Terms related to network hardware, including definitions about cables or file servers and words and phrases about routers and switches.
1000BASE-T - 1000BASE-T is Gigabit Ethernet (1 gigabit is 1000 megabits per second) on copper cables, using four pairs of Category 5 unshielded twisted pair to achieve the gigabit data rate.
100BASE-T - In 100 Mbps (megabits per second) Ethernet (known as Fast Ethernet), there are three types of physical wiring that can carry signals: 100BASE-T4 (four pairs of telephone twisted pair wire) 100BASE-TX (two pairs of data grade twisted-pair wire) 100BASE-FX (a two-strand optical fiber cable) This designation is an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers shorthand identifier.
802.11a - 802.11a is one of several specifications in the 802.
802.16 - 802.16 is a group of broadband wireless communications standards for metropolitan area networks (MANs) developed by a working group of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
acceleration hardware - Acceleration hardware is a general term that refers to devices that speed up data communications, storage and retrieval, encryption and decryption, mathematical operations, graphics, and Web page viewing.
acoustic coupler - An acoustic coupler is a hardware device that enables a modem (a device that converts signals from analog to digital and from digital back to analog) to connect to a voice circuit.
AMTOR (amateur teleprinting over radio) - AMTOR (amateur teleprinting over radio) is a digital communications method used by radio amateurs, in which the frequency of errors is reduced by handshaking or character repetition.
analog telephone adapter (ATA) - An analog telephone adaptor (ATA) is a device used to connect a standard telephone to a computer or network so that the user can make calls over the Internet.
application delivery controller (ADC) - An application delivery controller (ADC) is a network component that manages and optimizes how client machines connect to web and enterprise application servers.
ARCNET - ARCNET is a widely-installed local area network (LAN) technology that uses a token-bus scheme for managing line sharing among the workstations and other devices connected on the LAN.
ARM server - An advanced RISC machine (ARM) server is an enterprise-class computer server that employs a large array of ARM processors rather than a complement of x86-class processors.
AS/400 (IBM iSeries, AS/400e, eServer iSeries/400) - The AS/400 - formally renamed the 'eServer iSeries/400,' but still commonly known as AS/400 - is a middle-size server designed for small businesses and departments in large enterprises and now redesigned so that it will work well in distributed networks.
Asynchronous - In general, asynchronous -- pronounced ay-SIHN-kro-nuhs, from Greek asyn-, meaning "not with," and chronos, meaning "time" -- is an adjective describing objects or events that are not coordinated in time.
attenuation-to-crosstalk ratio (ACR) or headroom - Attenuation-to-crosstalk ratio (ACR), also called headroom, is the difference, expressed as a figure in decibels (dB), between the signal attenuation produced by a wire or cable transmission medium and the near-end crosstalk (NEXT).
average bouncing busy hour (ABBH) - In designing and assessing telephone networks, one approach is to measure the average bouncing busy hour (ABBH) traffic in various network trunks or trunk groups of the network.
backbone - A backbone is a larger transmission line that carries data gathered from smaller lines that interconnect with it.
baseband - Describes a telecommunication system in which information is carried in digital form on a single unmultiplexed signal channel on the transmission medium.
beaming - In infrared transmission, beaming is the communication of data between wireless devices using a beam of infrared light.
BIOS rootkit - A BIOS-level rootkit is programming that exists in a system's memory hardware to enable remote administration.
blade PC (or PC blade) - A blade PC, also called a PC blade, is a computer that is entirely contained in a thin, modular circuit card placed in a centralized, secure location such as a server rack.
branch office box (BOB) - A Branch Office Box (BOB) is a server appliance that has been optimized to provide distributed support for simple utility functions that are required locally but are difficult to provide over a WAN.
bridge - A bridge is a class of network device that’s designed to connect networks at OSI Level 2, which is the data link layer of a local-area network (LAN).
