# Mathematics

Terms related to mathematics, including definitions about logic, algorithms and computations and mathematical terms used in computer science and business.## 10, - PAR

- 10,000-year clock - The 10,000-year clock is an accurate, long-term mechanical timepiece designed to tick once a year for 10,000 years.
- 11th dimension - The 11th dimension is a characteristic of space-time that has been proposed as a possible answer to questions that arise in superstring theory.
- 42 (h2g2, meaning of life, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy) - In Douglas Adams' "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy," 42 is the number from which all meaning ("the meaning of life, the universe, and everything") can be derived.
- absolute value - Absolute value is a term used in mathematics to indicate the distance of a point or number from the origin (zero point) of a number line or coordinate system.
- aleph - In mathematics, aleph, the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, in its uppercase form () denotes numbers representing the sizes of infinite set s.
- algebraic number - An algebraic number is any real number that is a solution of some single-variable polynomial equation whose coefficients are all integers.
- algorithm - An algorithm (pronounced AL-go-rith-um) is a procedure or formula for solving a problem, based on conducting a sequence of specified actions.
- angular velocity (rotational velocity) - Angular velocity, also called rotational velocity, is a quantitative expression of the amount of rotation that a spinning object undergoes per unit time.
- approximate equality - Approximate equality is a concept used primarily in physics and engineering, and also occasionally in mathematics.
- arithmetic mean - The arithmetic mean, also called the average or average value, is the quantity obtained by summing two or more numbers or variables and then dividing by the number of numbers or variables.
- azimuth and elevation - Azimuth and elevation are angles used to define the apparent position of an object in the sky, relative to a specific observation point.
- backpropagation algorithm - Backpropagation (backward propagation) is an important mathematical tool for improving the accuracy of predictions in data mining and machine learning.
- bar graph - A bar graph is a pictorial rendition of statistical data in which the independent variable can attain only certain discrete values.
- bees algorithm - The bees algorithm is a method of problem solving that mimics the behavior of honeybees to find the optimum solution.
- binary - Binary describes a numbering scheme in which there are only two possible values for each digit: 0 and 1.
- binary coded decimal - Binary coded decimal (BCD) is a system of writing numerals that assigns a four-digit binary code to each digit 0 through 9 in a decimal (base-10) numeral.
- binomial distribution - Binomial distribution is a type of formula in mathematics and statistics for predicting probabilities where there are two possible outcomes over a set of instances.
- Boolean - The term "Boolean," often encountered when doing searches on the Web (and sometimes spelled "boolean"), refers to a system of logical thought developed by the English mathematician and computer pioneer, George Boole (1815-64).
- box plot - A box plot is a graphical rendition of statistical data based on the minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum.
- cardinality - The term cardinality refers to the number of cardinal (basic) members in a set.
- causation - Causation, or causality, is the capacity of one variable to influence another.
- centimeter (cm) - The centimeter (abbreviation, cm) is a unit of displacement or length in the cgs (centimeter/gram/second) system of units.
- collaborative filtering - Collaborative filtering is the predictive process behind recommendation engines.
- combination and permutation - In mathematics, combination and permutation are two different ways of grouping elements of a set into subsets.
- complex number - A complex number is a quantity of the form v + iw, where v and w are real numbers, and i represents the unit imaginary numbers equal to the positive square root of -1.
- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) - Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the use of applied mathematics, physics and computational software to visualize how a gas or liquid flows -- as well as how the gas or liquid affects objects as it flows past.
- continuum - A continuum is a continuous system or range in which adjacent elements do not vary from each other in any marked degree although the endpoints of the system may be drastically different.
- correlation - Correlation is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two or more variables fluctuate in relation to each other.
- correlation coefficient - A correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the degree to which changes to the value of one variable predict change to the value of another.
- cryptology - Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory, and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis.
- cubic meter (meter cubed) - The cubic meter is the unit of volume in the International System of Units.
- data analytics (DA) - Data analytics (DA) is the process of examining data sets in order to find trends and draw conclusions about the information they contain.
- data point - A data point is a discrete unit of information.
- data-driven decision management (DDDM) - Data-driven decision management (DDDM) is an approach to business governance that values actions that can be backed up with verifiable data.
