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Network software

Terms related to network software, including definitions about network monitoring and words and phrases about network administration.

ETH - NBM

  • Ethernet - Ethernet is the traditional technology for connecting devices in a wired local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN), enabling them to communicate with each other via a protocol -- a set of rules or common network language.
  • Ethernet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) - Ethernet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) is a network communication standard capable of handling large amounts of data at speeds of 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps, and at up to 1500 bytes per packet.
  • ethical worm - An ethical worm is a program that automates network-based distribution of security patches for known vulnerabilities.
  • event handler - An event handler is a callback routine that operates asynchronously and handles inputs received into a program.
  • Fast Ethernet - Fast Ethernet is a local area network (LAN) transmission standard that provides a data rate of 100 megabits per second (referred to as "100BASE-T").
  • fast packet technology - In data transmission, a fast packet is one that is transmitted without any error checking at points along the route.
  • fat client (thick client) - A fat client (sometimes called a thick client) is a networked computer with most resources installed locally, rather than distributed over a network as is the case with a thin client.
  • fax server - A fax server (or faxserver) is a system installed in a local area network (LAN) server that allows computer users who are attached to the LAN to send and receive fax messages.
  • FECN/BECN (forward explicit congestion notification/backward explicit congestion notification) - In a frame relay network, FECN (forward explicit congestion notification) is a header bit transmitted by the source (sending) terminal requesting that the destination (receiving) terminal slow down its requests for data.
  • Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP or FC/IP) - Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP or FC/IP, also known as Fibre Channel tunneling or storage tunneling) is an Internet Protocol (IP)-based storage networking technology developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
  • file server - In the client/server model, a file server is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files.
  • file transfer - File transfer is the movement of one or more files from one location to another.
  • flooding - In a network, flooding is the forwarding by a router of a packet from any node to every other node attached to the router except the node from which the packet arrived.
  • Floodlight - Floodlight is a Java-based OpenFlow controller.
  • flow control - Flow control is the management of data flow between computers or devices or between nodes in a network so that the data can be handled at an efficient pace.
  • FlowVisor - FlowVisor is an experimental software-defined networking controller that enables network virtualization by slicing a physical network into multiple logical networks.
  • forest-and-tree model - The forest-and-tree model is a logical structure for interconnecting multiple network domains in Windows 2000 and later operating systems.
  • forward error correction (FEC) - Forward error correction (FEC) is a method of obtaining error control in data transmission in which the source (transmitter) sends redundant data and the destination (receiver) recognizes only the portion of the data that contains no apparent errors.
  • frame rate - In motion pictures, television, and in computer video displays, the frame rate is the number of frames or images that are projected or displayed per second.
  • gatekeeper - A gatekeeper is a management tool for H.
  • Gigabit Ethernet - Gigabit Ethernet, a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs), provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit).
  • GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching or Multiprotocol Lambda Switching) - GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching), also known as Multiprotocol Lambda Switching, is a technology that provides enhancements to Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) to support network switching for time, wavelength, and space switching as well as for packet switching.
  • green route - A green route is one of three categories of Internet route states defined by the Policy Analysis of Internet Routing (PAIR) project, an initiative dedicated to the development of tools that ISPs (Internet service providers), network operators, and end users can use to troubleshoot Internet routing and policy problems.
  • grid computing - Grid computing uses small, distributed resources from servers and PCs to solve big problems.
  • GSX Server - GSX Server is a server virtualization program for Windows and Linux produced and distributed by VMware, a subsidiary of EMC Corporation and headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
  • GTAG (Global Tag) - GTAG (Global Tag) is a standardization initiative of the Uniform Code Council (UCC) and the European Article Numbering Association (EAN) for asset tracking and logistics based on radio frequency identification (RFID).
  • H.245 - H.245 is a protocol for the transmission of call management and control signals in packet-based networks using H.
  • handshaking - In telephone communication, handshaking is the exchange of information between two modems and the resulting agreement about which protocol to use that precedes each telephone connection.
  • HAProxy - HAProxy (High Availability Proxy), developed by HAProxy Technologies LLC, is an open source load balancer proxy for TCP and HTTP applications.
  • HELLO packet - In the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) communications protocol - which enables network routers to share information with each other, a HELLO packet is a special packet (message) that is sent out periodically from a router to establish and confirm network adjacency relationships.
  • high availability (HA) - High availability (HA) is the ability of a system or system component to be continuously operational for a desirably long length of time.
  • hot site and cold site - A hot site is a commercial disaster recovery service that allows a business to continue computer and network operations in the event of a computer or equipment disaster.
  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) - Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) is a routing protocol that allows host computers on the Internet to use multiple routers that act as a single virtual router, maintaining connectivity even if the first hop router fails, because other routers are on "hot standby" - ready to go.
  • HP OpenView - HP OpenView is a suite of business computer management or "e-services" programs from Hewlett-Packard (HP), which states that the suite is "among the world's 20 largest software businesses.