broadband voice gateway - A broadband voice gateway is a device that allows you to make telephone calls over a high-speed Internet connection rather than through a regular telephone outlet without having to go through your computer.
brouter - A brouter (pronounced BRAU-tuhr or sometimes BEE-rau-tuhr) is a network bridge and a router combined in a single product.
buckypaper - Buckypaper is a strong and lightweight substance manufactured from compressed carbon nanotubes, which are long, cylindrical carbon structures consisting of hexagonal graphite molecules attached at the edges.
burn-in - Burn-in is a test in which a system or component is made to run for an extended period of time to detect problems.
bus network - A bus network is an arrangement in a local area network (LAN) in which each node (workstation or other device) is connected to a main cable or link called the bus.
cable head-end - A cable head-end (or headend) is the facility at a local cable TV office that originates and communicates cable TV services and cable modem services to subscribers.
cable modem - A cable modem is a device that enables you to hook up your PC to a local cable TV line and receive data at about 1.
cache server - A cache server is a dedicated network server or service acting as a server that saves Web pages or other Internet content locally.
carrier hotel (colocation center) - A carrier hotel, also called a colocation center, is a secure physical site or building where data communications media converge and are interconnected.
catastrophic failure - Catastrophic failure is a complete, sudden, often unexpected breakdown in a machine, electronic system, computer or network.
catchment area - In the context of communication networks, a catchment area describes the geographical boundries of a network's components, including its connecting lines.
Categories of twisted pair cabling systems - ANSI/EIA (American National Standards Institute/Electronic Industries Association) Standard 568 is one of several standards that specify "categories" (the singular is commonly referred to as "CAT") of twisted pair cabling systems, such as wires, junctions, and connectors.
Centrino - Centrino is a technology package from Intel that provides built-in wireless support for laptop computers while making it possible to run a laptop all day (up to seven hours) without a battery recharge.
certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
chiral fiber - Chiral fiber is a specialized optical fiber medium with its core twisted into a helical shape.
Cisco Borderless Networks - Cisco Borderless Networks is the brand name for a set of hardware and software technologies which allow "anyone, anywhere, anytime, and on any device" to connect to an organization's network.
coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) - Coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) is a method of combining multiple signals on laser beams at various wavelengths for transmission along fiber optic cables, such that the number of channels is fewer than in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) but more than in standard wavelength division multiplexing (WDM).
coaxial antenna - A coaxial antenna is a variant of the dipole antenna, designed for use with an unbalanced feed line.
coaxial cable - Coaxial cable is a type of copper cable specially built with a metal shield and other components engineered to block signal interference.
commodity - A commodity is a type of widely-available product that is not markedly dissimilar from one unit to another.
commodity hardware - Commodity hardware, in an IT context, is a device or device component that is relatively inexpensive, widely available and more or less interchangeable with other hardware of its type.
concentrator - As generally used, a concentrator is a device that acts as an efficient forwarder of data transmission signals.
configuration drift - Configuration drift occurs naturally in data center environments when changes to software and hardware are not recorded or tracked in a comprehensive and systematic fashion.
connection - In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.
connection broker - In desktop virtualization, a connection broker is a software program that allows the end-user to connect to an available desktop.
connection-oriented - In telecommunications, connection-oriented describes a means of transmitting data in which the devices at the end points use a preliminary protocol to establish an end-to-end connection before any data is sent.
control network - A control network is a network of nodes that collectively monitor, sense, and control or enable control of an environment for a particular purpose.
converged network adapter (CNA) - A converged network adapter (CNA) is a single network interface card (NIC) that contains both a Fibre Channel (FC) host bus adapter (HBA) and a TCP/IP Ethernet NIC.
core router - A core router is a router that forwards packets to computer hosts within a network (but not between networks).
CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) - A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device about the size of an external modem that converts a digital data frame from the communications technology used on a local area network (LAN) into a frame appropriate to a wide-area network (WAN) and vice versa.
daisy chain - A daisy chain is an interconnection of computer devices, peripherals, or network nodes in series, one after another.
