Browse Definitions :

Network security

Terms related to network security, including definitions about intrusion prevention and words and phrases about VPNs and firewalls.

802 - CON

  • 802.11x - 802.11x refers to a group of evolving wireless local area network (WLAN) standards that are under development as elements of the IEEE 802.
  • AAA server (authentication, authorization, and accounting) - An AAA server is a server program that handles user requests for access to computer resources and, for an enterprise, provides authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) services.
  • AccessEnum - AccessEnum is a free Sysinternals tool that offers administrators a view of the full file system and registry security settings to ensure that users have appropriate permissions to access files and directories.
  • ACF2 or CA-ACF2 (Access Control Facility) - ACF2 (more formally, CA-ACF2; the ACF stands for Access Control Facility) is a set of programs from Computer Associates that enable security on mainframes.
  • acoustical infection - Acoustic infection is a type of malware that uses a compromised computer’s sound card and speakers to send data using a covert ultrasonic acoustical mesh network.
  • acoustical mesh network - An acoustical mesh network is a decentralized communication system that transmits data by using sound to connect computers.
  • active attack - An active attack is a network exploit in which a hacker attempts to make changes to data on the target or data en route to the target.
  • Active Directory domain (AD domain) - An Active Directory domain is a collection of objects within a Microsoft Active Directory network.
  • Active Directory forest (AD forest) - An Active Directory forest is the highest level of organization within Active Directory.
  • Active Directory tree (AD tree) - An Active Directory tree is a collection of domains within a Microsoft Active Directory network.
  • active man-in-the-middle attack (MitM) - Active man-in-the-middle (MitM) is an attack method that allows an intruder to access sensitive information by intercepting and altering communications between the user of a public network and a requested website.
  • active reconnaissance - Active reconnaissance is a type of computer attack in which an intruder engages with the targeted system to gather information about vulnerabilities.
  • adaptive security - Adaptive security is an approach to safeguarding systems and data by recognizing threat-related behaviors rather than the files and code used by virus definitions.
  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) - The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric block cipher chosen by the U.
  • air gapping (air gap attack) - Air gapping is a security measure that involves physically isolating a computer or network and preventing it from establishing an external connection.
  • Alice and Bob - Alice and Bob are commonly-used names for participants in security scenarios that involve cryptography.
  • Amazon VPC traffic mirroring - Traffic mirroring is a feature for Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC).
  • Anna Kournikova virus VBS.SST - The Anna Kournikova VBS.
  • anti-replay protocol - The anti-replay protocol provides Internet Protocol (IP) packet-level security by making it impossible for a hacker to intercept message packets and insert changed packets into the data stream between a source computer and a destination computer.
  • antivirus software (antivirus program) - Antivirus software is a class of program designed to prevent, detect and remove malware infections on individual computing devices, networks and IT systems.
  • application blacklisting - Application blacklisting, sometimes just referred to as blacklisting, is a network administration practice used to prevent the execution of undesirable programs.
  • application whitelisting - Application whitelisting is the practice of specifying an index of approved software applications or executable files that are permitted to be present and active on a computer system.
  • asymmetric cryptography (public key cryptography) - Asymmetric cryptography, also known as public-key cryptography, is a process that uses a pair of related keys -- one public key and one private key -- to encrypt and decrypt a message and protect it from unauthorized access or use.
  • asymmetric cyber attack - An asymmetric cyber attack refers to cyberwarfare that inflicts a proportionally large amount of damage compared to the resources used by targeting the victim's most vulnerable security measure.
  • attack surface - An attack surface is defined as the total number of all possible entry points for unauthorized access into any system.
  • attack surface analysis - An organization's attack surface includes all the exploitable vulnerabilities in its hardware, software, connections and even its employees, in the form of social engineering.
  • attack vector - An attack vector is a path or means by which an attacker or hacker can gain access to a computer or network server in order to deliver a payload or malicious outcome.
  • authenticated security scan - An authenticated security scan is vulnerability testing performed as a logged in (authenticated) user.
  • authentication - Authentication is the process of determining whether someone or something is, in fact, who or what it says it is.
  • authentication server - An authentication server is an application that facilitates authentication of an entity that attempts to access a network.
  • authentication ticket or ticket-granting ticket (TGT) - An authentication ticket, also known as a ticket-granting ticket (TGT), is a small amount of encrypted data that is issued by a server in the Kerberos authentication model to begin the authentication process.
  • authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) - Authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) is a framework for intelligently controlling access to computer resources, enforcing policies, auditing usage, and providing the information necessary to bill for services.
  • authorization - Authorization is the process of giving someone permission to do or have something.
  • Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) - The Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is a biometric identification (ID) methodology that uses digital imaging technology to obtain, store, and analyze fingerprint data.
  • Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) - Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) is a broad set of technologies used to collect information from an object, image or sound without manual data entry.
  • backdoor (computing) - A backdoor is a means to access a computer system or encrypted data that bypasses the system's customary security mechanisms.
  • backscatter spam - Backscatter spam, also called misdirected bounce spam or NDR spam, is a strategy for sending unsolicited email messages that takes advantage of the fact that certain types of mail transfer agent (MTA) programs return the entire message to the sender when a recipient's email address is invalid.
  • banner grabbing - Banner grabbing is the act of capturing the information provided by banners, configurable text-based welcome screens from network hosts that generally display system information.
  • banner screen - A banner screen is a configurable text “welcome” display from a network host system.
  • Bayesian filter - A Bayesian filter is a program that uses Bayesian logic, also called Bayesian analysis, to evaluate the header and content of an incoming e-mail message and determine the probability that it constitutes spam.
  • behavior blacklisting - Behavior blacklisting is a security method based on detecting specified suspicious actions on the part of software or human agents and blocking access accordingly.
  • behavior whitelisting - Behavior whitelisting is a security method in which permissable actions within a given system are specified and all others are blocked.
  • biometric verification - Biometric verification is any means by which a person can be uniquely identified by evaluating one or more distinguishing biological traits.
  • biometrics - Biometrics is the measurement and statistical analysis of people's unique physical and behavioral characteristics.
  • BIOS attack - A BIOS attack is an exploit that infects the BIOS with malicious code and is persistent through reboots and attempts to reflash the firmware.
  • BIOS rootkit - A BIOS-level rootkit is programming that exists in a system's memory hardware to enable remote administration.
  • BIOS rootkit attack - A BIOS-level rootkit attack, also known as a persistent BIOS attack, is an exploit in which the BIOS is flashed (updated) with malicious code.
  • black hat hacker - A black hat hacker has been historically used to describe one who has malicious intent -- such as theft of information, fraud or disrupting systems -- but increasingly, more specific terms are being used to describe those people.
  • blacklist - A blacklist, in IT, is a collection of entities that are blocked from communicating with or logging into a computer, site or network.
  • blended threat - A blended threat is an exploit that combines elements of multiple types of malware and perhaps takes multiple attack vectors to increase the severity of damage and the speed of contagion.
