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Microprocessors

Terms related to microprocessors, including definitions about silicon chips and words and phrases about computer processors.

3-D - OPE

  • 3-D chip (3D chip) - A 3-D chip is an integrated circuit (IC) containing a three-dimensional array of interconnected devices performing digital, analog, image processing and neural-network functions, either individually or in combination.
  • 64-bit processor - A 64-bit processor is a microprocessor with a word size of 64 bits, a requirement for memory and data intensive applications such as computer-aided design (CAD) applications, database management systems, technical and scientific applications, and high-performance servers.
  • AI accelerator - An AI accelerator is a microchip designed specifically to enable faster processing of artificial intelligence (AI) tasks.
  • AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) - AMD is the second largest maker of personal computer microprocessors after Intel.
  • AMD-V (AMD virtualization) - AMD-V (AMD virtualization) is a set of hardware extensions for the X86 processor architecture.
  • arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a computer processor (CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words.
  • ARM processor - An ARM processor is any of several 32-bit RISC (reduced instruction set computer) microprocessors developed by Advanced RISC Machines, Ltd.
  • ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) - An ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) is a microchip designed for a special application, such as a particular kind of transmission protocol or a hand-held computer.
  • ASSP (application-specific standard product) - In computers, an ASSP (application-specific standard product) is a semiconductor device integrated circuit (IC) product that is dedicated to a specific application market and sold to more than one user (and thus, "standard").
  • backside bus - In a personal computer with an Intel processor chipset that includes a Dual Independent Bus (DIB), the frontside bus is the data path and physical interface between the processor and the main memory (RAM).
  • biochip - A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed.
  • biomimetics (biomimicry) - Biomimetic refers to human-made processes, substances, devices, or systems that imitate nature.
  • BIOS (basic input/output system) - BIOS (basic input/output system) is the program a computer's microprocessor uses to start the computer system after it is powered on.
  • bipolar transistor - A bipolar transistor is a semiconductor device commonly used for amplification.
  • bit slicing - Bit slicing is a method of combining processor modules to multiply the word length.
  • blade server - A blade server, sometimes referred to as a high-density server, is a compact device containing a computer used to manage and distribute data in a collection of computers and systems, called a network.
  • Blue Gene - Blue Gene is a supercomputer development project at IBM for a series of high-performance system-on-a-chip (SoC) arcitectures with minimal power demands.
  • brownout reset - A brownout reset is a circuit that causes a computer processor to reset (or reboot) in the event of a brownout, which is a significant drop in the power supply output voltage.
  • buckypaper - Buckypaper is a strong and lightweight substance manufactured from compressed carbon nanotubes, which are long, cylindrical carbon structures consisting of hexagonal graphite molecules attached at the edges.
  • cache memory - Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular random access memory (RAM).
  • carbon nanotube computer - A carbon nanotube computer is one with a processor that uses carbon nanotubes as its semiconductor material.
  • Celeron - Celeron is the low-end (and low cost) member of the family of microprocessors from Intel that is based on its P6 architecture.
  • Cell processor (CELL) - The Cell processor (also called CELL) is a microprocessor chip with a multi-core, parallel processing architecture and floating-point design.
  • Centrino - Centrino is a technology package from Intel that provides built-in wireless support for laptop computers while making it possible to run a laptop all day (up to seven hours) without a battery recharge.
  • chip - "Chip" is short for microchip, the incredibly complex yet tiny modules that store computer memory or provide logic circuitry for microprocessors.
  • chipset - A chipset is a group of integrated circuits (microchips) that can be used together to serve a single function and are therefore manufactured and sold as a unit.
  • CISC (complex instruction set computer or computing) - The term "CISC" (complex instruction set computer or computing) refers to computers designed with a full set of computer instructions that were intended to provide needed capabilities in the most efficient way.
  • clock gating - Clock gating is the power-saving feature in semiconductor microelectronics that enables switching off circuits.
  • clock speed - In a computer, clock speed refers to the number of pulses per second generated by an oscillator that sets the tempo for the processor.
  • CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) - CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is the semiconductor technology used in the transistors that are manufactured into most of today's computer microchips.
  • context switch - A context switch is a procedure that a computer's CPU (central processing unit) follows to change from one task (or process) to another while ensuring that the tasks do not conflict.
  • coprocessor - A coprocessor is a special set of circuits in a microprocessor chip that is designed to manipulate numbers or perform some other specialized function more quickly than the basic microprocessor circuits could perform the same task.
