Browse Definitions :

Network security

Terms related to network security, including definitions about intrusion prevention and words and phrases about VPNs and firewalls.

PAS - SNO

  • passive attack - A passive attack is a network attack in which a system is monitored and sometimes scanned for open ports and vulnerabilities.
  • passive reconnaissance - Passive reconnaissance is an attempt to gain information about targeted computers and networks without actively engaging with the systems.
  • passive scanning - Passive scanning is a method of vulnerability detection that relies on information gleaned from network data that is captured from a target computer without direct interaction.
  • passphrase - A passphrase is a sentencelike string of words used for authentication that is longer than a traditional password, easy to remember and difficult to crack.
  • password - A password is a string of characters used to verify the identity of a user during the authentication process.
  • password blacklist - A password blacklist is a list of words disallowed as user passwords due to their commonplace use.
  • password cracking - Password cracking is the process of using an application program to identify an unknown or forgotten password to a computer or network resource.
  • password entropy - Password entropy is a measurement of how unpredictable a password is.
  • password hardening - Password hardening is any one of a variety of measures taken to make it more difficult for an intruder to circumvent the authentication process.
  • password salting - Password salting is a technique to protect passwords stored in databases by adding a string of 32 or more characters and then hashing them.
  • password strength meter - A password strength meter is an indicator, either in graphical or text form, of the strength of a password as entered by a user.
  • PCI DSS merchant levels - Merchant levels are used by the payment card industry (PCI) to determine risk levels and determine the appropriate level of security for their businesses.
  • PCI gap assessment - A PCI gap assessment is the identification, analysis and documentation of areas of non-compliance with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS).
  • PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) - PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections.
  • peer-to-peer botnet (P2P botnet) - A peer-to-peer botnet is a decentralized group of malware-compromised machines working together for an attacker’s purpose without their owners’ knowledge.
  • pen testing (penetration testing) - A penetration test, also called a pen test or ethical hacking, is a cybersecurity technique organizations use to identify, test and highlight vulnerabilities in their security posture.
  • Pen Testing as a Service (PTaaS) - Pen testing as a service (PTaaS) is a cloud service that provides information technology (IT) professionals with the resources they need to conduct and act upon point-in-time and continuous penetration tests.
  • personal health record (PHR) - A personal health record (PHR) is a collection of health-related information that is documented and maintained by the individual it pertains to.
  • pharming - Pharming is a scamming practice in which malicious code is installed on a personal computer or server, misdirecting users to fraudulent websites without their knowledge or consent.
  • phlashing - Phlashing is a permanent denial of service (PDoS) attack that exploits a vulnerability in network-based firmware updates.
  • phreak - A phreak is someone who breaks into the telephone network illegally, typically to make free long-distance phone calls or to tap phone lines.
  • physical attack surface - The physical attack surface is the totality of the security vulnerabilities in a given system that are available to an attacker in the same location as the target.
  • piggybacking - Piggybacking, in a wireless communications context, is the unauthorized use of a wireless LAN.
  • ping sweep (ICMP sweep) - A ping sweep (also known as an ICMP sweep) is a basic network scanning technique used to determine which of a range of IP addresses map to live hosts (computers).
  • piracy - Software piracy is the illegal copying, distribution, or use of software.
  • PKI (public key infrastructure) - PKI (public key infrastructure) is the underlying framework that enables entities -- users and servers -- to securely exchange information using digital certificates.
  • plaintext - In cryptography, plaintext is usually ordinary readable text before it is encrypted into ciphertext or after it is decrypted.
  • policy-based management - Policy-based management is an administrative approach that is used to simplify the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur.
  • polymorphic virus - A polymorphic virus is a harmful, destructive or intrusive type of malware that can change or 'morph,' making it difficult to detect with antimalware programs.
  • POODLE Attack - The POODLE attack, also known as CVE-2014-3566, is an exploit used to steal information from secure connections, including cookies, passwords and any of the other type of browser data that gets encrypted as a result of the secure sockets layer (SSL) protocol.
  • Port Address Translation (PAT) - Port Address Translation (PAT), is an extension to network address translation (NAT) that permits multiple devices on a local area network (LAN) to be mapped to a single public IP address.
  • port mirroring (roving analysis port) - Port mirroring is an approach to monitoring network traffic that involves forwarding a copy of each packet from one network switch port to another.
  • potentially unwanted program (PUP) - A potentially unwanted program (PUP) is a program that may be unwanted, despite the possibility that users consented to download it.
  • presence technology - Presence technology is a type of application that makes it possible to locate and identify a computing device wherever it might be, as soon as the user connects to the network.
  • Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21) - Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21) is an infrastructure protection and resilience directive in the United States that aims to strengthen and secure the country's critical infrastructure.
  • Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) - Pretty Good Privacy or PGP was a popular program used to encrypt and decrypt email over the internet, as well as authenticate messages with digital signatures and encrypted stored files.
  • principle of least privilege (POLP) - The principle of least privilege (POLP) is a concept in computer security that limits users' access rights to only what are strictly required to do their jobs.
  • privacy - On the Internet, privacy, a major concern of users, can be divided into these concerns: What personal information can be shared with whom Whether messages can be exchanged without anyone else seeing them Whether and how one can send messages anonymously Personal Information Privacy Most Web users want to understand that personal information they share will not be shared with anyone else without their permission.
  • private certificate authority (CA) - Private CA stands for private certificate authority and is an enterprise specific certificate authority that functions like a publicly trusted CA but is exclusively run by or for the enterprise.
  • private key - A private key, also known as a secret key, is a variable in cryptography that is used with an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data.
  • privilege escalation attack - A privilege escalation attack is a type of network intrusion that takes advantage of programming errors or design flaws to grant the attacker elevated access to the network and its associated data and applications.
  • privileged access management (PAM) - Privileged access management (PAM) is the combination of tools and technology used to secure, control and monitor access to an organization's critical information and resources.
  • promiscuous mode - In computer networking, promiscuous mode is a mode of operation, as well as a security, monitoring and administration technique.
  • proof of concept (PoC) exploit - A proof of concept (PoC) exploit is a non-harmful attack against a computer or network.
  • proxy firewall - A proxy firewall is a network security system that protects network resources by filtering messages at the application layer.
  • proxy hacking - Proxy hacking is a cyber attack technique designed to supplant an authentic webpage in a search engine's index and search results pages to drive traffic to an imitation site.
  • public key - In cryptography, a public key is a large numerical value that is used to encrypt data.
  • public key certificate - A public key certificate is a digitally signed document that serves to validate the sender's authorization and name.
  • Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) - Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) are a set of standard protocols, numbered from 1 to 15.
  • quantum key distribution (QKD) - Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a secure communication method for exchanging encryption keys only known between shared parties.
  • RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) - RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) is a client-server protocol and software that enables remote access servers to communicate with a central server to authenticate dial-in users and authorize their access to the requested system or service.
  • rainbow table - A rainbow table is a listing of all possible plaintext permutations of encrypted passwords specific to a given hash algorithm.
  • RAT (remote access Trojan) - A remote access Trojan (RAT) is a malware program that gives an intruder administrative control over a target computer.
  • remote deposit capture (RDC) - Remote deposit capture (RDC) is a system that allows a customer to scan checks remotely and transmit the check images to a bank for deposit, usually via an encrypted Internet connection.
  • retina scan - Retina scanning is a biometric verification technology that uses an image of an individual’s retinal blood vessel pattern as a unique identifying trait for access to secure installations.
  • reverse brute-force attack - A reverse brute-force attack is a type of brute-force attack in which an attacker uses a common password against multiple usernames in an attempt to gain access to a network.
  • Rich Internet Application (RIA) - A rich Internet application (RIA) is a Web application designed to deliver the same features and functions normally associated with deskop applications.
  • Rijndael - Rijndael (pronounced rain-dahl) is an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm.
  • risk-based authentication (RBA) - Risk-based authentication (RBA) is a method of applying varying levels of stringency to authentication processes based on the likelihood that access to a given system could result in its being compromised.
  • rogue employee - A rogue employee is a worker who undermines the organization that employs him by failing to comply with its business rules and policies.
  • role-based access control (RBAC) - Role-based access control (RBAC) is a method of restricting network access based on the roles of individual users within an enterprise.
  • rootkit - A rootkit is a program or a collection of malicious software tools that give a threat actor remote access to and control over a computer or other system.
  • RSA algorithm (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) - The RSA algorithm (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) is the basis of a cryptosystem -- a suite of cryptographic algorithms that are used for specific security services or purposes -- which enables public key encryption and is widely used to secure sensitive data, particularly when it is being sent over an insecure network, such as the internet.
  • RSA Security - RSA Security is a United States-based organization that creates encryption, network and computer security products.
  • S-HTTP (Secure HTTP) - S-HTTP (Secure HTTP) is an extension to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that allows the secure exchange of files on the World Wide Web.
  • SANS Institute - The SANS Institute maintains the largest repository of security information in the world and is also the largest certification body.