  • block cipher - A block cipher is a method of encrypting data in blocks to produce ciphertext using a cryptographic key and algorithm.
  • Blowfish - Blowfish is an encryption algorithm that can be used as a replacement for the DES or IDEA algorithms.
  • blue pill rootkit - The blue pill rootkit is malware that executes as a hypervisor to gain control of computer resources.
  • bluesnarfing - Bluesnarfing is the theft of information from a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection.
  • botnet - A botnet is a collection of internet-connected devices, which may include personal computers (PCs), servers, mobile devices and internet of things (IoT) devices, that are infected and controlled by a common type of malware, often unbeknownst to their owner.
  • botnet sinkhole - A botnet sinkhole is a target machine used by researchers to gather information about a particular botnet.
  • botnet topology - A botnet topology is the network structure by which botnet interconnections are organized.
  • breach detection system (BDS) - Breach detection systems (BDS) are a category of applications and security devices designed to detect the activity of malware inside a network after a breach has occurred.
  • browser hijacker (browser hijacking) - A browser hijacker is a malware program that modifies web browser settings without the user's permission and redirects the user to websites the user had not intended to visit.
  • browser isolation - Browser isolation is a cybersecurity model for web browsing that can be used to physically separate an internet user’s browsing activity from their local machine, network and infrastructure.
  • brute-force attack - A brute-force attack is a trial-and-error method used by application programs to decode login information and encryption keys to use them to gain unauthorized access to systems.
  • buffer overflow - A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process attempts to write more data to a fixed-length block of memory, or buffer, than the buffer is allocated to hold.
  • Bugbear - Bugbear is a computer virus that spread in early October, 2002, infecting thousands of home and business computers.
  • business email compromise (BEC, man-in-the-email attack) - A business email compromise (BEC) is an exploit in which the attacker gains access to a corporate email account and spoofs the owner’s identity in order to commit fraud .
  • CA Privileged Access Manager - CA Privileged Access Manager is a product, available as a rack-mounted hardware appliance or a virtual appliance, that tracks and secures the usage of logins involving access to administrative control or sensitive information.
  • cache poisoning - Cache poisoning is a type of cyber attack in which attackers insert fake information into a domain name system (DNS) cache or web cache for the purpose of harming users.
  • CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart) - A CAPTCHA is a type of challenge-response system designed to differentiate humans from robotic computer programs.
  • CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol) - Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) is an encryption protocol that forms part of the 802.
  • CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) - CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) is a government-mandated information technology (IT) security organization.
  • certificate authority (CA) - A certificate authority (CA) is a trusted entity that issues Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificates.
  • certificate revocation list (CRL) - A certificate revocation list (CRL) is a list of digital certificates that have been revoked by the issuing Certificate Authority (CA) before their actual or assigned expiration date.
  • certification - In information technology as in other fields such as teaching, accounting, and acupuncture, certification is a formal process of making certain that an individual is qualified in terms of particular knowledge or skills.
  • Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) - Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) is an information security certification developed by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, also known as (ISC)².
  • Certified Wireless Networking Professional (CWNP) - Certified Wireless Networking Professional (CWNP)is the name for the family of wireless certifications from Planet3Wireless.
  • Chernobyl virus - The Chernobyl virus is a computer virus with a potentially devastating payload that destroys all computer data when an infected file is executed.
  • chief risk officer (CRO) - The chief risk officer (CRO) is the corporate executive tasked with assessing and mitigating significant competitive, regulatory and technological threats to an enterprise's capital and earnings.
  • cipher - In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data.
  • cipher block chaining (CBC) - Cipher block chaining (CBC) is a mode of operation for a block cipher -- one in which a sequence of bits are encrypted as a single unit, or block, with a cipher key applied to the entire block.
  • ciphertext - Ciphertext is encrypted text transformed from plaintext using an encryption algorithm.
  • ciphertext feedback (CFB) - Ciphertext feedback (CFB) is a mode of operation for a block cipher.
  • Class C2 - Class C2 is a security rating established by the U.
  • clickjacking (user-interface or UI redressing and IFRAME overlay) - Clickjacking (also known as user-interface or UI redressing and IFRAME overlay) is an exploit in which malicious coding is hidden beneath apparently legitimate buttons or other clickable content on a website.
  • client-side extension (CSE) - A client-side extension (CSE) is an integral component of enterprise group policy administration that applies Group Policy to users or endpoint systems.
  • clipboard hijack attack - A clipboard hijacking is an exploit in which the attacker gains control of the victim's clipboard and replaces its contents with their own data, such as a link to a malicious Web site.
  • cloud access security broker (CASB) - A cloud access security broker (CASB) is a software tool or service that sits between an organization's on-premises infrastructure and a cloud provider's infrastructure.
  • cloud audit - A cloud audit is a periodic examination an organization does to assess and document its cloud vendor's performance.
  • cloud encryption (cloud storage encryption) - Cloud encryption is a service offered by cloud storage providers whereby a customer's data is transformed using encryption algorithms into ciphertext and stored in the cloud.
  • cloud security - Cloud security, also known as cloud computing security, is the practice of protecting cloud-based data, applications and infrastructure from cyberthreats and cyber attacks.
  • CloudAV - CloudAV is a program that combines multiple antivirus applications and scans user files over a network of servers.
  • cluster name object (CNO) - A cluster name object (CNO) is an Active Directory computer object linked with the network resource Cluster Name.
  • CMDSP (Certified Mobile Device Security Professional) - CMDSP (Certified Mobile Device Security Professional) is a certification program offered by the Mobile Resource Group that provides a standardized assurance of competency in the field of mobile security and administration.
  • command-and-control server (C&C server) - A command and control server (C&C server) is a computer that issues directives to digital devices that have been infected with rootkits or other types of malware, such as ransomware.
  • Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) - Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) provides unique identifiers for publicly known security threats.
  • computer cracker - A computer cracker is an outdated term used to describe someone who broke into computer systems, bypassed passwords or licenses in computer programs, or in other ways intentionally breached computer security.
  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) - A Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a group of information security experts responsible for the protection against, detection of and response to an organization’s cybersecurity incidents.
  • computer exploit - A computer exploit, or exploit, is an attack on a computer system, especially one that takes advantage of a particular vulnerability the system offers to intruders.
  • Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) - The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) of 1986 is United States legislation that made it a federal crime to access a protected computer without proper authorization.
  • computer security incident response team (CSIRT) - A computer security incident response team, or CSIRT, is a group of IT professionals that provides an organization with services and support surrounding the assessment, management and prevention of cybersecurity-related emergencies, as well as coordination of incident response efforts.
  • computer worm - A computer worm is a type of malware whose primary function is to self-replicate and infect other computers while remaining active on infected systems.
SearchCompliance
  • ISO 31000 Risk Management

