Browse Definitions :

Network security

Terms related to network security, including definitions about intrusion prevention and words and phrases about VPNs and firewalls.

RUL - THR

  • rule base - In the context of a computer server acting as a firewall, a rule base is a set of rules that govern what is and what is not allowed through the firewall.
  • S-HTTP (Secure HTTP) - S-HTTP (Secure HTTP) is an extension to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that allows the secure exchange of files on the World Wide Web.
  • SafeSquid - SafeSquid is an HTTP 1.
  • salt - In password protection, salt is a random string of data used to modify a password hash.
  • SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language) - The Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is an open standard for sharing security information about identity, authentication and authorization across different systems.
  • SANS Institute - The SANS Institute maintains the largest repository of security information in the world and is also the largest certification body.
  • scareware - Scareware is a type of malware designed to trick victims into purchasing and downloading useless and potentially dangerous software.
  • screened subnet (triple-homed firewall) - A screened subnet (also known as a 'triple-homed firewall') is a network architecture that uses a single firewall with three network interfaces.
  • script kiddy (or script kiddie) - Script kiddy (sometimes spelled kiddie) is a derogative term, originated by the more sophisticated crackers of computer security systems, for the more immature, but unfortunately often just as dangerous exploiter of security lapses on the Internet.
  • seat management - Seat management is a method of coordinating all the workstations in an enterprise network by overseeing the installation, operation, and maintenance of hardware and software at each workstation.
  • secret key algorithm (symmetric algorithm) - A secret key algorithm (sometimes called a symmetric algorithm) is a cryptographic algorithm that uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data.
  • secure container - A secure container is a lightweight, executable software package that has been isolated from other software or processes running on the same virtual or physical host.
  • Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) - Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) is a system for ensuring the security of financial transactions on the Internet.
  • Secure Shell (SSH) - SSH, also known as Secure Shell or Secure Socket Shell, is a network protocol that gives users, particularly system administrators, a secure way to access a computer over an unsecured network.
  • Security as a Service (SaaS) - Security-as-a-service (SaaS) is an outsourcing model for security management.
  • security audit - A security audit is a systematic evaluation of the security of a company's information system by measuring how well it conforms to a set of established criteria.
  • security clearance - A security clearance is an authorization that allows access to information that would otherwise be forbidden.
  • Security Descriptor Definition Language (SDDL) - Security Descriptor Definition Language (SDDL) is a formal way to specify Microsoft Windows security descriptors or text strings that describe who owns various objects such as files in the system.
  • security event - A security event is a change in the everyday operations of a network or IT service, indicating that an security policy may have been violated or a security safeguard may have failed.
  • security identifier (SID) - In Windows NT and 2000 operating systems, the security identifier (SID) is a unique alphanumeric character string that identifies each operating system and each user in a network of NT/2000 systems.
  • security incident - A security incident is an event that may indicate that an organization's systems or data have been compromised.
  • security information management (SIM) - Security information management (SIM) is the practice of collecting, monitoring and analyzing security-related data from computer logs.
  • security intelligence (SI) - Security intelligence (SI) is the information relevant to protecting an organization from external and inside threats as well as the processes, policies and tools designed to gather and analyze that information.
  • security policy - In business, a security policy is a document that states in writing how a company plans to protect the company's physical and information technology (IT) assets.
  • security theater - Security theater includes any measures taken by a company or security team to create an atmosphere of safety that may only achieve the appearance of heightened security.
  • security token (authentication token) - A security token (sometimes called an authentication token) is a small hardware device that the owner carries to authorize access to a network service.
  • Sender ID - Sender ID is Microsoft's proposed e-mail sender authentication protocol designed to protect against domain spoofing and phishing exploits.
  • Sender Policy Framework (SPF) - Sender Policy Framework (SPF) is an anti-spam approach in which the Internet domain of an e-mail sender can be authenticated for that sender, thereby discouraging spam mailers, who routinely disguise the origin of their e-mail, a practice known as e-mail spoofing.
  • Serious Organized Crime Agency (SOCA) - The Serious Organized Crime Agency (SOCA) is a policing agency dedicated to the identification of criminal activity related to drug trafficking, money laundering, identity theft and immigration.
  • server accelerator card (SSL card) - A server accelerator card (also known as an SSL card) is a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) card used to generate encryption keys for secure transactions on e-commerce Web sites.
  • session hijacking (TCP session hijacking) - Session hijacking, also known as TCP session hijacking, is a method of taking over a Web user session by surreptitiously obtaining the session ID and masquerading as the authorized user.
