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Network hardware

Terms related to network hardware, including definitions about cables or file servers and words and phrases about routers and switches.

LOO - WIR

  • loopback test - A loopback test is a test in which a signal in sent from a communications device and returned (looped back) to it as a way to determine whether the device is working right or as a way to pin down a failing node in a network.
  • MAC address (Media Access Control address) - In a local area network (LAN) or other network, the MAC (Media Access Control) address is your computer's unique hardware number.
  • male connector (or plug) - A male connector is a connector attached to a wire, cable, or piece of hardware, having one or more exposed, unshielded electrical terminal s, and constructed in such a way that it can be inserted snugly into a receptacle (female connector) to ensure a reliable physical and electrical connection.
  • Manchester encoding - In data transmission, Manchester encoding is a form of digital encoding in which data bits are represented by transitions from one logical state to the other.
  • MDI/MDIX (medium dependent interface/MDI crossover) - MDI/MDIX is a type of Ethernet port connection using twisted pair cabling.
  • mesh network topology (mesh network) - A mesh network is a network in which devices -- or nodes -- are linked together, branching off other devices or nodes.
  • metropolitan area network (MAN) - A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that is larger than a single building local area network (LAN) but is located in a single geographic area that is smaller than a wide area network (WAN).
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit - Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether or not its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.
  • MiFi - MiFi is a portable broadband device that allows multiple end users and mobile devices to share a 3G or 4G mobile broadband Internet connection and create an ad-hoc network.
  • MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) - MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at both the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver).
  • MISO (multiple input, single output) - MISO (multiple input, single output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at the source (transmitter).
  • modem - A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line and demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for the digital device.
  • modem lights (AA) - This page provides a description of the abbreviations and meanings of each of the lights that describe the "handshaking" between a computer modem and the UART chip in a computer.
  • modular datacenter - Sun Microsystems' Modular Datacenter (known as "Project Blackbox" in the prototype phase) is a mobile and virtualized data center packaged in a standard 20-foot shipping container.
  • Morse code - Morse code is a method of sending text messages by keying in a series of electronic pulses, usually represented as a short pulse (called a "dot") and a long pulse (a "dash").
  • mux - In communication transmission systems, mux (pronounce muks, sometimes spelled "MUX") is an abbreviation for multiplexing, a device that sends multiple signals on a carrier channel at the same time in the form of a single, complex signal to another device that recovers the separate signals at the receiving end.
  • Nagle's algorithm - Named for its creator, John Nagle, the Nagle algorithm is used to automatically concatenate a number of small buffer messages; this process (called nagling) increases the efficiency of a network application system by decreasing the number of packets that must be sent.
  • NBASE-T Ethernet - NBASE-T Ethernet is an IEEE standard and Ethernet-signaling technology that allows existing twisted-pair copper cabling to exceed the cable's specified limit of 1 Gbps for distances of up to 100 meters.
  • Near Field Communication (NFC) - Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless connectivity standard (Ecma-340, ISO/IEC 18092) that uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between devices when they're touched together, or brought within a few centimeters of each other.
  • near-end crosstalk (NEXT) - Near-end crosstalk (NEXT) is an error condition that can occur when connectors are attached to twisted pair cabling.
  • network access point (NAP) - In the United States, a network access point (NAP) is one of several major Internet interconnection points that serve to tie all the Internet access providers together so that, for example, an AT&T user in Portland, Oregon can reach the Web site of a Bell South customer in Miami, Florida.
  • network access server (NAS) - A network access server (NAS) is a computer server that enables an independent service provider (ISP) to provide connected customers with Internet access.
  • network drive - A network drive is a storage device on a local access network (LAN) within a business or home.
  • network hub - A network hub is a node that broadcasts data to every computer or Ethernet-based device connected to it.
  • network interface card (NIC) - A network interface card (NIC) is a hardware component, typically a circuit board or chip, which is installed on a computer so it can connect to a network.
  • network service provider (NSP) - A network service provider (NSP) is a company that owns, operates and sells access to internet backbone infrastructure and services.
  • network tap - A network tap is an external monitoring device that mirrors the traffic that passes between two network nodes.
  • network topology - A network topology is the physical and logical arrangement of nodes and connections in a network.
  • network-attached storage (NAS) - Network-attached storage (NAS) is dedicated file storage that enables multiple users and heterogeneous client devices to retrieve data from centralized disk capacity.
  • Networking (computer) - Networking, also known as computer networking, is the practice of transporting and exchanging data between nodes over a shared medium in an information system.
  • ODM (original design manufacturer) - An ODM (original design manufacturer) is a company that takes the original specifications of another company or individual and builds the design to the product specifications.
  • one-armed router - A one-armed router is a router that routes traffic between virtual local area networks (VLANs).
  • one-banana problem - A one-banana problem is an easily resolved issue.
  • optical network (photonic network) - An optical (photonic) network transmits information as optical rather than electronic signals: It uses light, not electrical currents, to convey data.
