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Networking and communications

Terms related to networking and communications, including definitions about network protocols and words and phrases about data transmission.

PEA - TCP

  • PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) - PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a version of EAP, the authentication protocol used in wireless networks and Point-to-Point connections.
  • peer-to-peer network (P2P network) - A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a network in which each computer functions as a client or server for other computers in the network.
  • peercasting - Peercasting is a method of broadcasting audio or video through multiple streams of data that are transmitted by peers on the same platform, app or network.
  • persistent connection (HTTP persistent connection) - A persistent connection (HTTP persistent connection) is a network communication channel that remains open for further HTTP requests and responses rather than closing after a single exchange.
  • plane (in networking) - A plane, in a networking context, is one of three integral components of a telecommunications architecture.
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS) - Platform as a service (PaaS) is a cloud computing model where a third-party provider delivers hardware and software tools to users over the internet.
  • Plexxi - Plexxi is a Cambridge Massachusetts company that makes software-defined networking (SDN) software.
  • Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) - Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) is the part of the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) that supports service data flow detection, policy enforcement and flow-based charging.
  • Port Address Translation (PAT) - Port Address Translation (PAT), is an extension to network address translation (NAT) that permits multiple devices on a local area network (LAN) to be mapped to a single public IP address.
  • port interface card (PIC) - A port interface card (PIC) is a computer circuit board that provides multiple, diverse interfaces for connections to external networks.
  • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) - PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) is a specification for connecting multiple computer users on an Ethernet local area network to a remote site through common customer premises equipment, which is the telephone company's term for a modem and similar devices.
  • preamble - A preamble is a signal used in network communications to synchronize transmission timing between two or more systems.
  • private cloud (internal cloud or corporate cloud) - Private cloud is a type of cloud computing that delivers similar advantages to public cloud, including scalability and self-service, but through a proprietary architecture.
  • private IP address - A private IP address is a non-Internet facing IP address on an internal network.
  • privilege - In the administration of a multi-user computer system, a privilege is an identified right that a particular user has to a particular system resource, such as a file folder, the use of certain system commands, or an amount of storage.
  • programmable network (PN) - A programmable network is one in which the behavior of network devices and flow control is handled by software that operates independently from network hardware.
  • progressive download - A progressive download is a process that allows the user to access content before the data transfer is complete.
  • promiscuous mode - In a network, promiscuous mode allows a network device to intercept and read each network packet that arrives in its entirety.
  • pseudowire - Pseudowire ( sometimes spelled as pseudo wire or abbreviated as PW) is a mechanism for emulating various networking or telecommunications services across packet-switched networks using Ethernet, IP, or MPLS.
  • public folder - In Microsoft Outlook, a public folder is a folder created to share information with others.
  • pull notification - Pull notifications are communications that are sent as a response to a client request.
  • Q signaling (QSIG) - Q signaling (abbreviated QSIG), a protocol for Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) communications based on the Q.
  • Q.931 - Q.931 (also called Q93 is a signaling protocol for Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) communications that is used in voice over IP (VoIP).
  • Qik - Qik is an online video streaming service that allows anyone with a strong wireless Internet connection and a video camera-equipped smartphone to broadcast live events.
  • QIX (NASDAQ Information Exchange protocol) - QIX (NASDAQ Information Exchange protocol) is a proprietary specification intended to streamline automated trading in the financial industry.
  • quadruple-play network - A quadruple-play network is one that offers mobility in addition to the voice, data and video provided by a triple play network.
  • radio access network (RAN) - A radio access network (RAN) is the part of a telecommunications system that connects individual devices to other parts of a network through radio connections.
  • radio silence - Radio silence is a mandatory or voluntary cessation of transmission for the duration of some sensitive time period.
  • RASHport (Routing and Special Handling) - RASHport, also called RASH (Routing and Special Handling), is a digital communications protocol that allows customers of the NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) to conduct business in the options market.
  • real-time location system (RTLS) - A real-time location system (RTLS) is one of a number of technologies used to pinpoint the current geographic position and location of a target.
  • recursive DNS query - A recursive DNS query is a request from a client for a website that must be responded to with either the sought response or an error message stating that the site does not exist.
  • recursive DNS server - A recursive DNS server is a domain name system server that takes website name or URL (uniform resource locator) requests from users and checks the records attained from authoritative DNS servers for the associated IP address.
