Browse Definitions :

Networking and communications

Terms related to networking and communications, including definitions about network protocols and words and phrases about data transmission.

ISE - PAT

  • ISO/IEC 38500 - ISO/IEC 38500 is an international standard created to guide corporate governance of information technology (IT).
  • ITCH - ITCH is a direct data-feed interface that allows customers of the NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) to observe or disseminate information about stock trading activities.
  • iterative DNS query - An iterative DNS query is a request for a website name or uniform resource locator (URL) that the domain name system (DNS) server responds to with the IP address from its zone file cache, if possible.
  • ITU X.225 (ISO 8327) - ITU X.225 (also known as ISO 8327) is a connection-oriented session layer protocol in the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model.
  • Jingle protocol - Jingle is a family of signaling protocols for initiating and managing peer-to-peer (P2P) media sessions over the Internet.
  • keyphone (K/P or key station) - Commonly used by a company within its private automatic branch exchange (PABX) telephone system, a keyphone (abbreviated as K/P, sometimes called a key station) is a telephone with the extra buttons and the intelligence to allow incoming calls to be transferred to other extensions.
  • knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) - Knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) is the allocation of relatively high-level tasks to an outside organization or a different group within the same organization.
  • LAN server - A local area network (LAN) server is a program (and by implication usually the computer it runs in) that "serves" the resources (files, storage, application programs, printers, and other devices) for a number of attached workstations.
  • LAN-free backup - LAN-free backup is the process of backing up server data to a centralized storage device rather than moving it across a local-area network (LAN).
  • last-mile technology - Last-mile technology is any telecommunications technology that carries signals from the broad telecommunication backbone along the relatively short distance (hence, the "last mile") to and from the home or business.
  • leaf-spine (leaf-spine architecture) - Leaf-spine is a two-layer network topology composed of leaf switches and spine switches.
  • leaky bucket algorithm - The leaky bucket algorithm is used to implement traffic policing and traffic shaping in Ethernet and cellular data networks.
  • leaky feeder - A leaky feeder is a coaxial cable that has small sections of its copper shielding stripped away to allow radio frequency (RF) signals to escape.
  • LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) - LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco-proprietary version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections.
  • Learning Path: Network and Web Site Administration - NETWORK AND WEB SITE ADMINISTRATION.
  • LiFi - LiFi is a wireless optical networking technology that uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for data transmission.
  • link layer discovery protocol (LLDP) - The link layer discovery protocol (LLDP) is an open and extendable part of the Internet protocol suite used in IEEE 802 to advertise a device’s identity and abilities, as well as other devices connected within the same network.
  • link-load balancer (link balancer) - A link load balancer, also called a link balancer, is a network appliance that distributes in-bound and out-bound traffic to and from multiple Internet Service Providers (ISPs) links.
  • load testing - Load testing is the process of subjecting a computer, peripheral, server, network or application to a work level approaching the limits of its specifications.
  • local area network (LAN) - A local area network (LAN) consists of computers and peripherals that share a common communications line or wireless link to a server.
  • local loop - In telephony, a local loop is the wired connection from a telephone company's central office in a locality to its customers' telephones at homes and businesses.
  • log analytics - Log analytics is the assessment of a recorded set of information from one or more events, captured from a computer, network, application operating system (OS) or other IT ecosystem component.
  • logical network - A logical network is one that appears to the user as a single, separate entity although it might in fact be either just a part of a larger network or an entity connecting multiple networks.
  • loose coupling - Loose coupling is a method of interconnecting the components in a system or network so that those components, also called elements, depend on each other to the least extent practicable.
  • LoRa Alliance - The LoRa Alliance is an open, non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the interoperability and standardization of low-power wide area network (LPWAN) technologies to drive implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT).
  • low earth orbit (LEO) satellite - A low earth orbit (LEO) satellite is an object, generally an electronic piece of equipment, that circles around the earth at lower altitudes than geosynchronous satellites.
  • LTE (Long Term Evolution) - Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for 4G wireless broadband technology that offers increased network capacity and speed to mobile device users.
  • LUN zoning - LUN zoning is a method of configuring SAN fabric to match logical unit numbers (LUNs) to the proper servers.
  • machine-to-machine (M2M) - Machine-to-machine, or M2M, is a broad label that can be used to describe any technology that enables networked devices to exchange information and perform actions without the manual assistance of humans.
  • managed file transfer (MFT) - Managed file transfer (MFT) is a type of software used to provide secure internal, external and ad-hoc data transfers through a network.
  • MDI/MDIX (medium dependent interface/MDI crossover) - MDI/MDIX is a type of Ethernet port connection using twisted pair cabling.
  • Message Session Relay Protocol (MSRP) - Message Session Relay Protocol (MSRP) is a protocol for exchanging a series of related instant messages across an IP network in the context of a session.