  • passive optical network (PON) - A passive optical network (PON) is a system commonly used by telecommunications network providers that brings fiber optic cabling and signals all or most of the way to the end user.
  • permanent virtual circuit (PVC) - A permanent virtual circuit (PVC) is a software-defined logical connection in a network such as a frame relay network.
  • personal area network (PAN) - A personal area network (PAN) is the interconnection of information technology devices within the range of an individual person, typically within a range of 10 meters.
  • phlashing - Phlashing is a permanent denial of service (PDoS) attack that exploits a vulnerability in network-based firmware updates.
  • physical unit (PU) - In IBM's Systems Network Architecture (SNA), a physical unit (PU) identifies a network node that supports communication sessions between logical units (LU).
  • Power over Ethernet (PoE) - Power over Ethernet (PoE) is a technology for implementing wired Ethernet local area networks (LANs) that enables the electrical current necessary for operating each device to be carried by Ethernet data cables instead of standard electrical power cords and wiring.
  • preboot execution environment (PXE) - Preboot execution environment (PXE), pronounced pixie, is a set of standards that enables a computer to load an operating system (OS) over a network connection.
  • presence technology - Presence technology is a type of application that makes it possible to locate and identify a computing device wherever it might be, as soon as the user connects to the network.
  • RAIN (redundant/reliable array of inexpensive/independent nodes) - RAIN (also called channel bonding, redundant array of independent nodes, reliable array of independent nodes, or random array of independent nodes) is a cluster of nodes connected in a network topology with multiple interfaces and redundant storage, providing fault tolerance and graceful degradation.
  • Reduce, reuse, recycle (R3) - Reduce, reuse and recycle (R3) are the three essential components of environmentally-responsible consumer behavior.
  • redundancy - Redundancy is a system design in which a component is duplicated so if it fails there will be a backup.
  • Reliability, Availability and Serviceability (RAS) - Reliability, Availability and Serviceability (RAS) is a set of related attributes that must be considered when designing, manufacturing, purchasing or using a computer product or component.
  • Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) - Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is a technology that allows computers in a network to exchange data in main memory without involving the processor, cache or OS.
  • remote wakeup (RWU) - Remote wakeup (RWU) is a general term for the powering-up of (turning on) a computer over a network.
  • ring network - A ring network is a local area network (LAN) in which the nodes (workstations or other devices) are connected in a closed loop configuration.
  • ROADM (reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer) - An ROADM (reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer) is a device that can add, block, pass or redirect modulated infrared (IR) and visible light beams of various wavelengths in a fiber optic network.
  • router - A router is a physical or virtual appliance that passes information between two or more packet-switched computer networks.
  • RS-232C - RS-232C is a long-established standard ("C" is the current version) that describes the physical interface and protocol for relatively low-speed serial data communication between computers and related devices.
  • Seebeck effect - The Seebeck effect describes the generation of electricity following the connection of two dissimilar electrical conductors or semiconductors that illustrates the thermoelectric effect.
  • segment - A segment is a defined portion or section of something larger such as a database, geometric object, or network.
  • server consolidation - Server consolidation is an approach to the efficient usage of computer server resources in order to reduce the total number of servers or server locations that an organization requires.
  • server farm (Web farm, Web server farm) - A server farm is a group of computers acting as servers and housed together in a single location.
  • server refresh cycle - The server refresh cycle is the length of time that normally passes between installations of new servers and related hardware in a data center.
  • session border controller (SBC) - A session border controller (SBC) is a dedicated hardware device or software application that governs the manner in which phone calls are initiated, conducted and terminated on a voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) network.
  • SIMO (single input, multiple output) - SIMO (single input, multiple output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at the destination (receiver).
  • small form factor (SFF) - Small form factor (SFF) refers to any of several physically compact connector designs that have been developed for use in fiber optic systems.
  • small form-factor pluggable (SFP) - Small form-factor pluggable (SFP) is a specification for a new generation of optical modular transceivers.
  • smart grid sensor - A smart grid sensor is a small, lightweight node that serves as a detection station in a sensor network.
  • smart home or building (home automation or domotics) - A smart home is a residence that uses internet-connected devices to enable the remote monitoring and management of appliances and systems, such as lighting and heating.
  • smart meter - A smart meter is an Internet-capable device that measures energy, water or natural gas consumption of a building or home.
  • softcooling (software cooling) - Softcooling is a software-based method of computer component cooling, conducted either by adjusting component settings or by using softcooling products.
  • spectrum analyzer - A spectrum analyzer is a device that measures and displays signal amplitude (strength) as it varies by frequency within its frequency range (spectrum).
  • Squid proxy server - Squid is a Unix-based proxy server that caches Internet content closer to a requestor than its original point of origin.
  • star network - A star network is a local area network (LAN) topology in which all nodes -- personal computers (PCs), workstations or other devices -- are directly connected to a common central computer that is often referred to as a hub.
  • storage security - Storage security is the group of parameters and settings that make storage resources available to authorized users and trusted networks -- and unavailable to other entities.
