Browse Definitions :

Networking and communications

Terms related to networking and communications, including definitions about network protocols and words and phrases about data transmission.

DAR - ISD

  • dark infrastructure - Dark infrastructure is undocumented but active software or services whose existence and function is unknown to system administrators -- despite the fact that it may be integral to the continued operation of documented infrastructure.
  • darknet - A darknet is a routed allocation of IP address space that is not discoverable by any usual means.
  • data link layer - The Data-Link Layer is the protocol layer in a program that handles the moving of data in and out across a physical link in a network.
  • data plan (mobile data plan) - Since the advent of the smartphone made mobile Internet possible, most carriers offer data plans at varying rates based on the amount of data transfer allowed before a data cap is imposed.
  • data plane (DP) - The data plane (sometimes known as the user plane, forwarding plane, carrier plane or bearer plane) is the part of a network that carries user traffic.
  • dead zone (Wi-Fi dead zone) - A dead zone (Wi-Fi dead zone) is an area within a wireless LAN location where Wi-Fi does not function, typically due to radio interference or range issues.
  • deep packet inspection (DPI) - Deep packet inspection (DPI) is an advanced method of examining and managing network traffic.
  • desktop virtualization - Desktop virtualization is the concept of isolating a logical operating system (OS) instance from the client that is used to access it.
  • direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) or direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) - Direct sequence spread spectrum, also known as direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA), is one of two approaches to spread spectrum modulation for digital signal transmission over the airwaves.
  • directional antenna - A directional antenna is a radio-frequency (RF) wireless antenna designed to function more effectively in some directions than in others.
  • discrete event simulation (DES) - Discrete event simulation (DES) is the process of codifying the behavior of a complex system as an ordered sequence of well-defined events.
  • discrete multitone (DMT) - Discrete multitone (DMT) is a method of separating a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) signal so that the usable frequency range is separated into 256 frequency bands (or channels) of 4.
  • disposable email - What is a disposable email?Disposable email is a service that allows a registered user to receive email at a temporary address that expires after a certain time period elapses.
  • Distributed Control Plane Architecture (DCPA) - A Distributed Control Plane Architecture (DCPA) is a network architecture that makes it possible to allocate control protocol functions across multiple processor levels in the network system.
  • DNS redirection - DNS redirection is the controversial practice of serving a Web page to a user that is different from either the one requested or one that might reasonably be expected, such as an error page.
  • DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) - DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) are a set of Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards created to address vulnerabilities in the Domain Name System (DNS) and protect it from online threats.
  • DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications) - Now known as CableLabs Certified Cable Modems, DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications) is a standard interface for cable modems, the devices that handle incoming and outgoing data signals between a cable TV operator and a personal or business computer or television set.
  • downstream - This term should not be confused with downlink.
  • DTTV (digital terrestrial television) - DTTV (digital terrestrial television, sometimes also abbreviated DTT) is digital television (DTV) broadcast entirely over earthbound circuits.
  • dynamic multipoint VPN (DMVPN) - A dynamic multipoint virtual private network (DMVPN) is a secure network that exchanges data between sites without needing to pass traffic through an organization's headquarter VPN server or router.
  • dynamic spectrum access (dynamic spectrum management) - Dynamic spectrum access (DSA), also referred to as dynamic spectrum management (DSM), is a set of spectrum utilization techniques that adjusts frequency in real time based on fluctuating circumstances.
  • e-prescribing (eRx) incentive program - The Electronic Prescribing (eRx) Incentive Program is a US government program that provides financial incentives to physicians, practitioners and therapists who meet certain criteria for the use of qualified e-prescribing systems.
  • E.164 - E.164 is an international numbering plan for public telephone systems in which each assigned number contains a country code (CC), a national destination code (NDC), and a subscriber number (SN).
  • east-west traffic - East-west traffic, in a networking context, is the transfer of data packets from server to server within a data center.
  • eavesdropping - Eavesdropping is the unauthorized real-time interception of a private communication, such as a phone call, instant message, videoconference or fax transmission.
  • EBIF (Enhanced TV Binary Interchange Format) - EBIF (Enhanced TV Binary Interchange Format) is a collection of signaling and messaging specifications that makes it possible for television program producers and advertisers to create and serve interactive multimedia content through a television's set-top box.
  • edge provider - An edge provider is a service that a given ISP’s customers connect to that is not inside that provider’s network and does not belong to them.
  • electric grid - An electric grid is a network of synchronized power providers and consumers that are connected by transmission and distribution lines and operated by one or more control centers.
  • end-to-end principle - The end-to-end principle is a network design method in which application-specific features are kept at communication end points.
  • enterprise DNS - Enterprise DNS is an enterprise-class implementation of the domain name system (DNS) that resolves external and internal queries for large organizations in a centrally managed, scalable, automatable and secure way.
  • enterprise WAN - An enterprise WAN is a corporate network that connects geographically dispersed users areas that could be anywhere in the world.
