possible sensors in a given network or environment which, theoretically, could be global.
  • Ultra Low Energy (ULE) - Ultra Low Energy (ULE) is a telecommunications technology based on DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) which is the de-facto standard for voice calls, integrated in millions of devices worldwide.
  • unique identifier (UID) - A unique identifier (UID) is a numeric or alphanumeric string that is associated with a single entity within a given system.
  • universal authentication - Universal authentication is a network identity-verification method that allows users to move from site to site securely without having to enter identifying information multiple times.
  • Universal Powerline Bus (UPB) - Universal Powerline Bus (UPB) is a communication methodology for home automation device control, allowing devices to communicate with pulse-position modulation through power lines.
  • unsupervised learning - Unsupervised learning refers to the use of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms to identify patterns in data sets containing data points that are neither classified nor labeled.
  • variable speed limit (VSL) - A variable speed limit is a flexible restriction on the rates at which motorists can drive on a given stretch of road.
  • vehicle to infrastructure (V2I or v2i) - Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I or V2X) is a communication model that allows vehicles to share information with the components that support a country's highway system.
  • vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V communication) - Vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V communication) is the wireless transmission of data between motor vehicles.
  • VeriChip - VeriChip is an injectable identification chip that can be inserted under the skin of a human being to provide biometric verification.
  • vertical farming - Vertical farming is the practice of growing vegetables and fruit in vertically stacked layers.
  • visible light communication (VLC) - Visible light communication (VLC) is the use of visible light as a method of wirelessly transmitting data.
  • wearable computer - A wearable computer is any small technological device capable of storing and processing data that can be worn on the body.
  • Web Bluetooth - Web Bluetooth is an API that enables interaction with Bluetooth devices through web browsers.
  • What is RPA? Everything you need to know - Robotic process automation technology is software that can be trained to mimic routine, labor-intensive tasks performed by humans.
  • Wi-Fi backscattering - Wi-Fi backscattering is a low-power communications technology that uses radio frequency (RF) signals as a power source and reuses the existing Wi-Fi infrastructure to provide RF-powered devices with Internet connectivity.
  • Wi-Fi HaLow (802.11ah) - HaLow is based on the WiFi Alliance 802.
  • Windows Embedded - Windows Embedded is Microsoft’s embedded operating systems  product group.
  • WRAN (wireless regional area network) - A wireless regional area network (WRAN) is techology based on IEEE 802.
  • WSAN (wireless sensor and actuator network) - A wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) is a group of sensors that gather information about their environment and actuators, such as servos or motors, that interact with them.
  • Z-Wave - Z-Wave is a wireless communication protocol used primarily in smart home networks, allowing smart devices to connect and exchange control commands and data with each other.
  • Zigbee - Zigbee is a standards-based wireless technology developed to enable low-cost, low-power wireless machine-to-machine (M2M) and internet of things (IoT) networks.

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