  • Metro Ethernet - Metro Ethernet is the use of Carrier Ethernet technology in metropolitan area networks (MANs).
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit - Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether or not its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.
  • Microsoft Azure - Microsoft Azure, formerly known as Windows Azure, is Microsoft's public cloud computing platform.
  • Microsoft System Center Mobile Device Manager (MSCMDM) - Microsoft System Center Mobile Device Manager (MSCMDM) is server-based software that allows enterprise IT professionals to manage and automate tasks for Windows Mobile devices.
  • MiFi - MiFi is a portable broadband device that allows multiple end users and mobile devices to share a 3G or 4G mobile broadband Internet connection and create an ad-hoc network.
  • Mininet - Mininet is a software emulator for prototyping a large network on a single machine.
  • mobile collaboration - Mobile collaboration is the use of mobile devices and collaborative apps to allow geographically dispersed people to work together on endeavors ranging from small personal projects to high-profile enterprise teamwork.
  • mobile Internet device (MID) - A mobile Internet device (MID) is a handheld device that is larger than a smartphone but smaller than a netbook.
  • modular datacenter - Sun Microsystems' Modular Datacenter (known as "Project Blackbox" in the prototype phase) is a mobile and virtualized data center packaged in a standard 20-foot shipping container.
  • MOSPF (Multicast Open Shortest Path First) - MOSPF (Multicast Open Shortest Path First) is an extension to the OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) protocol that facilitates interoperation between unicast and multicast routers.
  • multi-tapping - Multi-tapping is an older procedure used to enter text using a telephone keypad.
  • multichassis multilink PPP (MMP) - Multichassis multilink PPP (MMP) is an extension of multilink PPP (MP) in which the subscriber can consist of more than one computer.
  • multilink PPP - Multilink PPP is a communications protocol that enables a personal computer (PC) to use two PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) communications ports as if they were a single port of greater bandwidth.
  • Multipath I/O (MPIO) - Multipath I/O (MPIO) is a Microsoft framework designed to mitigate the effects of a host bus adapter (HBA) failure by providing an alternate data path between storage network devices.
  • multipoint control unit (MCU) - A multipoint control unit (MCU) is a type of video conferencing hardware that bridges terminals involved into a multi-point conference system.
  • Nagios - Nagios is an open source monitoring system for computer systems.
  • NAT64 - NAT64 is a proposed mechanism for translating IPv6 packets to IPv4 packets and vice-versa.
  • National Call Fee Access (NCFA) - In the U.K.
  • National eGovernance Plan (NeGP) - National eGovernance Plan (NeGP) is an initiative by the government of India to combine various e-governance systems around the country to create a national network that provides government services to all citizens electronically.
  • National eGovernance Service Delivery Gateway (NSDG) - National eGovernance Service Delivery Gateway (NSDG) is a mission mode project (MMP) under the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) that acts as a central repository for government data.
  • NBAR (Network Based Application Recognition) - Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR) is a mechanism that classifies and regulates bandwidth for network applications to ensure that available resources are utilized as efficiently as possible.
  • NBASE-T Ethernet - NBASE-T Ethernet is an IEEE standard and Ethernet-signaling technology that allows existing twisted-pair copper cabling to exceed the cable's specified limit of 1 Gbps for distances of up to 100 meters.
  • NetMagic Solutions - NetMagic Solutions is an India-based IT hosting and services provider whose specializations include cloud computing, infrastructure management, disaster recovery and application hosting.
  • netstat - Netstat is a common command line TCP/IP networking utility available in most versions of Windows, Linux, UNIX and other operating systems.
  • network analytics - Network analytics is the application of big data principles and tools to the management and security of data networks.
  • network coding - Network coding is a method of optimizing the flow of digital data in a network by transmitting digital evidence about messages.
  • network convergence - Network convergence is the efficient coexistence of telephone, video and data communication within a single network.
  • network drive - A network drive is a storage device on a local access network (LAN) within a business or home.
  • network fabric - Network fabric is an industry term that describes a network topology in which devices pass data to each other through interconnecting switches.
  • network intelligence (NI) - Network Intelligence (NI) is the capacity of a network to examine data packets continuously and in real time.
  • Network Load Balancing (NLB) - Network Load Balancing is a Windows Server feature that can distribute network traffic among multiple servers.
  • network orchestration - Network orchestration is a policy-driven approach to network automation that coordinates the hardware and software components a software application or service requires to run.
  • network protocols - Network protocols are sets of established rules that dictate how to format, transmit and receive data so computer network devices -- from servers and routers to endpoints -- can communicate regardless of the differences in their underlying infrastructures, designs or standards.
  • network topology - A network topology is the arrangement of nodes -- usually switches, routers, or software switch/router features -- and connections in a network, often represented as a graph.
  • Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS) - NSIS (Next Steps in Signaling) is an evolving communication protocol intended to facilitate signaling at the Transport layer, using a two-level model to support diverse services and resources.