    The ISO 31000 Risk Management framework is an international standard that provides businesses with guidelines and principles for ...

  • pure risk

    Pure risk refers to risks that are beyond human control and result in a loss or no loss with no possibility of financial gain.

  • risk reporting

    Risk reporting is a method of identifying risks tied to or potentially impacting an organization's business processes.

SearchSecurity
  • Twofish

    Twofish is a symmetric-key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and variable-length key of size 128, 192 or 256 bits.

  • walled garden

    On the internet, a walled garden is an environment that controls the user's access to network-based content and services.

  • potentially unwanted program (PUP)

    A potentially unwanted program (PUP) is a program that may be unwanted, despite the possibility that users consented to download ...

SearchHealthIT
SearchDisasterRecovery
  • What is risk mitigation?

    Risk mitigation is a strategy to prepare for and lessen the effects of threats faced by a business.

  • fault-tolerant

    Fault-tolerant technology is a capability of a computer system, electronic system or network to deliver uninterrupted service, ...

  • synchronous replication

    Synchronous replication is the process of copying data over a storage area network, local area network or wide area network so ...

SearchStorage
  • hard disk drive (HDD)

    A computer hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile data storage device.

  • Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA)

    Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) is a technology that enables two networked computers to exchange data in main memory without ...

  • storage (computer storage)

    Data storage is the collective methods and technologies that capture and retain digital information on electromagnetic, optical ...

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