- data-driven disaster - A data-driven disaster is a serious problem caused by one or more ineffective data analysis processes.
- de-anonymization (deanonymization) - De-anonymization is a method used to detect the original data that was subjected to processes to make it impossible -- or at least harder -- to identify the personally identifiable information (PII).
- deductive reasoning - Deductive reasoning is a logical process in which a conclusion is based on the accordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true.
- degree per second - The degree per second is a unit of angular (rotational) speed.
- demographic - A demographic is a subset of a population that shares a common factor such as age, income or education level.
- dependent variable - A dependent variable is a variable whose value depends upon independent variable s.
- discrete event simulation (DES) - Discrete event simulation (DES) is the process of codifying the behavior of a complex system as an ordered sequence of well-defined events.
- Earth's mean orbital speed - Earth's mean orbital speed is the average speed at which the Earth revolves around the sun.
- Earth's mean radius - The Earth's mean radius is determined as the average distance from the physical center to the surface, based on a large number of samples.
- econometrics - Econometrics is the analysis and testing of economic theories to verify hypotheses and improve prediction of financial trends.
- element - In chemistry and physics, an element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler components by any non-nuclear chemical reaction.
- Ethereum - Ethereum is an open source, distributed software platform and cryptocurrency built off of blockchain technology.
- Euler diagram - An Euler diagram (pronounced OY-ler diagram) is a graphic depiction commonly used to illustrate the relationships between sets or groups; the diagrams are usually drawn with circles or ovals, although they can also use other shapes.
- extrapolation and interpolation - Extrapolation is an estimation of a value based on extending a known sequence of values or facts beyond the area that is certainly known.
- Faraday constant - Faraday's constant, symbolized by the italic uppercase letter F, is the physical constant representing the electric charge in a mole.
- Fibonacci poem (or Fib) - A Fibonacci poem (or Fib) is a multiple-line verse based on the Fibonacci sequence so that the number of syllables in each line equals the total number of syllables in the preceding two lines.
- Fibonacci sequence - The Fibonacci sequence is a set of numbers that starts with a one or a zero, followed by a one, and proceeds based on the rule that each number (called a Fibonacci number) is equal to the sum of the preceding two numbers.
- foot squared (square foot) - The foot squared, also called the square foot, is the standard unit of area in the English foot-pound-second (fps) system.
- fractal - Fractals are non-regular geometric shapes that have the same degree of non-regularity on all scales.
- fuzzy number - A fuzzy number is a quantity whose value is imprecise, rather than exact as is the case with "ordinary" (single-valued) numbers.
- game theory - Game theory is the study of mathematical models of negotiation, conflict and cooperation between individuals, organizations and governments.
- garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) - GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) is a concise expression of a concept common to computer science and mathematics: the quality of output is determined by the quality of the input.
- gas constant (universal molar gas constant) - The gas constant, also known as the universal molar gas constant, is a physical constant that appears in an equation defining the behavior of a gas under theoretically ideal conditions.
- George Boole - George Boole (1815-1864) was a British mathematician and is known as the founder of mathematical logic.
- googol and googolplex - A googol is 10 to the 100th power (which is 1 followed by 100 zeros).
- hexadecimal - Hexadecimal describes a base-16 number system.
- hysteresis - Hysteresis is the tendency for a system to change or react based on a trend of how it has already transformed leading up to a specific point in time.
- imaginary number - An imaginary number is a quantity of the form ix, where x is a real number and i is the positive square root of -1.
- imputation - Imputation, in statistics, is the insertion of a value to stand in for missing data.
- Incompleteness Theorem - The Incompleteness Theorem is a pair of logical proofs that revolutionized mathematics.
- independent variable - An independent variable is a variable that is manipulated to determine the value of a dependent variable.
- inductive reasoning - Inductive reasoning is a logical process in which multiple premises, all believed true or found true most of the time, are combined to obtain a specific conclusion.
- infinity - In general, infinity is the quality or state of endlessness or having no limits in terms of time, space, or other quantity.
- information theory - Information theory is a branch of mathematics that overlaps into communications engineering, biology, medical science, sociology, and psychology.