  • Regional Internet Registry (RIR) - A Regional Internet Registry (RIR) is a not-for-profit organization that oversees Internet Protocol (IP) address space and the Autonomous System (AS) numbers within a specific geographical region.
  • remote access - Remote access is the ability for an authorized person to access a computer or a network from a geographical distance through a network connection.
  • remote desktop - Remote desktop is a program or an operating system feature that allows a user to connect to a computer in another location, see that computer's desktop and interact with it as if it were local.
  • remote sensing - Remote sensing is the use of various technologies to make observations and measurements at a target that is usually at a distance or scale beyond those observable to the naked eye.
  • resource-oriented architecture (ROA) - A resource-oriented architecture (ROA) is the structural design supporting the internetworking of resources.
  • return on marketing investment (ROMI) - Return on marketing investment (ROMI) is a metric used to measure the overall effectiveness of a marketing campaign to help marketers make better decisions about allocating future investments.
  • reverse proxy server - A reverse proxy server is a proxy server that relays connection requests for inbound network traffic.
  • RF-powered computing - RF-powered computing is the use of radio frequency (RF) signals to enable the operation and communication of low-power devices, typically for machine-to-machine (M2M) networking.
  • RFC 1918 - Request for Comment 1918 (RFC 1918), “Address Allocation for Private Internets,” is the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) memorandum on methods of assigning of private IP addresses on TCP/IP networks.
  • Rich Internet Application (RIA) - A rich Internet application (RIA) is a Web application designed to deliver the same features and functions normally associated with deskop applications.
  • RNIS (Reseau Numerique a Integration de Services) - RNIS (Reseau Numerique a Integration de Services) is the European name for Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
  • ROADM (reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer) - An ROADM (reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer) is a device that can add, block, pass or redirect modulated infrared (IR) and visible light beams of various wavelengths in a fiber optic network.
  • RoundTable - Microsoft RoundTable is a videoconference device designed to simulate in-person meetings.
  • route aggregation - Route aggregation is an alternate term for route summarization, which is a method used to minimize the number of routing tables required in an IP network.
  • route summarization (route aggregation) - Route summarization, also called route aggregation, is a method of minimizing the number of routing tables in an IP (Internet Protocol) network.
  • runt - In networks, a runt is a packet that is too small.
  • Samba - Samba is a popular freeware program that allows end users to access and use files, printers, and other commonly shared resources on a company's intranet or on the Internet.
  • SDDC (software-defined data center) - An SDDC (software-defined data center) is a data storage facility in which networking, storage, CPU and security are virtualized and delivered as a service.
  • SDN application (software-defined networking application) - An SDN application is a software program designed to perform a task in a software-defined networking (SDN) environment.
  • SDN controller (software-defined networking controller) - An SDN controller is an application in a software-defined networking (SDN) architecture that manages flow control for improved network management and application performance.
  • SDN overlay (software defined networking overlay) - An SDN overlay is a deployment method for network virtualization and software-defined networking (SDN) that involves running a logically separate network or network component on top of existing infrastructure.
  • search neutrality - Search neutrality is the direct conducting of transparent search processes that do not discriminate between users or favor specific sites.
  • segment routing - Segment routing is a computer networking process used by networking and traffic engineering professionals that organizes collections of information, or packets, to follow a linear set of instructions.
  • Semios mesh network - Semios mesh network is the communications backbone of the Semios orchard farming automation platform.
  • sensor analytics - Sensor analytics is the statistical analysis of data that’s created by wired or wireless sensors.
  • Serial Digital Interface (SDI) - Serial Digital Interface (SDI) is a standard for digital video transmission over coaxial cable.
  • server - A server is a computer program or device that provides a service to another computer program and its user, also known as the client.
  • service chaining - Service chaining, in an information technology (IT) context, is the addition of software-defined networking (SDN) capabilities in a specific sequence.
  • service mesh - A service mesh is a dedicated infrastructure layer that controls service-to-service communication over a network.
  • session border controller (SBC) - A session border controller (SBC) is a dedicated hardware device or software application that governs the manner in which phone calls are initiated, conducted and terminated on a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) network.
  • session control protocol (SCP) - Session control protocol (SCP) is a method of creating multiple light-duty connections from a single TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) connection.
  • session-based routing - Session-based routing is a type of routing architecture that is application-centric and designed to route entire sessions instead of individual packets.
  • Shared Key Authentication (SKA) - Shared Key Authentication (SKA) is a process by which a computer can gain access to a wireless network that uses the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol.