  • scareware - Scareware is a type of malware tactic used to manipulate victims into downloading or buying potentially malware-infested software.
  • screened subnet - A screened subnet, or triple-homed firewall, refers to a network architecture where a single firewall is used with three network interfaces.
  • script kiddie - Script kiddie is a derogative term that computer hackers coined to refer to immature, but often just as dangerous, exploiters of internet security weaknesses.
  • seat management - Seat management is a method of coordinating all the workstations in an enterprise network by overseeing the installation, operation, and maintenance of hardware and software at each workstation.
  • secure container - A secure container is a lightweight, executable software package that has been isolated from other software or processes running on the same virtual or physical host.
  • Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) - Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) is a system and electronic protocol to ensure the integrity and security of transactions conducted over the internet.
  • Secure Shell (SSH) - SSH, also known as Secure Shell or Secure Socket Shell, is a network protocol that gives users, particularly system administrators, a secure way to access a computer over an unsecured network.
  • Security as a Service (SaaS) - Security-as-a-service (SaaS) is an outsourcing model for security management.
  • Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) - Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is an open standard for sharing security information about identity, authentication and authorization across different systems.
  • security audit - A security audit is a systematic evaluation of the security of a company's information system by measuring how well it conforms to an established set of criteria.
  • security clearance - A security clearance is an authorization that allows access to information that would otherwise be forbidden.
  • security event - A security event is a change in the everyday operations of a network or IT service, indicating that an security policy may have been violated or a security safeguard may have failed.
  • security identifier (SID) - In the context of Windows computing and Microsoft Active Directory (AD), a security identifier (SID) is a unique value that is used to identify any security entity that the operating system (OS) can authenticate.
  • security incident - A security incident is an event that may indicate that an organization's systems or data have been compromised or that measures put in place to protect them have failed.
  • security information management (SIM) - Security information management (SIM) is the practice of collecting, monitoring and analyzing security-related data from computer logs and various other data sources.
  • security intelligence (SI) - Security intelligence (SI) is the information relevant to protecting an organization from external and inside threats as well as the processes, policies and tools designed to gather and analyze that information.
  • security policy - A security policy is a document that states in writing how a company plans to protect its physical and information technology (IT) assets.
  • security posture - Security posture refers to an organization's overall cybersecurity strength and how well it can predict, prevent and respond to ever-changing cyber threats.
  • security theater - Security theater includes any measures taken by a company or security team to create an atmosphere of safety that may only achieve the appearance of heightened security.
  • security token - A security token is a physical or digital device that provides two-factor authentication for a user to prove their identity in a login process.
  • Sender Policy Framework (SPF) - Sender Policy Framework (SPF) is a protocol designed to restrict who can use an organization's domain as the source of an email message.
  • session hijacking (TCP session hijacking) - Session hijacking, also known as TCP session hijacking, is a method of taking over a Web user session by surreptitiously obtaining the session ID and masquerading as the authorized user.
  • session ID - A session ID is a unique number that a Web site's server assigns to identify a specific user for the duration of that user's visit (session).
  • session key - A session key is an encryption and decryption key that is randomly generated to ensure the security of a communications session between a user and another computer or between two computers.
  • session prediction (credential/session prediction) - Session prediction, also called credential/session prediction, is a method of surreptitiously obtaining data (called a session ID) about an authorized visitor to a Web site.
  • shadow app - A shadow app is a software program that is not supported by an employee's information technology (IT) department.
  • shadow password file - A shadow password file, also known as /etc/shadow, is a system file in Linux that stores encrypted user passwords and is accessible only to the root user, preventing unauthorized users or malicious actors from breaking into the system.
  • Shared Key Authentication (SKA) - Shared Key Authentication (SKA) is a process by which a computer can gain access to a wireless network that uses the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol.
  • Shodan - Shodan (Sentient Hyper-Optimised Data Access Network) is a search engine designed to map and gather information about internet-connected devices and systems.
  • shoulder surfing - Shoulder surfing is using direct observation techniques, such as looking over someone's shoulder, to get information.
  • SIM card - A SIM card, also known as a subscriber identity module, is a smart card that stores identification information that pinpoints a smartphone to a specific mobile network.
  • single sign-on (SSO) - Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for example, a name and password -- to access multiple applications.
  • single-factor authentication (SFA) - Single-factor authentication (SFA) is the traditional security process that requires a user name and password before granting access to the user.
  • SIP trunking (Session Initiation Protocol trunking) - Session Initiation Protocol trunking is a service offered by a communications service provider that uses the protocol to provision voice over IP connectivity between an on-premises phone system and the public switched telephone network.
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