  • embedded device - An embedded device is an object that contains a special-purpose computing system.
  • end effector - In robotics, an end effector is a device or tool that's connected to the end of a robot arm where the hand would be.
  • entangled light-emitting diode (ELED) - An entangled LED is a light-emitting diode containing a quantum dot that enables the production of entangled photons (light particles) on demand.
  • EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing) - (EPIC also stand for Electronic Privacy Information Center.
  • extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) - Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is an advanced technology for making microprocessors a hundred times more powerful than those made today.
  • fan-in - Fan-in is a term that defines the maximum number of digital inputs that a single logic gate can accept.
  • fan-out - Fan-out is a term that defines the maximum number of digital inputs that the output of a single logic gate can feed.
  • FC-PGA (flip chip-pin grid array) - FC-PGA (flip chip-pin grid array) is a microchip design developed by Intel for its faster microprocessors in which the hottest part of the chip is located on the side that is away from the motherboard.
  • FeliCa - .
  • FIFO (first-in, first-out) - In computer programming, FIFO (first-in, first-out) is an approach to handling program work requests from queues or stacks so that the oldest request is handled next.
  • FLOPS (floating-point operations per second) - In computers, FLOPS are floating-point operations per second.
  • frontside bus (FSB) - See also: backside busIn a personal computer with an Intel processor chipset that includes a Dual Independent Bus (DIB), the frontside bus is the data path and physical interface between the processor and the main memory (RAM).
  • fullerene - A fullerene is a pure carbon molecule composed of at least 60 atoms of carbon.
  • gallium arsenide field-effect transistor (GaAsFET) - A gallium arsenide field-effect transistor (GaAsFET) is a specialized type of field-effect transistor (FET) that is used in amplifier circuits at very-high, ultra-high, and microwave radio frequencies.
  • glue logic - Glue logic is a special form of digital circuitry that allows different types of logic chips or circuits to work together by acting as an interface between them.
  • graphene - Graphene is a highly conductive allotrope of carbon whose atoms are arranged in a mesh- like form a single atom thick.
  • graphene transistor - A graphene transistor is a nanoscale device based on graphene, a component of graphite with electronic properties far superior to those of silicon.
  • Haswell - Haswell is the code name for Intel's 4th generation Core i-based processors.
  • holographic processing unit (HPU) - Holographic processing unit (HPU) is what Microsoft has named the coprocessor in its HoloLens virtual reality (VR) headset.
  • HP e3000 - The HP e3000 is a line of midrange business servers that carries on the well-known series of 3000 computers from Hewlett-Packard (HP).
  • Hyper-Threading - Hyper-Threading is a technology used by some Intel microprocessors that allows a single microprocessor to act like two separate processors to the operating system and the application programs that use it.
  • IBM Roadrunner - Roadrunner is the fastest supercomputer in the world, twice as fast as Blue Gene and six times as fast as any of the other current supercomputers.
  • Ice Lake - Ice Lake is a coming Intel central processing unit (CPU) product generation that is expected to be on the long awaited 10nm process.
  • index register - An index register is a circuit that receives, stores, and outputs instruction-changing codes in a computer.
  • Intel - Intel is the world’s largest manufacturer of PC microprocessors and the holder of the x86 processor architecture patent.
  • Intel 4004 - The Intel 4004 was one of the first microprocessors ever produced, released in 1971.
  • Intel 80386 - Intel 80386 also known as (386 and i386) is the third-generation Intel x86 microprocessor introduced in October 1985.
  • Intel 80486 - Intel 80486, also known as i486 or just 486, is the fourth-generation generation Intel x86 microprocessor.
  • Intel 8086 - The Intel 8086 was Intel’s first x86 processor.
  • Intel Bay Trail - Intel Bay Trail is the code name for a line of Atom processors manufactured by Intel Corp.
  • Intel Curie - Intel’s Curie module is a tiny system-on a-chip (SoC) based on the Intel Quark SE.
  • Intel Quark - Intel Quark is an embedded system-on-a-chip (SoC) processor design intended for smaller mobile devices like wearable computers.
  • Intel Xeon D-2100 - The Intel Xeon D-2100 processor is a system on a chip (SoC) designed with low power requirements for computing data at the device-level of Internet of Things (IoT) and smart devices.
  • IP core (intellectual property core) - An IP (intellectual property) core is a block of logic or data that is used in making a field programmable gate array (FPGA) or application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for a product.
  • IRQ (interrupt request) - An IRQ (interrupt request) value is an assigned location where the computer can expect a particular device to interrupt it when the device sends the computer signals about its operation.
  • Ivy Bridge - Ivy Bridge is the code name for Intel's third generation of Core processors.
  • jam sync - In audio (sound) production, jam sync is a mode of device synchronization using SMPTE time code in which a slave device can furnish its own timing during the time that a master device is temporarily unstable.
  • Java chip - The Java chip is a microchip that, when included in or added to a computer, will accelerate the performance of Java programs (including the applets that are sometimes included with Web pages).
