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Networking and communications

Terms related to networking and communications, including definitions about network protocols and words and phrases about data transmission.

10- - DAT

  • 10-high-day busy period (10HD busy period) - In designing and assessing networks, the peak load is sometimes measured using the 10HD (10-high-day) busy period method.
  • 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GbE) - 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GbE) is a standard in development that will enable the transfer of Ethernet frames at 100 gigabits per second (gp/s).
  • 10BASE-2 - 10BASE-2, one of several physical media specified by IEEE 802.
  • 10BASE-36 - 10BASE-36 is a type of physical cabling defined in the IEEE 802.
  • 10BASE-5 - 10BASE-5, one of several physical media specified by IEEE 802.
  • 10BASE-F - 10BASE-F, one of several physical media specified by IEEE 802.
  • 10BASE-T - 10BASE-T, one of several physical media specified in the IEEE 802.
  • 2600 - 2600 is the frequency in hertz (cycles per second) that AT&T formerly put as a steady signal on any long-distance telephone line that was not currently in use.
  • 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) - The 3GPP, also known as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project, is a collaborative project between a group of telecommunications associations with the initial goal of developing globally applicable specifications for third generation (3G) mobile systems.
  • 40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GbE) - 40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GbE) is a standard that enables the transfer of Ethernet frames at speeds of up to 40 gigabits per second (Gbps).
  • 5G NR (new radio) - 5G NR (new radio) is a set of standards that replace the LTE network 4G wireless communications standard.
  • 6to4 - 6to4 is a tunneling mechanism used to transfer IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) packets over an IPv4 infrastructure, typically the IPv4 Internet.
  • 802.11h - The 802.11h specification is an addition to the 802.
  • 802.11s - 802.11s is a proposed amendment to the 802.
  • 802.11u - 802.11u is an amendment to the IEEE 802.
  • 802.3 - 802.3 is a standard specification for Ethernet, a method of physical communication in a local area network (LAN), which is maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
  • AAAA resource record - An AAAA resource record is a record that stores a single IPv6 address.
  • access - Access is simply being able to get to what you need.
  • access layer - The access layer is where host computers and end users connect to the network.
  • access network - An access network is a user network that connects subscribers to a particular service provider and, through the carrier network, to other networks such as the Internet.
  • Access Network Query Protocol (ANQP) - The Access Network Query Protocol (ANQP) is a query and response protocol that defines services offered by an access point (AP), typically at a Wi-Fi hot spot.
  • access point base station - Access point base station is the original term for what is now known as a femtocell.
  • acoustical mesh network - An acoustical mesh network is a decentralized communication system that transmits data by using sound to connect computers.
  • addressability - Addressability is the capacity for an entity to be targeted and found.
  • ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) - Also see Fast Guide to DSL.
  • Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) - The Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) is a telephone network architecture that separates service logic from switching equipment, allowing new services to be added without having to redesign switches to support new services.
  • Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) - Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open source published standard for asynchronous messaging by wire.
  • Aloha (Aloha method) - Aloha, also called the Aloha method, refers toa simple communications scheme in which each source (transmitter) in a network sends data wheneverthere is a frame to send.
  • alternate data stream (ADS) - An alternate data stream (ADS) is a feature of Windows New Technology File System (NTFS) that contains metadata for locating a specific file by author or title.
  • Amazon Silk - Silk is the browser that Amazon developed for the Kindle Fire tablet computer.
  • Anonymous - Anonymous is a loosely organized hacktivist collective created to promote free speech, unimpeded access to information, and transparency in government and corporate activities.
  • application awareness - Application awareness is the capacity of a system to maintain information about connected applications to optimize their operation and that of any subsystems that they run or control.
  • application-aware networking (app-ware networking) - Application-aware networking is the capacity of an intelligent network to maintain current information about applications that connect to it and, as a result, optimize their functioning as well as that of other applications or systems that they control.
  • application-defined networking - Application-defined networking (ADN) is a networking scenario in which applications have the ability to adapt network environments to meet their needs, rather than having resources allocated by the network.
  • ARM server - An advanced RISC machine (ARM) server is an enterprise-class computer server that employs a large array of ARM processors rather than a complement of x86-class processors.