  • storage snapshot - A storage snapshot is a set of reference markers for data at a particular point in time.
  • switch-on-a-chip (SOC) - A switch-on-a-chip (SOC) is a network - typically a storage network - switch (a device that channels incoming data flow from any of multiple input ports to the output port appropriate for its destination) that is built into a single microchip (integrated circuit).
  • switching fabric - Switching fabric is the combination of hardware and software that moves data coming in to a network node out by the correct port (door) to the next node in the network.
  • Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) - Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) is a transmission protocol used to synchronously transfer code-transparent, serial-by-bit data over a communications channel.
  • systems engineering (SE) - Systems engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary area of technology that encompasses software and hardware systems design and development with consideration to their interconnections and the environment in which they operate.
  • T-carrier system - To see the relationship between T-carrier, E-carrier, and DS0 multiples, see digital signal X.
  • T1 (T-1) - Also see the T-carrier system, of which the T1 is a part.
  • terminal server - A terminal server, also sometimes called a communication server, is a hardware device or server that provides terminals, such as PCs, printers, and other devices, with a common connection point to a local or wide area network (WAN).
  • thick client (fat client) - A thick client (sometimes called a fat client) is a form of client-server architecture.
  • Thinnet - Thicknet and Thinnet (sometimes called ThickWire and ThinWire) are commonly used terms for the larger and smaller size of coaxial cable used in Ethernet local area networks.
  • tiered storage - Tiered storage is a method for assigning different categories of data to various types of storage media to reduce overall storage costs and improve the performance and availability of mission-critical applications.
  • tree network - In telecommunication networks, a tree network is a combination of two or more star networks connected together.
  • twisted pair - Twisted pair is the ordinary copper wire that connects home and many business computers to the telephone company.
  • unified computing system (UCS) - A unified computing system (UCS) is is a converged data center architecture that integrates computing, networking and storage resources to increase efficiency and enable centralized management.
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) - Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is a ubiquitous type of copper cabling used in telephone wiring and local area networks (LANs).
  • virtual area network (VAN) - A virtual area network (VAN) is a network on which users are enabled to share a more visual sense of community through high band-width connections.
  • virtual private LAN service (VPLS) - Virtual private LAN service (VPLS) is a technology that makes it possible to connect geographically dispersed local area networks (LANs) logically over the Internet.
  • virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) - Virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) is a technology included in Internet Protocol (IP) network routers that enables multiple instances of a routing table to exist in a virtual router and work simultaneously.
  • VoIP trunk gateway - A VoIP trunk gateway is an interface that facilitates the use of plain old telephone service (POTS) equipment, such as conventional phone sets and fax machines, with a voice over IP (VoIP) network.
  • WAN (wide area network) - A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically distributed telecommunications network that interconnects multiple local area networks (LANs).
  • WAN optimization (WAN acceleration) - WAN optimization -- also known as WAN acceleration -- is a collection of technologies and techniques used to improve the efficiency of data transfer across a wide area network (WAN) between organizations' centralized data centers and their remote locations.
  • What is a private cloud? - Private cloud is a type of cloud computing that delivers similar advantages to public cloud, including scalability and self-service, but through a proprietary architecture.
  • What is a SAN? Ultimate storage area network guide - A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated high-speed network or subnetwork that interconnects and presents shared pools of storage devices to multiple servers.
  • What is a Server? - A server is a computer program or device that provides a service to another computer program and its user, also known as the client.
  • What is server sprawl and how to prevent it? - Server sprawl is when multiple underutilized servers take up more space and consume more resources than can be justified by their workload.
  • white box switch - A white box switch is built on a low-cost, bare metal device that runs on merchant silicon.
  • Wi-Fi (802.11x standard) - Wi-Fi is the popular term for high-frequency wireless local area network (WLAN) technology and a standard that has gained acceptance in many companies as an alternative to a wired LAN.
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  • risk reporting

    Risk reporting is a method of identifying risks tied to or potentially impacting an organization's business processes.

  • risk avoidance

    Risk avoidance is the elimination of hazards, activities and exposures that can negatively affect an organization and its assets.

  • risk profile

    A risk profile is a quantitative analysis of the types of threats an organization, asset, project or individual faces.

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  • What is risk mitigation?

    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • fault-tolerant

    Fault-tolerant technology is a capability of a computer system, electronic system or network to deliver uninterrupted service, ...

  • synchronous replication

    Synchronous replication is the process of copying data over a storage area network, local area network or wide area network so ...

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  • cloud archive

    A cloud archive is storage as a service for long-term data retention.

  • cache

    A cache -- pronounced CASH -- is hardware or software that is used to store something, usually data, temporarily in a computing ...

  • archive

    An archive is a collection of data moved to a repository for long-term retention, to keep separate for compliance reasons or for ...

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