  • Langmuir-Blodgett film (LB film) - A Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film is a set of monolayers, or layers of organic material one molecule thick, deposited on a solid substrate.
  • logic analyzer - A logic analyzer (occasionally called a logical analyzer) is a laboratory test instrument designed to display and evaluate digital signals.
  • logic level - A logic level is one of several states that a digital signal can possess, expressed as a DC (direct-current) voltage with respect to electrical ground.
  • megachips per second (Mcps) - Megachips per second (Mcps) is a measure of the speed with which encoding elements, called chips (not to be confused with microchips), are generated in Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) signals.
  • memory coherence - Memory coherence is a desirable condition in which corresponding memory locations for each processing element in a multi-core processor always contain the same cached data.
  • memory management unit (MMU) - A memory management unit (MMU) is a computer hardware component that handles all memory and caching operations associated with the processor.
  • mezzanine - Mezzanine is a term used to describe the stacking of computer component cards into a single card that then plugs into the computer bus or data path.
  • MicroBlaze - MicroBlaze is the trade name for a soft processor core designed for Xilinx FPGAs (field-programmable gate arrays).
  • microchip - A microchip (sometimes just called a "chip") is a unit of packaged computer circuitry (usually called an integrated circuit) that is manufactured from a material such as silicon at a very small scale.
  • microchip art - Microchip art is a microscopic non-functioning drawing impressed on the surface of the design mask used in the production of microchip s.
  • micron - The micron, officially obsolete as a term of measurement, is sometimes used by microchip and wiring manufacturers in place of micrometer, one-millionth of a meter.
  • microprocessor (logic chip) - A microprocessor is a computer processor on a microchip.
  • MMX - MMX is a Pentium microprocessor from Intel that is designed to run faster when playing multimedia applications.
  • monostable circuit - A monostable circuit is an electronic device called a multivibrator that has two distinct states, one of them stable (having a steady voltage) and the other one unstable (having an unsteady or variable voltage).
  • motherboard tattoo - A motherboard tattoo is a unique code that can be written in the basic input/output system (BIOS) of a computer to ensure that system restore or diagnostic compact discs (CDs) will work only on the machine or line of machines with which the CDs are sold.
  • multi-core processor - A multi-core processor is an integrated circuit (IC) to which two or more processors have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption, and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks.
  • nanochip - A nanochip is an integrated circuit (IC) that is so small, in physical terms, that individual particles of matter play major roles.
  • nanocomputer - A nanocomputer is a computer whose physical dimensions are microscopic.
  • nanofabrication - Nanofabrication is the design and manufacture of devices with dimensions measured in nanometers.
  • nanolithography - Nanolithography is the art and science of etching, writing, or printing at the microscopic level, where the dimensions of characters are on the order of nanometers (units of 10 -9 meter, or millionths of a millimeter).
  • nanomachine (nanite) - A nanomachine, also called a nanite, is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometers (millionths of a millimeter, or units of 10 -9 meter).
  • nanomedicine - Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines) to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body.
  • nanotransistor - A nanotransistor is a transistor - the component that acts as an electronic signal switch or amplifier - that is near the scale of a billionth of a meter (or nanometer) in size.
  • nanotube (carbon nanotube) - A carbon nanotube (CNT) is a miniature cylindrical carbon structure that has hexagonal graphite molecules attached at the edges.
  • neural net processor - A neural net processor is a CPU that takes the modeled workings of how a human brain operates onto a single chip.
  • neuromorphic chip - A neuromorphic chip is an analog data processor inspired by the biological brain.
  • neurosynaptic chip (cognitive chip) - A neurosynaptic chip, also known as a cognitive chip, is a computer processor that functions more like a biological brain than a typical CPU does.
  • Northbridge - Northbridge is an Intel chipset that communicates with the computer processor and controls interaction with memory, the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus, Level 2 cache, and all Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) activities.
  • octal latch - An octal latch is an integrated circuit (IC) that contains eight binary digital circuits called latches.
  • OpenPower Foundation - The OpenPower Foundation is an organization in which IBM shares its Power microprocessor technology with licensed members.
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    A PCIe SSD (PCIe solid-state drive) is a high-speed expansion card that attaches a computer to its peripherals.

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    VRAM (video RAM) refers to any type of random access memory (RAM) specifically used to store image data for a computer display.

  • virtual memory

    Virtual memory is a memory management technique where secondary memory can be used as if it were a part of the main memory.

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