  • AUI (attachment unit interface) - The AUI (attachment unit interface) is the 15-pin physical connector interface between a computer's network interface card (NIC) and an Ethernet cable.
  • auto attendant (automated attendant) - An automated attendant (AA) is a telephony system that transfers incoming calls to various extensions as specified by callers, without the intervention of a human operator.
  • average revenue per user or average revenue per unit (ARPU) - Average revenue per user or average revenue per unit (ARPU) is an expression of the income generated by a typical subscriber or device per unit time in a telecommunications network.
  • base station - A base station is a fixed point of communication for customer cellular phones on a carrier network.
  • baseband unit (BBU) - A baseband unit (BBU) is a device that interprets baseband frequencies in telecom systems including computer networks, the internet, phone networks and radio broadcasting systems.
  • beamforming - Beamforming is a type of RF (radio frequency) management in which an access point uses multiple antennas to send out the same signal.
  • BEST (Business / Enterprise State Transfer) - BEST (Business / Enterprise State Transfer) is an architectural approach for exchanging content with a Web site or Web services and is similar to REST or SOAP.
  • Big Switch Networks - Big Switch Networks is a network virtualization and SDN (software-defined networking) company that was founded in 2010.
  • bis - The word (also used as a prefix or suffix) bis, applied to some modem protocol standards, is Old Latin for "repeat" (akin to Old High German "twice").
  • Blue Cloud - Blue Cloud is an approach to shared infrastructure developed by IBM.
  • bogon - A bogon is an illegitimate IP address that falls into a set of IP addresses that have not been officially assigned to an entity by an internet registration institute, such as the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA).
  • BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing) - BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing) is a distributed computing infrastructure based on a centralized server and volunteer computer resources.
  • Broadband over Power Line (BPL) - Broadband over Power Line (BPL) is a technology that allows Internet data to be transmitted over utility power lines.
  • Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) - The Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) is an initiative within the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) created to promote the development and adoption of broadband throughout the United States, particularly in unserved and underserved areas.
  • burstiness - Burstiness is an intermittent type of data transmission.
  • cable head-end - A cable head-end (or headend) is the facility at a local cable TV office that originates and communicates cable TV services and cable modem services to subscribers.
  • cable modem termination system (CMTS) - A cable modem termination system (CMTS) is a component that exchanges digital signals with cable modems on a cable network.
  • cable TV or CATV (community antenna television) - Cable TV is also known as "CATV" (community antenna television).
  • campus network - A campus network is a proprietary local area network (LAN) or set of interconnected LANs serving a corporation, government agency, university, or similar organization.
  • canonical name - A canonical name is the properly denoted host name of a computer or network server.
  • carrier detect - Carrier detect (see modem lights) is a control signal between a modem and a computer that indicates that the modem detects a "live" carrier that can be used for sending and receiving information.
  • Carrier Ethernet - Carrier Ethernet is the use of high-bandwidth Ethernet technology for Internet access and for communication among business, academic and government local area networks (LANs).
  • carrier network - A carrier network is the proprietary network infrastructure belonging to a telecommunications service provider such as Verizon, AT&T or Sprint.
  • carrier signal - A carrier signal is a transmitted electromagnetic pulse or wave at a steady base frequency of alternation on which information can be imposed by increasing signal strength, varying the base frequency, varying the wave phase, or other means.
  • carrierless amplitude/phase (CAP) - Carrierless amplitude/phase (CAP) modulation was the original approach for modulation of a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) signal.
  • CATV (community access television) - CATV (originally "community antenna television," now often "community access television") is more commonly known as "cable TV.
  • CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol) - Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) is an encryption protocol that forms part of the 802.
  • CCNA certification - Cisco Certified Network Associaten (CCNA) is an entry-level certification for the Cisco certified professional program.
  • CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface) - For a local area network (LAN), CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface) is a standard for data transmission based on FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) that uses shielded twisted-pair (STP) or unshielded twisted pair (UTP) copper wire instead of fiber optic lines.
  • CDSL (Consumer Digital Subscriber Line) - Also see our Fast guide to DSL.
  • CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) - CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) is a more secure procedure for connecting to a system than the Password Authentication Procedure (PAP).