  • NFV MANO (network functions virtualization management and orchestration) - NFV MANO (network functions virtualization management and orchestration), also called MANO, is an architectural framework for managing and orchestrating virtualized network functions (VNFs) and other software components.
  • NFVi (network functions virtualization infrastructure) - NFVi (network functions virtualization infrastructure) encompasses all of the networking hardware and software needed to support and connect virtual network functions in carrier networks.
  • northbound interface / southbound interface - A northbound interface is an interface that allows a particular component of a network to communicate with a higher-level component.
  • NVGRE (Network Virtualization using Generic Routing Encapsulation) - NVGRE (Network Virtualization using Generic Routing Encapsulation) is a network virtualization method that uses encapsulation to create large numbers of virtual LANs (VLANs) for subnets that can extend across dispersed data centers and Layers 2 and 3.
  • ODIN (Open Data Center with an Interoperable Network) - ODIN (Open Data Center with an Interoperable Network) is a reference architecture that describes best practices for creating a flat, converged, virtualized data center fabric based on open industry standards.
  • OF-Config (OpenFlow Configuration and Management Protocol) - The OpenFlow Management and Configuration Protocol (OF-Config) is a protocol developed under the Open Networking Foundation used to manage physical and virtual switches in an OpenFlow environment.
  • OFDMA (orthogonal frequency-division multiple access) - Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) is a feature of Wi-Fi 6 (802.
  • omnidirectional antenna - An omnidirectional antenna is a wireless transmitting or receiving antenna that radiates or intercepts radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields equally well in all horizontal directions in a flat, two-dimensional (2D) geometric plane.
  • ONC (Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology) - The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, abbreviated ONC, is an entity within the U.
  • one-armed router - A one-armed router is a router that routes traffic between virtual local area networks (VLANs).
  • ONOS (Open Network Operating System) - ONOS (Open Network Operating System) is an operating system (OS) designed for network service providers to help build carrier-grade software-defined networks architected for high scalability, availability and performance.
  • Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) - The Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) is a set of standards defining the way in which information is shared among diverse components of large, heterogeneous grid systems.
  • Open Network Automation Platform - The Open Network Automation Platform (ONAP) is a networking project that provides a digital environment for the orchestration and automation of complex network services.
  • Open Networking Foundation (ONF) - The Open Networking Foundation (ONF) is a consortium dedicated to the development and standardization of software-defined networking (SDN).
  • OpenFlow Consortium - The OpenFlow Consortium was a collaborative group of university researchers and network administrators that developed the original specification for the OpenFlow protocol.
  • OpenFlow controller - An OpenFlow controller is an application that manages flow control in a software-defined networking (SDN) environment.
  • OpenFlow switch - An OpenFlow switch is a software program or hardware device that forwards packets in a software-defined networking (SDN) environment.
  • OpenStack Neutron (formerly called Quantum) - OpenStack Neutron is a cloud networking controller and a networking-as-a-service project within the OpenStack cloud computing initiative.
  • optical line terminal (OLT) - An optical line terminal (OLT) is a device that is located at the service provider's central office and is the endpoint of a passive optical network (PON).
  • OTTO protocol (OUCH To Trade Options) - OTTO (OUCH To Trade Options) is a digital communications protocol that allows customers of the NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) to conduct business in the options market.
  • OUCH protocol - OUCH is a digital communications protocol that allows customers of the NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) to conduct business in the options market.
  • P4P (proactive provider participation for P2P) - P4P (proactive provider participation for P2P) is a protocol designed to improve the use of available bandwidth in a P2P network by reducing the overall volume of traffic.
  • packet coalescing - In network adapters using Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) versions 6.
  • packet filtering - On the Internet, packet filtering is the process of passing or blocking packets at a network interface based on source and destination addresses, ports, or protocols.
  • Packet Order Correction (POC) - Packet Order Correction (POC) is a technique for dealing with out-of-order packet delivery.
  • paid prioritization - Paid prioritization, in relation to the internet, is the optimization of data transfer rates for certain content providers, websites and web services.
  • Parlay - Parlay (pronounced PAHR-LAY as in the French verb "parler" - to speak) is an evolving set of specifications for industry-standard application programming interfaces (APIs) for managing network "edge" services such as call control, messaging, and content-based charging.
  • patch antenna - A patch antenna is a wafer-like directional antenna suitable for covering single-floor small offices, small stores and other indoor locations where access points cannot be placed centrally.
  • patch cord - A patch cord is a length of cable, with connectors on the ends, that is used to connect an end device to something else, such as a power source.
  • Path Computation Element (PCE) - Path Computation Element (PCE) is a network component, application or node that can apply computational constraints and compute a network path or route based on a network graph.

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