  • session ID - A session ID is a unique number that a Web site's server assigns to identify a specific user for the duration of that user's visit (session).
  • session key - A session key is an encryption and decryption key that is randomly generated to ensure the security of a communications session between a user and another computer or between two computers.
  • session prediction (credential/session prediction) - Session prediction, also called credential/session prediction, is a method of surreptitiously obtaining data (called a session ID) about an authorized visitor to a Web site.
  • session replay - Session replay is a scheme a cracker uses to masquerade as an authorized user on an interactive Web site.
  • session replay script - A session replay script is a program that enables the recording of website users’ keystrokes, clicks, mouse movements and scrolling behavior, along with the full contents of the pages they visit, and sends them to third-party servers.
  • shadow app - A shadow app is a software program that is not supported by an employee's information technology (IT) department.
  • shadow password file - In the Linux operating system, a shadow password file is a system file in which encryption user password are stored so that they aren't available to people who try to break into the system.
  • Shared Key Authentication (SKA) - Shared Key Authentication (SKA) is a process by which a computer can gain access to a wireless network that uses the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol.
  • sheepdip (sheep dipping or a footbath) - In computers, a sheepdip (or, variously, sheep dipping or a footbath) is the checking of media, usually diskettes or CD-ROMs, for viruses before they are used in a computer or network.
  • Shodan - Shodan (Sentient Hyper-Optimised Data Access Network) is a search engine designed to map and gather information about internet-connected devices and systems.
  • shoulder surfing - Shoulder surfing is using direct observation techniques, such as looking over someone's shoulder, to get information.
  • SIM card - A SIM card, also known as a subscriber identity module, is a smart card that stores identification information that pinpoints a smartphone to a specific mobile network.
  • single sign-on (SSO) - Single sign-on (SSO) is a session and user authentication service that permits a user to use one set of login credentials -- for example, a name and password -- to access multiple applications.
  • single-factor authentication (SFA) - Single-factor authentication (SFA) is the traditional security process that requires a user name and password before granting access to the user.
  • SIP trunking (Session Initiation Protocol trunking) - Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) trunking is a service offered by a communications service provider that uses the protocol to provision voice over IP (VoIP) connectivity between an on-premises phone system and the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
  • smart card - A smart card is a physical card that has an embedded integrated chip that acts as a security token.
  • smart home or building (home automation or domotics) - A smart home is a residence that uses internet-connected devices to enable the remote monitoring and management of appliances and systems, such as lighting and heating.
  • smart meter hack - A smart meter hack is the unauthorized access of such a device or its data transmissions for the purpose of obtaining or altering communications between it and the responsible utility.
  • SMiShing (SMS phishing) - SMiShing is a mobile phone security attack in which the user is tricked into downloading a Trojan horse, virus or other malware onto his phone.
  • SMS spam (cell phone spam or short messaging service spam) - SMS spam (sometimes called cell phone spam) is any junk message delivered to a mobile phone as text messaging through the Short Message Service (SMS).
  • Smurf Suite - The Smurf Suite is a collection of smartphone hacking and spyware tools that can remotely activate iPhones and Android devices and collect user data through eavesdropping and data access.
  • smurfing - A smurf attack is an exploitation of the Internet Protocol (IP) broadcast addressing to create a denial of service.
  • snake oil - In cryptographic and other computer products, snake oil is a negative term used to describe exaggerated claims made by vendors who are overly optimistic or purposely seeking to take advantage of consumers who do not have the expertise to judge a product.
  • snoop server - A snoop server is a server that uses a packet sniffer program to capture network traffic for analysis.
  • snooping - Snooping, in a security context, is unauthorized access to another person's or company's data.
  • Snort - Snort is an open source network intrusion detection system (NIDS) created by Martin Roesch.
  • SnortSnarf - SnortSnarf is a program that was designed for use with Snort, a security program used mainly with Linux networks.
  • social engineering - Social engineering is an attack vector that relies heavily on human interaction and often involves manipulating people into breaking normal security procedures and best practices in order to gain access to systems, networks or physical locations, or for financial gain.
  • social engineering attack surface - Social engineering attacks usually take advantage of human psychology: the desire for something free, the susceptibility to distraction, or the desire to be liked or to be helpful.
  • social engineering penetration testing - Social engineering pen testing is designed to test employees' adherence to the security policies and practices defined by management.
  • soft token - A soft token is a software-based security token that generates a single-use login PIN.
  • spam cocktail (or anti-spam cocktail) - A spam cocktail (or anti-spam cocktail) is the use of several different technologies in combination to successfully identify and minimize spam.
  • spear phishing - Spear phishing is an email spoofing attack that targets a specific organization or individual, seeking unauthorized access to sensitive information.