  • enterprise-mobile integration (EMI) - Enterprise-mobile integration (EMI) is a form of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC) that provides integration between communications carriers and enterprise networks.
  • EtherExpress - EtherExpress is a technology from Intel that is used in network server adapters (devices that attach the server to the network cable) for Ethernet-based local area networks (LANs).
  • EtherLoop - EtherLoop, sometimes called next generation DSL or second generation DSL, combines features of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) with features of Ethernet to provide both voice and data transmission (including Internet connection) over any ordinary phone line at data rates faster than DSL.
  • Ethernet as a service (EaaS) - Ethernet as a service (EaaS) is the use of high-bandwidth, fiber optic media such as Packet over SONET (PoS) to deliver 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps or even 1000 Mbps Ethernet service to one or more customers across a common bidirectional broadband infrastructure.
  • Ethernet Glossary - After you've finished, you can test your knowledge with Quiz #28: Ethernet.
  • Ethernet point-of-presence (EPOP) - Ethernet point-of-presence (EPOP) is a technology developed by Level 3 Communications that provides widespread access to broadband networks.
  • event - An event, in a computing context, is an action or occurrence that can be identified by a program and has significance for system hardware or software.
  • event forwarding - Event forwarding is the transmission of information to a centralized computer concerning events that take place on remote computers or servers.
  • event handling - Event handling is the receipt of an event at some event handler from an event producer and subsequent processes.
  • event stream processing (ESP) - Event stream processing (ESP) is a software capacity designed to support implementation of event-driven architectures.
  • Facebook Spaces - Facebook Spaces is the social media company’s virtual reality (VR) application that allows users to interact in a virtual environment as if they were in the same room.
  • FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet) - FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet) is a storage protocol that enable Fibre Channel (FC) communications to run directly over Ethernet.
  • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) - FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a set of ANSI and ISO standards for data transmission on fiber optic lines in a local area network (LAN) that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles).
  • femtocell - A femtocell is a wireless access point that improves cellular reception inside a home or office building.
  • fiber to the x (FTTx) - Fiber to the x (FTTx) is a collective term for various optical fiber delivery topologies that are categorized according to where the fiber terminates.
  • Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP or FC/IP) - Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP or FC/IP, also known as Fibre Channel tunneling or storage tunneling) is an Internet Protocol (IP)-based storage networking technology developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
  • fixed-length subnet mask (FLSM) - A fixed-length subnet mask (FLSM) is a sequence of numbers of unchanging length that streamlines packet routing within the subnets of a proprietary network.
  • Floodlight - Floodlight is a Java-based OpenFlow controller.
  • flow routing - Flow routing is a network routing technology that takes variations in the flow of data into account to increase routing efficiency.
  • FlowVisor - FlowVisor is an experimental software-defined networking controller that enables network virtualization by slicing a physical network into multiple logical networks.
  • fog computing (fog networking, fogging) - Fog computing is a decentralized computing infrastructure in which data, compute, storage and applications are located somewhere between the data source and the cloud.
  • forensic - Forensic, in a general sense, means "related to or used in courts of law" or "used for formal public debate or discussion.
  • fractional T1 - A fractional T1 or T3 line is a T1 or T3 digital phone line in the North American T-carrier system that is leased to a customer at a fraction of its data-carrying capacity and at a correspondingly lower cost.
  • FRAD (frame relay access device or frame relay assembler/dissembler) - A FRAD (frame relay access device; also sometimes referred to as a frame relay assembler/dissembler) is a box that encapsulates (puts frame relay header and trailer information on) outgoing data packets and decapsulates (removes frame relay headers and trailers from) incoming packets.
  • free-space optics (FSO) - Free-space optics (FSO), also called free-space photonics (FSP), refers to the transmission of modulated visible or infrared (IR) beams through the atmosphere to obtain broadband communications.
  • frequency jammer - Frequency jamming is the disruption of radio signals through use of an over-powered signal in the same frequency range.
  • G.lite - For more information, see Digital Subscriber Line.
  • gigabit interface converter (GBIC) - A gigabit interface converter (GBIC) is a transceiver that converts electric currents (digital highs and lows) to optical signals, and optical signals to digital electric currents.
  • globalization - Globalization is the process by which ideas, goods and services spread throughout the world.
  • green networking - Green networking is the practice of selecting energy-efficient networking technologies and products, and minimizing resource use whenever possible.
  • greenfield deployment - In networking, a greenfield deployment is the installation and configuration of a network where none existed before, for example in a new office.
  • GUID (global unique identifier) - A GUID (global unique identifier) is a term used by Microsoft for a number that its programming generates to create a unique identity for an entity such as a Word document.
  • hairpinning - In general telecommunication, hairpinning is returning a message from an origin endpoint back in the direction it came from as a way to get it to its destination endpoint.
  • Hayes command set - Hayes command set is a specific programming language originally developed for the Hayes Smartmodem 300 baud modem during the late 1970s.
