# Mathematics

Terms related to mathematics, including definitions about logic, algorithms and computations and mathematical terms used in computer science and business.## OUT - ZIP

- outlier - An outlier is a single data point that goes far outside the average value of a group of statistics.
- Pareto chart (Pareto distribution diagram) - A Pareto chart, also called a Pareto distribution diagram, is a vertical bar graph in which values are plotted in decreasing order of relative frequency from left to right.
- per cent symbol (%) - The per cent symbol is used in mathematics, engineering, and science to indicate parts per hundred.
- per mil symbol - The per mil symbol is used in mathematics, and especially in economics, to indicate parts per thousand.
- percent change (percent difference) - Percent change -- also known as percent difference.
- perceptron - A perceptron is a simple model of a biological neuron in an artificial neural network.
- point-to-point graph (line graph) - A point-to-point graph, also called a line graph, is a pictorial rendition of data in which specific values of a function are plotted as dots on a coordinate plane.
- polar coordinates - Polar coordinates provide a method of rendering graphs and indicating the positions of points on a two-dimensional (2D) surface.
- polynomial interpolation - Polynomial interpolation is a method of estimating values between known data points.
- population - In statistics and other areas of mathematics, a population is a complete collection of entities or items that has at least one characteristic in common.
- positive correlation - A positive correlation is a relationship between two variables such that their values increase or decrease together.
- prime number - A prime number is a whole number greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and itself.
- probabilistic robotics - Probabilistic robotics, also called statistical robotics, is a field of robotics that involves the control and behavior of robots in environments subject to unforeseeable events.
- probability - Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with calculating the likelihood of a given event's occurrence, which is expressed as a number between 1 and 0.
- proportionality - In mathematics, proportionality indicates that two quantities or variables are related in a linear manner.
- pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) - A pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) is a program written for, and used in, probability and statistics applications when large quantities of random digits are needed.
- Q format - Q (number) format is a fixed-point method of coding fractional and whole integers for processing by a computer’s CPU or a digital signal processor (DSP).
- quant (quantitative analyst) - A quant (quantitative analyst) is a financial services professional whose qualifications also include advanced mathematics and and computer skills.
- radian - The radian is the Standard International (SI) unit of plane angular measure.
- random numbers - Random numbers are numbers that occur in a sequence such that two conditions are met: ( the values are uniformly distributed over a defined interval or set, and (2) it is impossible to predict future values based on past or present ones.
- random walk hypothesis - Random walk hypothesis is a mathematical theory where a variable does not follow an apparent trend and moves seemingly at random.
- rational number - A rational number is a number determined by the ratio of some integer p to some nonzero natural number q.
- real number - A real number is any element of the set R, which is the union of the set of rational numbers and the set of irrational numbers.
- root-mean-square (RMS) - In a direct current (DC) circuit, voltage or current is simple to define, but in an alternating current (AC) circuit, the definition is more complicated, and can be done in several ways.
- rounding error - Rounding error is the difference between a rounded-off numerical value and the actual value.
- scatter plot - A scatter plot is a set of points plotted on a horizontal and vertical axes.
- secret key algorithm (symmetric algorithm) - A secret key algorithm (sometimes called a symmetric algorithm) is a cryptographic algorithm that uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data.
- singleton - In object-oriented programming, a singleton class is a class that can have only one object (an instance of the class) at a time.
- skewness - Skewness is asymmetry in a statistical distribution, in which the curve appears distorted or skewed either to the left or to the right.
- space - In mathematics, space is an unbounded continuum (unbroken set of points) in which exactly three numerical coordinates are necessary to uniquely define the location of any particular point.
- square meter (meter squared) - The square meter, also called the meter squared, is the Standard International (SI) unit of area.
- standing-wave ratio (SWR, VWSR, IWSR) - Standing-wave ratio (SWR) is a mathematical expression of the non-uniformity of an electromagnetic field (EM field) on a transmission line such as coaxial cable.
- statistical analysis - In the context of business intelligence (BI), statistical analysis involves collecting and scrutinizing every data sample in a set of items from which samples can be drawn.
- STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) - STEM is an educational program developed to prepare primary and secondary students for college and graduate study in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).
- steradian - The steradian (symbolized sr) is the Standard International (SI) unit of solid angular measure.
- stochastic - Generally, stochastic (pronounced stow-KAS-tik, from the Greek stochastikos, or "skilled at aiming," since stochos is a target) describes an approach to anything that is based on probability.
- stochastic optimization - Stochastic optimization is the process of maximizing or minimizing the value of a mathematical or statistical function when one or more of the input parameters is subject to randomness.
- time - Time is an observed phenomenon, by means of which human beings sense and record changes in the environment and in the universe.
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- transcendental number - A transcendental number is a real number that is not the solution of any single-variable polynomial equation whose coefficients are all integers.
- traveling salesman problem (TSP) - The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is an algorithmic problem tasked with finding the shortest route between a set of points and locations that must be visited.
- truncation error - Truncation error is the difference between a truncated value and the actual value.
- union symbol - The union symbol () denotes the union of two set s.
- unique identifier (UID) - A unique identifier (UID) is a numeric or alphanumeric string that is associated with a single entity within a given system.
- universal set - A universal set is the collection of all objects in a particular context or theory.
- Venn diagram - A Venn diagram is an illustration of the relationships between and among sets, groups of objects that share something in common.
- vertical line (vertical slash or upright slash) - The vertical line, also called the vertical slash or upright slash (|), is used in mathematical notation in place of the expression "such that" or "it is true that.
- wave number - The term wave number refers to the number of complete wave cycles of an electromagnetic field (EM field) that exist in one meter (1 m) of linear space.
- x and y coordinates - x, y coordinates are respectively the horizontal and vertical addresses of any pixel or addressable point on a computer display screen.
- zero (0) - In mathematics, zero, symbolized by the numeric character 0, is both a place indicator meaning "no units of this multiple" in a positional number system, and an independent value midway between +1 and -1.
- zettaflops - Zettaflop or (ZFlop) is a processing power of one septillion floating point operations per second (FLOPS).
- Zipf's Law - Zipf’s Law is a statistical distribution in certain data sets, such as words in a linguistic corpus, in which the frequencies of certain words are inversely proportional to their ranks.