Data Access Arrangement (DAA) - A Data Access Arrangement (DAA) is an electronic interface within a computer and its modem to a public telephone line.
data availability - Data availability is a term used by some computer storage manufacturers and storage service providers (SSPs) to describe products and services that ensure that data continues to be available at a required level of performance in situations ranging from normal through "disastrous.
data center services - Data center services is a collective term for the supporting components necessary for the proper operation of a repository for storage, management and dissemination of data organized around a body of knowledge or pertaining to an enterprise.
data streaming - Data streaming is the continuous transfer of data at a steady, high-speed rate.
dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) - Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a technology that puts together -- multiplexes -- data signals from different sources so they can share a single optical fiber pair while maintaining complete separation of the data streams.
Direct Access File System (DAFS) - Direct Access File System (DAFS) is a network file system, similar to Network File System (NFS) and Common Internet File System (CIFS), that allows applications to transfer data while bypassing operating system control, buffering, and network protocol operations that can bottleneck throughput.
DoCoMo (NTT DoCoMo) - DoCoMo, also known as NTT DoCoMo, is a Japanese communications corporation that has introduced a line of cell phone sets that contain the equivalent of a digital smart card.
domain controller - Primary domain controller (PDC) and backup domain controller (BDC) are roles that can be assigned to a server in a network of computers that use the Windows NT operating system.
doubler - A doubler is an electronic device that doubles the frequency of an input signal.
drive-by pharming - Drive-by pharming is a vulnerability exploitation method in which the attacker takes advantage of an inadequately unprotected broadband router to gain access to user data.
DSC pull server - A DSC pull server (desired state configuration pull server) is an automation server that allows configurations to be maintained on many servers, computer workstations and devices across a network.
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) - In computer data transmission, DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is the RS-232C interface that a computer uses to exchange data with a modem or other serial device.
dumb network - A dumb network is one that provides the physical interconnection between nodes but not much processing to support signaling.
endpoint device - An endpoint device is an Internet-capable computer hardware device on a TCP/IP network.
Energy Star - Energy Star is a government-backed labeling program that helps people and organizations save money and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by identifying factories, office equipment, home appliances and electronics that have superior energy efficiency.
enterprise DNS - Enterprise DNS is an enterprise-class implementation of the domain name system (DNS) that resolves external and internal queries for large organizations in a centrally managed, scalable, automatable and secure way.
erbium amplifier - An erbium amplifier, also called optical amplifier or an erbium-doped fiber amplifier or EDFA, is an optical or IR repeater that amplifies a modulated laser beam directly, without opto-electronic and electro-optical conversion.
Ethernet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) - Ethernet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) is a network communication standard capable of handling large amounts of data at speeds of 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps, and at up to 1500 bytes per packet.
fax server - A fax server (or faxserver) is a system installed in a local area network (LAN) server that allows computer users who are attached to the LAN to send and receive fax messages.
female connector - A female connector is a connector attached to a wire, cable, or piece of hardware, having one or more recessed holes with electrical terminals inside, and constructed in such a way that a plug with exposed conductors (male connector) can be inserted snugly into it to ensure a reliable physical and electrical connection.
femtocell - A femtocell is a wireless access point that improves cellular reception inside a home or office building.
fiber jumper - A fiber jumper, sometimes called a fiber patch cord is a length of fiber cabling fitted with LC, SC, MTRJ or ST connectors at each end.
FICON (Fiber Connectivity) - FICON (for Fiber Connectivity) is a high-speed input/output (I/O) interface for mainframe computer connections to storage devices.
file server - In the client/server model, a file server is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files.
forward error correction (FEC) - Forward error correction (FEC) is a method of obtaining error control in data transmission in which the source (transmitter) sends redundant data and the destination (receiver) recognizes only the portion of the data that contains no apparent errors.