  • chatty protocol - A chatty protocol is an application or routing protocol that requires a client or server to wait for an acknowledgement before it can transmit again.
  • checkpoint - A checkpoint, in a virtualization context, is a snapshot of the state of a virtual machine.
  • Chrome Remote Desktop - Chrome Remote Desktop is an extension of the Google Chrome browser that allows a user to remotely see and control another user's desktop through the browser window.
  • churn rate - Churn rate is a measure of the number of customers or employees who leave a company during a given period.
  • Cisco Borderless Networks - Cisco Borderless Networks is the brand name for a set of hardware and software technologies which allow "anyone, anywhere, anytime, and on any device" to connect to an organization's network.
  • Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE certification) - Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE certification) is a series of technical certifications for senior networking professionals who design, build, implement, maintain and troubleshoot complex enterprise networking infrastructures.
  • Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) - Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) is an intermediate-level certification in the Cisco certified professional program.
  • Cisco Webex - Cisco Webex is a cloud-based collaboration suite comprised of Webex Meetings, Webex Teams and Webex Devices.
  • CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) - In the United States, a CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) is a telephone company that competes with the already established local telephone business by providing its own network and switching.
  • click-to-talk (CTC) - Click-to-call (CTC), also called click-for-talk, is a technology that converts Web traffic into voice telephone connections using VoIP (Voice over IP).
  • client-server network - A client-server network is a communications model in which multiple client programs share the services of a common server program.
  • Clos network - A Clos network is a type of non-blocking, multistage switching architecture that reduces the number of ports required in an interconnected fabric.
  • cloud computing - Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet.
  • cloud radio access network (C-RAN) - C-RAN, or cloud radio access network, is a centralized, cloud computing-based architecture for radio access networks (RAN) that enables large-scale deployment, collaborative radio technology support and real time virtualization capabilities.
  • cloud storage API - A cloud storage API is an application program interface that connects a locally-based application to a cloud-based storage system, so that a user can send data to it and access and work with data stored in it.
  • cloud storage gateway - A cloud storage gateway is a hardware- or software-based appliance that serves as a bridge between local applications and remote cloud-based storage.
  • cloud telephony (cloud calling) - Cloud telephony, also known as cloud calling, is a type of Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS) that offers voice communication services and connects through a third party host in the cloud.
  • cloud-oriented architecture (COA) - A cloud-oriented architecture (COA) is a conceptual model encompassing all elements in a cloud environment.
  • CNAME - A CNAME specifies an alias or nickname for a canonical name record in a domain name system (DNS) database.
  • comfort noise generator (CNG) - A comfort noise generator (CNG) is a program used to generate background noise artificially for voice communications during periods of silence that occur during the course of conversation.
  • common carrier - A common carrier, in telecommunications, is an entity that provides wired and wireless communication services to the general public for a fee.
  • communication portal - A communication portal is a service that allows individuals, businesses, schools and government agencies to share information from diverse sources using unified communications (UC) media.
  • Communications as a Service (CaaS) - Communications as a Service (CaaS) is an outsourced enterprise communications solution that can be leased from a single vendor.
  • communications platform as a service (CPaaS) - Communications platform as a service (CPaaS) is a cloud-based delivery model that allows organizations to add real-time communication capabilities, such as voice, video and messaging, to business applications by deploying application program interfaces (APIs).
  • communications-enabled business processes (CEBP) - Communications-enabled business processes (CEBP) is the integration of communications capabilities into software-enabled business procedures, applications and technologies.
  • control plane (CP) - The control plane is the part of a network that carries signaling traffic and is responsible for routing.
  • converged network adapter (CNA) - A converged network adapter (CNA) is a single network interface card (NIC) that contains both a Fibre Channel (FC) host bus adapter (HBA) and a TCP/IP Ethernet NIC.
  • CPE device - A CPE device is telecommunications hardware located at the home or business of a customer.
  • CrackBerry - CrackBerry is a nickname for the BlackBerry handheld device.
  • dark infrastructure - Dark infrastructure is undocumented but active software or services whose existence and function is unknown to system administrators -- despite the fact that it may be integral to the continued operation of documented infrastructure.
  • darknet - A darknet is a routed allocation of IP address space that is not discoverable by any usual means.

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