  • hybrid SDN - A hybrid SDN (software-defined network) is a network where both traditional networking and SDN protocols operate in the same environment.
  • HyperTerminal - HyperTerminal is a communications and terminal emulation program that came with the Windows 98 and Windows XP operating systems.
  • i-Mode - i-Mode is the packet-based service for mobile phones offered by Japan's leader in wireless technology, NTT DoCoMo.
  • iFCP (Internet Fibre Channel Protocol) - iFCP (Internet Fibre Channel Protocol) is an emerging standard for extending Fibre Channel storage networks across the Internet.
  • Infranet Initiative - The Infranet Initiative is a collaborative effort to develop a high-performance universal public network that would serve as a supplement to the Internet for businesses and other high-demand users.
  • infrastructure management (IM) - For an organization's information technology, infrastructure management (IM) is the management of essential operation components, such as policies, processes, equipment, data, human resources, and external contacts, for overall effectiveness.
  • interconnection - Interconnection is a strategy for ensuring that businesses can privately, securely and directly exchange digital information.
  • internetworking - Internetworking is a term used by Cisco, BBN, and other providers of network products and services as a comprehensive term for all the concepts, technologies, and generic devices that allow people and their computers to communicate across different kinds of networks.
  • intrusion prevention system (IPS) - An intrusion prevention system (IPS) is a network security and threat prevention tool.
  • inverse mapping - Inverse mapping is a procedure used to create associations between real or virtual objects that involves some type of reversal of another process or concept.
  • IoT middleware (Internet of Things middleware) - Internet of Things (IoT) middleware is software that serves as an interface between components of the IoT, joining elements that would not otherwise be able to connect and communicate.
  • IP address management (IPAM) - Internet Protocol address management (IPAM) is a method of tracking and modifying the information associated with a network's Internet Protocol address (IP address) space.
  • IP storage - IP storage is a general term for several approaches to using the Internet Protocol (IP) in a storage area network (SAN) usually over Gigabit Ethernet.
  • iptables - Iptables is a generic table structure that defines rules and commands as part of the netfilter framework that facilitates Network Address Translation (NAT), packet filtering, and packet mangling in the Linux 2.
  • IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System protocol) - One of the most commonly used routing protocols, the Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System protocol (IS-IS) is based on a routing method known as DECnet Phase V routing, in which routers known as intermediate systems exchange data about routing using a single metric to determine the network topology.
  • iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) - ISCSI is a transport layer protocol that describes how Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) packets should be transported over a TCP/IP network.
  • ISSU (in-service software upgrade) - An ISSU (in-service software upgrade) is a technique for updating software on a network device without taking that device offline and thereby disrupting network services.
  • IT systems management - Systems management is the administration of the information technology systems in an enterprise data center.
  • jam - In an Ethernet network, a jam is a signal from one device to all other devices that a collision has occurred.
  • Java Message Service (JMS) - Java Message Service (JMS) is an application program interface (API) from Sun Microsystems that supports the formal communication known as messaging between computers in a network.
  • JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface) - JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface) enables Java platform-based applications to access multiple naming and directory services.
  • job scheduler - A job scheduler is a program that enables an enterprise to schedule and, in some cases, monitor computer 'batch' jobs (units of work, such as the running of a payroll program).
  • Kazaa Media Desktop (KMD) - Kazaa (its full name is Kazaa Media Desktop or KMD) is a decentralized Internet peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing program owned by Sharman Networks.
  • Kermit - Kermit is a popular file transfer and management protocol and suite of communications software programs with advantages over existing Internet protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and Telnet.
  • keylogger (keystroke logger or system monitor) - A keylogger, sometimes called a keystroke logger or system monitor, is a type of surveillance technology used to monitor and record each keystroke typed on a specific computer's keyboard.
  • lambda switching (photonic switching, or wavelength switching) - Lambda switching (sometimes called photonic switching, or wavelength switching) is the technology used in optical networking to switch individual wavelengths of light onto separate paths for specific routing of information.
  • LAN-free backup - LAN-free backup is the process of backing up server data to a centralized storage device rather than moving it across a local-area network (LAN).
  • latency - Latency is the delay from the input into a system to a desired outcome.
  • layer 3 - Layer 3 refers to the Network layer of the commonly-referenced multilayered communication model, Open Systems Interconnection (OSI).
  • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) - LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is a software protocol for enabling anyone to locate data such as organizations, individuals and other resources such as files and devices in a network -- whether on the public internet or on a corporate intranet.
  • LDIF (Lightweight Directory Interchange Format) - LDIF (Lightweight Directory Interchange Format) is an ASCII file format used to exchange data and enable the synchronization of that data between Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) servers called Directory System Agents (DSAs).
  • leaky bucket algorithm - The leaky bucket algorithm is used to implement traffic policing and traffic shaping in Ethernet and cellular data networks.