- integer - An integer (pronounced IN-tuh-jer) is a whole number (not a fractional number) that can be positive, negative, or zero.
- International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) - IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is an encryption algorithm developed at ETH in Zurich, Switzerland.
- intersection symbol - The intersection symbol denotes the intersection of two sets.
- irrational number - An irrational number is a real number that cannot be reduced to any ratio between an integer p and a natural number q.
- Khan Academy - The Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organization that provides free video tutorials and interactive exercises.
- kinematics - Kinematics is the study of the motion of mechanical points, bodies and systems without consideration of their associated physical properties and the forces acting on them.
- knowledge engineering - Knowledge engineering is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that tries to emulate the judgment and behavior of a human expert in a given field.
- law of averages - The law of averages is an erroneous generalization of the law of large numbers, which states that the frequencies of events with the same likelihood of occurrence even out, given enough trials or instances.
- law of large numbers - The law of large numbers is a principle of probability according to which the frequencies of events with the same likelihood of occurrence even out, given enough trials or instances.
- learning curve - Learning curves are a visualization of the difficulty estimated in learning a subject over a period of time as well as relative progress throughout the process of learning.
- lemniscate - A lemniscate is a plane curve with a characteristic shape, consisting of two loops that meet at a central point as shown below.
- Leonardo Fibonacci (Pisano) - Leonardo Pisano, also known as Fibonacci (for filius Bonacci, meaning son of Bonacci), was an Italian mathematician who lived from 1170 - 1250.
- limit - In mathematics, a limit is a value toward which an expression converges as one or more variables approach certain values.
- logarithm (logarithmic) - A logarithm is an exponent used in mathematical calculations to depict the perceived levels of variable quantities such as visible light energy, electromagnetic field strength, and sound intensity.
- Markov model - A Markov model is a stochastic method for randomly changing systems where it is assumed that future states do not depend on past states.
- mathematical induction - Mathematical induction is a a specialized form of deductive reasoning used to prove a fact about all the elements in an infinite set by performing a finite number of steps.
- Mathematical Symbols - This table contains mathematical symbols and links to definitions of what they represent.
- Mersenne prime (or Marsenne prime) - A Mersenne (also spelled Marsenne) prime is a specific type of prime number.
- millimeter (mm, millimetre) - A millimeter (abbreviated as mm and sometimes spelled as millimetre) is a small unit of length/distance in the metric system, one-thousandth of a meter (which is similar in length to a yard in the Imperial system of measurement).
- monad - A monad is: 1) A type of functor used in category theory in mathematics.
- Nagle's algorithm - Named for its creator, John Nagle, the Nagle algorithm is used to automatically concatenate a number of small buffer messages; this process (called nagling) increases the efficiency of a network application system by decreasing the number of packets that must be sent.
- natural number - A natural number is a number that occurs commonly and obviously in nature.
- negative correlation - A negative correlation is a relationship between two variables such that as the value of one variable increases, the other decreases.
- nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) - NURBS (nonuniform rational B-splines) are mathematical representations of 2- or 3-dimensional objects, which can be standard shapes (such as a cone) or free-form shapes (such as a car).
- normal distribution - A normal distribution is an arrangement of a data set in which most values cluster in the middle of the range and the rest taper off symmetrically toward either end.
- number theory (higher arithmetic) - Number theory, also known as higher arithmetic, is a branch of mathematics concerned with the properties of integer s, rational number s, irrational number s, and real number s.
- operation - An operation, in mathematics and computer science, is an action that is carried out to accomplish a given task.
- operator - In mathematics, an operator is a character that represents an action, as for example x is an arithmetic operator that represents multiplication.
- order of magnitude - An order of magnitude is an exponential change of plus-or-minus 1 in the value of a quantity or unit.
- ordinal - Ordinal refers to the sequence in which something is in relation to others of its kind.
- outlier - An outlier is a single data point that goes far outside the average value of a group of statistics.
- Pareto chart (Pareto distribution diagram) - A Pareto chart, also called a Pareto distribution diagram, is a vertical bar graph in which values are plotted in decreasing order of relative frequency from left to right.