  • shielded twisted pair - This definition closely duplicates the definition for twisted pair.
  • short message service center (SMSC) - A short message service center (SMSC) is the portion of a wireless network that handles SMS operations, such as routing, forwarding and storing incoming text messages on their way to desired endpoints.
  • shortest path bridging - Shortest path bridging, or 802.
  • simplex - Simplex is a communications mode in which only one signal is transmitted, and it always goes in the same direction.
  • SIP trunking (Session Initiation Protocol trunking) - Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) trunking is a service offered by a communications service provider that uses the protocol to provision voice over IP (VoIP) connectivity between an on-premises phone system and the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
  • Skype for Business - Skype for Business, formerly known as Microsoft Lync Server, is a unified communications (UC) platform that integrates common channels of business communication and online meetings, including instant messaging (IM), presence, voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, file transfer, web conferencing, voicemail and email.
  • Skype protocol - Skype protocol is a peer-to-peer Internet telephony protocol used to move encrypted voice over IP (VoIP) traffic between Skype members' computers (peers).
  • slot time - In Ethernet and its Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) approach to managing which device can use the communication link next, slot time is the amount of time a device waits after a collision before retransmitting.
  • smart home app (home automation app) - A smart home app, sometimes referred to as a home automation app or a smart home automation app, is an application used to remotely control and manage connected non-computing devices in the home, typically from a smartphone or tablet.
  • smart home hub (home automation hub) - A smart home hub is hardware or software that connects devices on a home automation network and controls communications among them.
  • smart home kit (home automation kit) - A smart home kit, sometimes called a home automation kit or an Internet of Things (IoT) platform, is a product that includes all the hardware and software required to connect, control and manage compatible smart devices for home automation.
  • smart sensor - A smart sensor is a device that takes input from the physical environment and uses built-in compute resources to perform predefined functions upon detection of specific input and then process data before passing it on.
  • SMS gateway - An SMS gateway is a website that allows users to send SMS messages from a web browser to people within the cell served by that gateway.
  • SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine -- Clinical Terms) - SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine -- Clinical Terms) is a standardized, multilingual vocabulary of clinical terminology that is used by physicians and other health care providers for the electronic exchange of clinical health information.
  • SOA networking - SOA networking is the use of the service-oriented architecture (SOA) model to enhance the capabilities of networks that use Web services.
  • software-defined storage (SDS) - Software-defined storage (SDS) is a computer program that manages data storage resources and functionality and has no dependencies on the underlying physical storage hardware.
  • Space Communications Protocol Specifications (SCPS) - Space Communications Protocol Specifications (SCPS) are designed to improve communications reliability, error checking, efficiency and performance in ground, manned craft and satellite inter-communications.
  • speech technology - Speech technology is a type of computing technology that enables an electronic device to recognize, analyze and understand spoken word or audio.
  • Squid proxy server - Squid is a Unix-based proxy server that caches Internet content closer to a requestor than its original point of origin.
  • staggered quadrature phase-shift keying - Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK), also known as offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK), is a method of phase-shift keying (PSK) in which the signal carrier-wave phase transition is always 90 degrees or 1/4 cycle at a time.
  • StarBand - StarBand is a broadband Internet service provider (ISP) that uses geostationary satellites to provide always-on connection independent of other media.
  • Starlink - Starlink is a SpaceX initiative to create a global broadband network from a low-earth orbit (LEO) satellite constellation.
  • STDM (statistical time division multiplexing) - STDM, or statistical time division multiplexing, is one method for transmitting several types of data simultaneously across a single transmission cable or line (such as a T1 or T3 line).
  • streaming network telemetry - Streaming network telemetry is a real-time data collection service in which network devices such as routers, switches and firewalls continuously push network health data and interface measurements to a centralized collector.
  • switched virtual circuit (SVC) - In a network, a switched virtual circuit (SVC) is a temporary virtual circuit that is established and maintained only for the duration of a data transfer session.
  • Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) is a standard for synchronous data transmission on optical fibers.
  • T-carrier system - To see the relationship between T-carrier, E-carrier, and DS0 multiples, see digital signal X.
  • T.38 fax over IP (FoIP protocol) - T.38 is a protocol for sending faxes over a voice over IP (VoIP) network or the Internet in real time.
  • T1 (T-1) - Also see the T-carrier system, of which the T1 is a part.
  • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) - TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a standard that defines how to establish and maintain a network conversation through which application programs can exchange data.

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