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Terms related to nanotechnology, including manufacturing definitions and words and phrases about building machines at a molecular level.


  • array-based memory - Array-based memory is an evolving solid-state storage technology similar to flash memory but with potentially greater storage capacity.
  • atom - An atom is a particle of matter that uniquely defines achemical element.
  • atomic storage (atomic memory) - Atomic storage (sometimes called atomic memory) is a nanotechnology approach to computer data storage that works with bits and atoms on the individual level.
  • biomimetics (biomimicry) - Biomimetic refers to human-made processes, substances, devices, or systems that imitate nature.
  • bionics - Bionics is the replication of biological systems by mechanical and electronic systems.
  • biotechnology (biotech) - Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life.
  • buckypaper - Buckypaper is a strong and lightweight substance manufactured from compressed carbon nanotubes, which are long, cylindrical carbon structures consisting of hexagonal graphite molecules attached at the edges.
  • bunny suit - A bunny suit is an coverall garment worn over street clothes to prevent skin and hair from being shed in a clean room environment.
  • carbon nanotube computer - A carbon nanotube computer is one with a processor that uses carbon nanotubes as its semiconductor material.
  • dendrimer - A dendrimer (from Greek dendra for tree) is an artificially manufactured or synthesized molecule built up from branched units called monomers.
  • digital pill - A digital pill is a capsule with embedded sensors that send healthcare-related data to external parties.
  • exponential assembly - In nanotechnology, exponential assembly is a form of self-replication in which tiny devices called nanorobots repeatedly construct copies of themselves.
  • fourth industrial revolution - The fourth industrial revolution is the current environment in which disruptive technologies and trends such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) are changing the way we live and work.
  • fullerene - A fullerene is a pure carbon molecule composed of at least 60 atoms of carbon.
  • graphene - Graphene is a highly conductive allotrope of carbon whose atoms are arranged in a mesh- like form a single atom thick.
  • graphene transistor - A graphene transistor is a nanoscale device based on graphene, a component of graphite with electronic properties far superior to those of silicon.
  • gray goo (or grey goo) - Gray goo (in British spelling, "grey goo") is a term used to describe what life on our planet might become if self-replicating robots or nanomachines got out of control and began to use up life forms for their own energy needs in some unstoppable way.
  • mechatronics - Mechatronics is a branch of engineering that focuses on designing, manufacturing and maintaining products that have both mechanical and electronic components.
  • MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) - A MEMS (micro-electromechanical system) is a miniature machine that has both mechanical and electronic components.
  • microfluidics - Microfluidics is the science of designing, manufacturing, and formulating devices and processes that deal with volumes of fluid on the order of nanoliters (symbolized nl and representing units of 10 -9 liter) or picoliters (symbolized pl and representing units of 10 -12 liter).
  • Millipede - Millipede is a nano-storage prototype developed by IBM that can store data at a density of a trillion bits per square inch: 20 times more than any currently available magnetic storage medium.
  • molecular manufacturing - Molecular manufacturing is a branch of nanotechnology that involves the use of nanoscale (extremely small) tools and non-biological processes to build structures, devices, and systems at the molecular level.
  • nano - Nano is a prefix meaning "extremely small.
  • nano-emissive display (NED) - A nano-emissive display (NED) is a high-resolution, full-color, lightweight, physically thin display that uses carbon nanotube technology.
  • nano-storage - Nano-storage is a nanotechnology approach to storage that seeks to radically increase storage capacities through a variety of technologies, and, ultimately, to replace current storage media with extremely high-density media and devices.
  • nanoanalysis - Nanoanalysis refers to techniques for determining the atomic structures of materials, especially crystals.
  • nanobiomechanics (nanoscale biomechanics) - Nanobiomechanics, also called nanoscale biomechanics, is a field of biomedical technology that involves measurement of the mechanical characteristics of individual living cells.
  • nanochip - A nanochip is an integrated circuit (IC) that is so small, in physical terms, that individual particles of matter play major roles.
  • nanocomputer - A nanocomputer is a computer whose physical dimensions are microscopic.
  • nanocrystal - A nanocrystal is a crystalline particle with at least one dimension measuring less than 1000 nanometers (nm), where 1 nm is defined as 1 thousand-millionth of a meter (10-9 m).
  • nanofabrication - Nanofabrication is the design and manufacture of devices with dimensions measured in nanometers.
  • nanogenerator - A nanogenerator is a nanoscale (extremely small) device capable of generating electric current, electromagnetic fields or subatomic particle radiation.
  • nanolithography - Nanolithography is the art and science of etching, writing, or printing at the microscopic level, where the dimensions of characters are on the order of nanometers (units of 10 -9 meter, or millionths of a millimeter).
  • nanomachine (nanite) - A nanomachine, also called a nanite, is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometers (millionths of a millimeter, or units of 10 -9 meter).
  • nanoManipulator - The nanoManipulator is a specialized nanorobot and microscopic viewing system for working with objects on an extremely small scale.