  • spim (instant messaging spam) - Spim is spam delivered through instant messaging (IM) instead of through e-mail messaging.
  • SPIT (spam over Internet telephony) - SPIT (spam over Internet telephony), sometimes known as vam (voice or VoIP spam), is unsolicited bulk messages broadcast over VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) to phones connected to the Internet.
  • splog (spam blog) - A splog (spam blog) is a fake blog created solely to promote affiliated Web sites, with the intent of skewing search results and artificially boosting traffic.
  • spoof - Spoof was a game involving trickery and nonsense that was invented by an English comedian, Arthur Roberts, prior to 1884, when it is recorded as having been "revived.
  • SS7 attack - While the SS7 network is fundamental to cellphones and its operators, the security of the design relied entirely on trust.
  • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) - Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a networking protocol designed for securing connections between web clients and web servers over an insecure network, such as the internet.
  • stack overflow - A stack overflow is an undesirable condition in which a particular computer program tries to use more memory space than the call stack has available.
  • stack smashing - Stack smashing is causing a stack in a computer application or operating system to overflow.
  • stateful inspection - Stateful inspection is a firewall technology that monitors the state of active connections and uses this information to determine which network packets to allow through the firewall.
  • stealth - In computing, stealth refers to an event, object, or file that evades methodical attempts to find it.
  • stealth virus - In computer security, a stealth virus is a computer virus that uses various mechanisms to avoid detection by antivirus software.
  • steganography - Steganography (pronounced STEHG-uh-NAH-gruhf-ee, from Greek steganos, or "covered," and graphie, or "writing") is the hiding of a secret message within an ordinary message and the extraction of it at its destination.
  • stingray (IMSI catcher) - A stingray is a mobile surveillance device also known as an IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) catcher or a cell site simulator.
  • storage encryption - Storage encryption is the use of encryption/decryption of backed-up and archived data, both in transit and on storage media.
  • storage security - Storage security is the group of parameters and settings that make storage resources available to authorized users and trusted networks - and unavailable to other entities.
  • stream cipher - A stream cipher is a method of encrypting text (to produce ciphertext) in which a cryptographic key and algorithm are applied to each binary digit in a data stream, one bit at a time.
  • strong cryptography - Strong cryptography is used by most governments around the world to protect communications.
  • strong password - A strong password is one that is designed to be hard for a person or program to discover.
  • Stuxnet - The Stuxnet worm is a rootkit exploit that targets supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems.
  • SYN flood (half open attack) - SYN flooding is a method that the user of a hostile client program can use to conduct a denial-of-service (DoS) attack on a computer server.
  • SYN scanning - SYN scanning is a tactic that a malicious hacker (or cracker) can use to determine the state of a communications port without establishing a full connection.
  • TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System) - TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System) is an older authentication protocol common to UNIX networks that allows a remote access server to forward a user's logon password to an authentication server to determine whether access can be allowed to a given system.
  • targeted attack - A targeted attack is one that seeks to breach the security measures of a specific individual or organization.
  • tarpitting - Tarpitting is the practice of slowing the transmission of e-mail messages sent in bulk, as a means of thwarting spammers.
  • TCP Wrapper - TCP Wrapper is a public domain computer program that provides firewall services for UNIX servers.
  • tcpdump - Tcpdump is an open source command-line tool for monitoring (sniffing) network traffic.
  • TDL-4 (TDSS or Alureon) - TDL-4 is sophisticated malware that facilitates the creation and maintenance of a botnet.
  • Tempest - Tempest was the name of a classified (secret) U.
  • thingbot - A thingbot is something with an embedded system and an Internet connection that has been coopted by a hacker as a part of a botnet.
  • threat actor - A threat actor, also called a malicious actor, is an entity that is partially or wholly responsible for an incident that impacts – or has the potential to impact -- an organization's security.
  • threat intelligence (cyber threat intelligence) - Threat intelligence, also known as cyber threat intelligence (CTI), is organized, analyzed and refined information about current or potential attacks that could negatively affect an organization.
  • threat intelligence feed (TI feed) - A threat intelligence feed is an ongoing stream of data related to potential or current threats to an organization’s security.
  • threat intelligence service (TI service) - A threat intelligence service (TI service) is a provider of information about current or emerging threats that could negatively impact the security of a customer’s organization.
  • threat modeling - Threat modeling is a procedure for optimizing network security by identifying objectives and vulnerabilities, and then defining countermeasures to prevent, or mitigate the effects of, threats to the system.
  • throttled data transfer - Throttled data transfer, also known as data transfer throttling or lean data transfer, is the deliberate regulation of the data transfer rate in a communications system.

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