  • level of support (support level) - Level of support indicates a specific extent of technical assistance in the total range of assistance that is provided by an information technology product (such as a software product) to its customers.
  • Logical Link Control layer (LCL layer) - The Logical Link Control (LCL) layer is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer in the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of communication.
  • logical unit (LU) - In IBM's Systems Network Architecture (SNA), a logical unit (LU) identifies an end user in an SNA network.
  • mail user agent (MUA) - A mail user agent (MUA) is a program that allows you to receive and send e-mail messages; it's usually just called an e-mail program.
  • management information base (MIB) - A management information base (MIB) is a formal description of a set of network objects that can be managed using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
  • master - A master, in a technological context, is a device that controls one or more other devices.
  • master/minion (formerly master/slave) - In computer networking, master/slave is a model for a communication protocol in which one device or process (known as the master) controls one or more other devices or processes (known as slaves).
  • maximum segment size (MSS) - The maximum segment size (MSS) is the largest amount of data, specified in bytes, that a computer or communications device can handle in a single, unfragmented piece.
  • maximum transmission unit (MTU) - A maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the largest size packet or frame, specified in octets (eight-bit bytes), that can be sent in a packet- or frame-based network such as the Internet.
  • MBone (Multicast Internet) - The MBone, now sometimes called the Multicast Internet, is an arranged use of a portion of the Internet for Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting (sending files - usually audio and video streams - to multiple users at the same time somewhat as radio and TV programs are broadcast over airwaves).
  • Media Access Control layer (MAC layer) - In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of communication, the Media Access Control layer is one of two sublayers of the Data Link Control layer and is concerned with sharing the physical connection to the network among several computers.
  • media access management - In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communication reference model, media access management is performed by the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the Data-Link Layer.
  • media gateway - A media gateway is any device, such as a circuit switch, IP gateway, or channel bank that converts data from the format required for one type of network to the format required for another.
  • Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) - Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP), also known as H.
  • Mesh Connectivity Layer (MCL) - Mesh Connectivity Layer (MCL) is a technology that allows a computer user to connect to a wireless mesh network that uses Wi-Fi or WiMax.
  • MetaFrame - MetaFrame is the name for a thin client/server software application from Citrix that is used to provide Microsoft's Windows Terminal Server product (WTS) with additional server and client functionality by allowing any client, no matter what operating system (OS) they are using, to connect to a Windows Terminal Server and run a Windows application through their browser.
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit - Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether or not its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.
  • Microsoft Azure - Microsoft Azure, formerly known as Windows Azure, is Microsoft's public cloud computing platform.
  • Microsoft Click-To-Run - Microsoft Click-to-Run is a way to quickly install Microsoft products, including versions of Office 2010 and Office 2013.
  • Microsoft Exchange System Attendant (SA) - Microsoft Exchange System Attendant service is software that proxies Active Directory requests and regulates internal Exchange Server functions.
  • Microsoft Management Console (MMC) - The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is an application that provides a graphical-user interface (GUI) and a programming framework in which consoles (collections of administrative tools) can be created, saved, and opened.
  • Mininet - Mininet is a software emulator for prototyping a large network on a single machine.
  • mirror site - A mirrored site is a website or set of files on a server that has been copied to another server so that the site or files are available from more than one place.
  • mobile VPN (mobile virtual private network) - A mobile VPN is a networking configuration that enables mobile devices such as notebook computers or personal digital assistants (PDAs) to access a virtual private network (VPN) or an intranet while moving from one place to another.
  • modem error-correcting protocols - The protocols that modems agree on and use for checking and correcting transmission errors have evolved toward accuracy, speed, and efficiency since 1978 when the Xmodem protocol became a de facto standard.
  • mrouter (multicast router) - An mrouter, or multicast router, is a router program that distinguishes between multicast and unicast packets and determines how they should be distributed along the Multicast Internet (sometimes known as the Multicast Backbone or MBone).
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) - The Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) is a communications protocol for one-to-many transmissions in wired or wireless networks.
  • multilink bundle - A multilink bundle is a collection of simultaneously opened bandwidth channels, including video and data links, that are coherently and logically controlled by preset commands.
  • multiplexing - Multiplexing is the simultaneous sending of multiple information streams over a communications medium as a single, complex signal that is then recovered at the receiving end.
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) - Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a protocol-agnostic routing technique designed to speed up and shape traffic flows across enterprise wide area and service provider networks.
  • n-tier - An n-tier application program is one that is distributed among three or more separate computers in a distributed network.
  • N1 - N1 is Sun Microsystems' strategy for making a network environment as easy to manage as a single machine.
  • Nagle's algorithm - Named for its creator, John Nagle, the Nagle algorithm is used to automatically concatenate a number of small buffer messages; this process (called nagling) increases the efficiency of a network application system by decreasing the number of packets that must be sent.
  • NBMA (non-broadcast multiple access) - NBMA (non-broadcast multiple access) is one of four network types in the OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) communications protocol.

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