  • nanomedicine - Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines) to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body.
  • nanometer - A nanometer is a unit of spatial measurement that is 10-9 meter, or one billionth of a meter.
  • nanopaint - Nanopaint is a coating that can modify the properties of a surface or substance according to user-defined parameters.
  • nanopaper - Nanopaper is a 3D rendering of thermally stable nanomaterials made of long nanowires created from titanium oxide using a hydrothermal heating process.
  • nanorobot - A nanorobot is a tiny machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision at nanoscale dimensions, that is, dimensions of a few nanometers (nm) or less, where 1 nm = 10-9 meter.
  • nanoscale technology - Nanoscale technology is a branch of nanotechnology in which standard size tools are used to manufacture simple structures and devices with dimensions on the order of a few nanometers or less, where one nanometer (1 nm) is equal to a billionth of a meter (10 -9 m).
  • nanosecond (ns or nsec) - (This definition follows U.
  • nanotechnology (molecular manufacturing) - Nanotechnology, or, as it is sometimes called, molecular manufacturing, is a branch of engineering that deals with the design and manufacture of extremely small electronic circuits and mechanical devices built at the molecular level of matter.
  • nanotransistor - A nanotransistor is a transistor - the component that acts as an electronic signal switch or amplifier - that is near the scale of a billionth of a meter (or nanometer) in size.
  • nanotube (carbon nanotube) - A carbon nanotube (CNT) is a miniature cylindrical carbon structure that has hexagonal graphite molecules attached at the edges.
  • nanowire - A nanowire is an extremely thin wire with a diameter on the order of a few nanometers (nm) or less, where 1 nm = 10 -9 meters.
  • National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) - The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is a research-and development (R & D) program funded by the U.
  • photolithography - Photolithography is the standard method of printed circuit board (PCB) and microprocessor fabrication.
  • picoliter - A picoliter is a trillionth (one millionth of a millionth, or 10 to the -12th power) of a liter, which can be represented numerically as 0.
  • positional assembly - Positional assembly is a technique that has been suggested as a means to build objects, devices, and systems on a molecular scale using automated processes in which the components that carry out the construction process would follow programmed paths.
  • quantum as a service (QaaS) - Quantum as a service (QaaS) is the offering of quantum compute facilities as an on demand service.
  • quantum dot - A quantum dot is a particle of matter so small that the addition or removal of an electron changes its properties in some useful way.
  • quantum microphone - A quantum microphone is an extremely device that detects the smallest particles of sound, such as packets of vibrational energy called phonons.
  • quantum mirage - The term quantum mirage refers to a phenomenon that may make it possible to transfer data without conventional electrical wiring.
  • quantum theory - Quantum theory is the theoretical basis of modern physics explaining the nature and behavior of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level, sometimes called quantum mechanics or quantum physics.
  • replicator - A replicator is an object or organism that can make copies of itself.
  • robotics - Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation of robots.
  • saser (sound amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) - The SASER is the sonic equivalent to the laser and is often referred to as a sound laser or acoustic laser.
  • scanning tunneling microscope (STM) - A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a device that obtains images of the atoms on the surfaces of materials.
  • self-assembly - Self-assembly is a branch of nanotechnology in which objects, devices, and systems form structures without external prodding.
  • self-replication - In nanotechnology, self-replication is a process in which devices whose diameters are of atomic scale, on the order of nanometers, create copies of themselves.
  • Singularity (the) - The Singularity is the hypothetical future creation of superintelligent machines.
  • smart dust - In nanotechnology, smart dust is an ad hoc network of tiny devices equipped with wireless micro-electromechanical sensors (MEMS).
  • smart machines - A smart machine is a device embedded with machine-to-machine (M2M) and/or cognitive computing technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning or deep learning, all of which it uses to reason, problem-solve, make decisions and even, ultimately, take action.
  • spray-on antenna - A spray-on antenna is a conductive material that can be sprayed onto nearly any surface to create a thin, lightweight and flexible antenna.
  • stepper - A stepper is a machine used to project the image of a circuit in photolithographic semiconductor fabrication.
  • superposition - Superposition is the ability of a quantum system to be in multiple states at the same time until it is measured.
  • superstring theory (string theory, Theory of Everything) - Superstring theory - known less formally as "string theory" - is sometimes called the Theory of Everything (TOE), because it is a unifying physics theory that reconciles the differences between quantum theory and the theory of relativity to explain the nature of all known forces and matter.
  • universal constructor - A universal constructor is a device that can self-replicate - that is, make copies of itself.



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  • kilobyte (KB or Kbyte)

    A kilobyte (KB or Kbyte) is a unit of measurement for computer memory or data storage used by mathematics and computer science ...