  • HDSL (High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line) - Also see our Fast guide to DSL.
  • Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) - Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) is the proposed enhancement of Mobile Internet Protocol versions 6 (MIPv6) that is designed to reduce the amount of signaling required and to improve handoffspeed for mobile connections.
  • High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) - High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) is a short-distance communications interface that is commonly used to interconnect routing and switching devices on local area networks (LANs) with the higher-speed lines of a wide area network (WAN).
  • holographic telepresence - Holographic telepresence is an evolving technology for full-motion, three-dimensional (3D) video conferencing.
  • hop off - Hop off is a term used in telecommunications that refers to a point at which a signal or call leaves a network and moves to another network.
  • Hot Spot 2.0 (HS 2.0) - Hot Spot 2.0 (HS 2.
  • hybrid SDN - A hybrid SDN (software-defined network) is a network where both traditional networking and SDN protocols operate in the same environment.
  • hybrid WAN - A hybrid WAN is a wide area network that sends traffic over two or more connection types.
  • hyperconnectivity - Hyperconnectivity is a state of unified communications (UC) in which the traffic-handling capacity and bandwidth of a network always exceed the demand.
  • I2C bus (Inter-IC bus) - The I2C (Inter-IC) bus is a bi-directional two-wire serial bus that provides a communication link between integrated circuits (ICs).
  • IAX (Inter-Asterisk Exchange Protocol) - IAX (Inter-Asterisk Exchange Protocol, pronounced "eeks") is a communications protocol for setting up interactive user sessions.
  • Identity of Things (IDoT) - The Identity of Things (IDoT) involves assigning unique identifiers with associated metadata to devices and objects (things), enabling them to connect and communicate effectively with other entities over the Internet.
  • IDSL - IDSL is a system in which digital data is transmitted at 128 Kbps on a regular copper telephone line (twisted pair) from a user to a destination using digital (rather than analog or voice) transmission, bypassing the telephone company's central office equipment that handles analog signals.
  • IMS - IMS (Information Management System) is a database and transaction management system that was first introduced by IBM in 1968.
  • initialization vector (IV) - An initialization vector (IV) is an arbitrary number that can be used along with a secret key for data encryption.
  • integrated T1 (channelized T1) - Integrated T1 (also called channelized T is a digital carrier modulation method in which a T1 line is divided into 24 channels, each having a maximum data speed of 64 thousand bits per second (Kbps), and each capable of supporting a unique application that can run concurrently with, but independently of, other applications on different channels.
  • Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) - Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) is the company's hardware assistance for processors running virtualization platforms.
  • intelligent video - Intelligent video is digital video technology integrated with analytical software.
  • interconnection - Interconnection is a strategy for ensuring that businesses can privately, securely and directly exchange digital information.
  • Internet metering - Internet metering is a service model in which an Internet service provider (ISP) tracks the customer's use of bandwidth and charges accordingly.
  • internet of things (IoT) - The internet of things, or IoT, is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
  • Internet Protocol suite (IP suite) - Internet Protocol suite (IP suite) is the standard network model and communication protocol stack used on the Internet and on most other computer networks.
  • intranet of things - An intranet of things is a closed network that includes smart sensors and actuators.
  • inverse multiplexing over ATM (IMA) - Inverse multiplexing over ATM (IMA) is a method of optimizing the data transfer rate for individual subscribers in networks that use asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) by dividing the data into multiple concurrent streams that are sent across separate channels and reconstructed at the destination, obtaining the original data stream.
  • IoT middleware (Internet of Things middleware) - Internet of Things (IoT) middleware is software that serves as an interface between components of the IoT, joining elements that would not otherwise be able to connect and communicate.
  • IoT security (internet of things security) - IoT security is the technology area concerned with safeguarding connected devices and networks in the internet of things (IoT).
  • IP address management (IPAM) - Internet Protocol address management (IPAM) is a method of tracking and modifying the information associated with a network's Internet Protocol address (IP address) space.
  • IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) - The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a concept for an integrated network of telecommunications carriers that would facilitate the use of IP (Internet Protocol) for packet communications in all known forms over wireless or landline.
  • IP PBX (private branch exchange) - An IP PBX is a private branch exchange (telephone switching system within an enterprise) that switches calls between VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol or IP) users on local lines while allowing all users to share a certain number of external phone lines.
  • IPv4 address class - An IPv4 address class is a categorical division of internet protocol addresses in IPv4-based routing.
  • IPv6 address - An IPv6 address is a 128-bit alphanumeric value that identifies an endpoint device in an Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) network.
  • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) - ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) is a standard bus (computer interconnection) architecture that was associated with the IBM AT motherboard.
  • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) - ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a set of CCITT/ITU standards for digital transmission over ordinary telephone copper wire, as well as over other media.

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